Marine and Freshwater Research Marine and Freshwater Research Society
Advances in the aquatic sciences
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Climate-driven shifts in species’ distributions may exacerbate the impacts of storm disturbances on North-east Atlantic kelp forests

Dan A. Smale A C and Thomas Vance B
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, The Laboratory, Citadel Hill, Plymouth, PL1 2PB, UK.

B PML Applications Ltd, Prospect Place, Plymouth, PL1 3DH, UK.

C Corresponding author. Email: dansma@mba.ac.uk

Marine and Freshwater Research 67(1) 65-74 https://doi.org/10.1071/MF14155
Submitted: 13 June 2014  Accepted: 1 October 2014   Published: 22 June 2015

Abstract

Physical disturbance through wave action is a major determinant of kelp forest structure. The North-east Atlantic storm season of 2013–14 was unusually severe; the south coast of the UK was subjected to 6 of the 12 most intense storms recorded in the past 5 years. Inshore significant wave heights and periods exceeded 7 m and 13 s with two storms classified as ‘1-in-30 year’ events. We examined the impacts of the storm season on kelp canopies at three study sites. Monospecific canopies comprising Laminaria hyperborea were unaffected by storm disturbance. However, at one study site a mixed canopy comprising Laminaria ochroleuca, Saccharina latissima and L. hyperborea was significantly altered by the storms, due to decreased abundances of the former two species. Quantification of freshly severed stipes suggested that the ‘warm water’ kelp L. ochroleuca was more susceptible to storm damage than L. hyperborea. Overall, kelp canopies were highly resistant to storm disturbance because of the low vulnerability of L. hyperborea to intense wave action. However, if climate-driven shifts in kelp species distributions result in more mixed canopies, as predicted, then resistance to storm disturbance may be eroded.

Additional keywords: benthic communities, disturbance ecology, Laminariales, macroalgae, physical disturbance, subtidal reefs.


References

Anderson, M. J. (2001). A new method for non-parametric multivariate analysis of variance. Austral Ecology 26, 32–46.

Arkema, K. K., Reed, D. C., and Schroeter, S. C. (2009). Direct and indirect effects of giant kelp determine benthic community structure and dynamics. Ecology 90, 3126–3137.
Direct and indirect effects of giant kelp determine benthic community structure and dynamics.CrossRef | 19967868PubMed |

Azzarello, J., Smale, D. A., Langlois, T. J., and Håkansson, E. (2014). Linking habitat characteristics to abundance patterns of canopy-forming macroalgae and sea urchins in southwest Australia. Marine Biology Research 10, 682–693.
Linking habitat characteristics to abundance patterns of canopy-forming macroalgae and sea urchins in southwest Australia.CrossRef |

Bekkby, T., and Moy, F. E. (2011). Developing spatial models of sugar kelp (Saccharina latissima) potential distribution under natural conditions and areas of its disappearance in Skagerrak. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 95, 477–483.
Developing spatial models of sugar kelp (Saccharina latissima) potential distribution under natural conditions and areas of its disappearance in Skagerrak.CrossRef |

Bekkby, T., Rinde, E., Gundersen, H., Norderhaug, K. M., Gitmark, J. K., and Christie, H. (2014). Length, strength and water flow: relative importance of wave and current exposure on morphology in kelp Laminaria hyperborea. Marine Ecology Progress Series 506, 61–70.
Length, strength and water flow: relative importance of wave and current exposure on morphology in kelp Laminaria hyperborea.CrossRef |

Bennett, S., and Wernberg, T. (2014). Canopy facilitates seaweed recruitment on subtidal temperate reefs. Journal of Ecology 102, 1462–1470.
Canopy facilitates seaweed recruitment on subtidal temperate reefs.CrossRef |

Birchenough, S., and Bremmer, J. (2010). Shallow and shelf subtidal habitats and ecology. MCCIP Annual Report Card 2010–11, MCCIP Science Review.

Bradbury, A. P., and Mason, T. E. (2014). Review of south coast beach response to wave conditions in the winter of 2013–2014. Southeast regional coastal monitoring programme. Report SR01. Channel Coastal Observatory, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton.

Buck, B. H., and Buchholz, C. M. (2005). Response of offshore cultivated Laminaria saccharina to hydrodynamic forcing in the North Sea. Aquaculture 250, 674–691.
Response of offshore cultivated Laminaria saccharina to hydrodynamic forcing in the North Sea.CrossRef |

Burrows, M. T. (2012). Influences of wave fetch, tidal flow and ocean colour on subtidal rocky communities. Marine Ecology Progress Series 445, 193–207.
Influences of wave fetch, tidal flow and ocean colour on subtidal rocky communities.CrossRef |

Byrnes, J. E., Reed, D. C., Cardinale, B. J., Cavanaugh, K. C., Holbrook, S. J., and Schmitt, R. J. (2011). Climate-driven increases in storm frequency simplify kelp forest food webs. Global Change Biology 17, 2513–2524.
Climate-driven increases in storm frequency simplify kelp forest food webs.CrossRef |

Cacchione, D. A., and Drake, D. E. (1982). Measurements of storm-generated bottom stresses on the continental shelf. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 87, 1952–1960.
Measurements of storm-generated bottom stresses on the continental shelf.CrossRef |

Clarke, K. R., and Warwick, R. M. (2001). ‘Change in Marine Communities: an Approach to Statistical Analysis and Interpretation’, 2nd edn. (PRIMER-E Ltd.: Plymouth, UK.)

Connell, S. (2003). Negative effects overpower the positive of kelp to exclude invertebrates from the understorey community. Oecologia 137, 97–103.
Negative effects overpower the positive of kelp to exclude invertebrates from the understorey community.CrossRef | 12820063PubMed |

Cowen, R. K., Agegian, C. R., and Foster, M. S. (1982). The maintenance of community structure in a central California giant kelp forest. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 64, 189–201.
The maintenance of community structure in a central California giant kelp forest.CrossRef |

Dayton, P. K. (1985). Ecology of kelp communities. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 16, 215–245.
Ecology of kelp communities.CrossRef |

Dayton, P. K., and Tegner, M. J. (1984). Catastrophic storms, El Niño, and patch stability in a southern California kelp community. Science 224, 283–285.
Catastrophic storms, El Niño, and patch stability in a southern California kelp community.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BC3cvhvVGrtA%3D%3D&md5=858639f9b0979b1ef2898a192139a6daCAS | 17734914PubMed |

Dayton, P. K., Tegner, M. J., Edwards, P. B., and Riser, K. L. (1999). Temporal and spatial scales of kelp demography: the role of oceanographic climate. Ecological Monographs 69, 219–250.
Temporal and spatial scales of kelp demography: the role of oceanographic climate.CrossRef |

de Bettignies, T., Wernberg, T., and Lavery, P. (2013a). Size, not morphology, determines hydrodynamic performance of a kelp during peak flow. Marine Biology 160, 843–851.
Size, not morphology, determines hydrodynamic performance of a kelp during peak flow.CrossRef |

de Bettignies, T., Wernberg, T., Lavery, P. S., Vanderklift, M. A., and Mohring, M. B. (2013b). Contrasting mechanisms of dislodgement and erosion contribute to production of kelp detritus. Limnology and Oceanography 58, 1680–1688.
Contrasting mechanisms of dislodgement and erosion contribute to production of kelp detritus.CrossRef |

de Bettignies, T., Wernberg, T., Lavery, P. S., Vanderklift, M. A., Gunson, J. R., Symonds, G., and Collier, N. (2014). Phenological decoupling of mortality from wave forcing in kelp beds. Ecology , .
Phenological decoupling of mortality from wave forcing in kelp beds.CrossRef |

Denny, M. W. (1987). Life in the maelstrom: the biomechanics of wave-swept rocky shores. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 2, 61–66.
Life in the maelstrom: the biomechanics of wave-swept rocky shores.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaL1cXhsFyhtg%3D%3D&md5=1c1f83ad603f2a2d0a71182bdf0aab47CAS |

Denny, M. W., and Gaylord, B. (2002). The mechanics of wave swept algae. The Journal of Experimental Biology 205, 1355–1362.

Duggins, D., Eckman, J. E., Siddon, C. E., and Klinger, T. (2001). Interactive roles of mesograzers and current flow in survival of kelps. Marine Ecology Progress Series 223, 143–155.
Interactive roles of mesograzers and current flow in survival of kelps.CrossRef |

Ebeling, A. W., Laur, D. R., and Rowley, R. J. (1985). Severe storm disturbances and reversal of community structure in a southern California kelp forest. Marine Biology 84, 287–294.
Severe storm disturbances and reversal of community structure in a southern California kelp forest.CrossRef |

Eckman, J. E., Duggins, D. O., and Sewell, A. T. (1989). Ecology of under story kelp environments. I. Effects of kelps on flow and particle transport near the bottom. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 129, 173–187.
Ecology of under story kelp environments. I. Effects of kelps on flow and particle transport near the bottom.CrossRef |

Filbee-Dexter, K., and Scheibling, R. E. (2012). Hurricane-mediated defoliation of kelp beds and pulsed delivery of kelp detritus to offshore sedimentary habitats. Marine Ecology Progress Series 455, 51–64.
Hurricane-mediated defoliation of kelp beds and pulsed delivery of kelp detritus to offshore sedimentary habitats.CrossRef |

Frid, C. L. J., and Kitching, J. A. (1988). The Laminaria forest of Barloge Creek, Lough Hyne, Ireland, with special reference to the importance of wave action. The Irish Naturalists’ Journal 22, 463–469.

Gaylord, B. (1999). Detailing agents of physical disturbance: wave-induced velocities and accelerations on a rocky shore. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 239, 85–124.
Detailing agents of physical disturbance: wave-induced velocities and accelerations on a rocky shore.CrossRef |

Gaylord, B., and Denny, M. (1997). Flow and flexibility. I. Effects of size, shape and stiffness in determining wave forces on the stipitate kelps Eisenia arborea and Pterygophora californica. The Journal of Experimental Biology 200, 3141–3164.
| 9364022PubMed |

Hart, M. W., and Scheibling, R. E. (1988). Heat waves, baby booms, and the destruction of kelp beds by sea urchins. Marine Biology 99, 167–176.
Heat waves, baby booms, and the destruction of kelp beds by sea urchins.CrossRef |

Hawkins, S. J., and Harkin, E. (1985). Preliminary canopy removal experiments in algal dominated communities low on the shore and in the shallow subtidal on the Isle of Man. Botanica Marina 28, 223–230.
Preliminary canopy removal experiments in algal dominated communities low on the shore and in the shallow subtidal on the Isle of Man.CrossRef |

Heiser, S., Hall-Spencer, J. M., and Hiscock, K. (2014). Assessing the extent of establishment of Undaria pinnatifida in Plymouth Sound Special Area of Conservation, UK. Marine Biodiversity Records 7, e93.
Assessing the extent of establishment of Undaria pinnatifida in Plymouth Sound Special Area of Conservation, UK.CrossRef |

Johnson, C. R., Banks, S. C., Barrett, N. S., Cazassus, F., Dunstan, P. K., Edgar, G. J., Frusher, S. D., Gardner, C., Haddon, M., Helidoniotis, F., Hill, K. L., Holbrook, N. J., Hosie, G. W., Last, P. R., Ling, S. D., Melbourne-Thomas, J., Miller, K., Pecl, G. T., Richardson, A. J., Ridgway, K. R., Rintoul, S. R., Ritz, D. A., Ross, D. J., Sanderson, J. C., Shepherd, S. A., Slotwinski, A., Swadling, K. M., and Taw, N. (2011). Climate change cascades: shifts in oceanography, species’ ranges and subtidal marine community dynamics in eastern Tasmania. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 400, 17–32.
Climate change cascades: shifts in oceanography, species’ ranges and subtidal marine community dynamics in eastern Tasmania.CrossRef |

Kain, J. M. (1963). Aspects of the biology of Laminaria hyperborea. II. Age, length and weight. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 43, 129–151.
Aspects of the biology of Laminaria hyperborea. II. Age, length and weight.CrossRef |

Kain, J. M. (1977). The biology of Laminaria hyperborea. X. The effect of depth on some populations. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 57, 587–607.
The biology of Laminaria hyperborea. X. The effect of depth on some populations.CrossRef |

Kain, J. M. (1979). A view of the genus Laminaria. Oceanography and Marine Biology – an Annual Review 17, 101–161.

Kain, J. M. (1989). Seasons in the subtidal. British Phycological Journal 24, 203–215.
Seasons in the subtidal.CrossRef |

Krumhansl, K., and Scheibling, R. E. (2011). Detrital production in Nova Scotian kelp beds: patterns and processes. Marine Ecology Progress Series 421, 67–82.
Detrital production in Nova Scotian kelp beds: patterns and processes.CrossRef |

Krumhansl, K., and Scheibling, R. E. (2012). Production and fate of kelp detritus. Marine Ecology Progress Series 467, 281–302.
Production and fate of kelp detritus.CrossRef |

Krumhansl, K. A., Lee, J. M., and Scheibling, R. E. (2011). Grazing damage and encrustation by an invasive bryozoan reduce the ability of kelps to withstand breakage by waves. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 407, 12–18.
Grazing damage and encrustation by an invasive bryozoan reduce the ability of kelps to withstand breakage by waves.CrossRef |

Leclerc, J., Riera, P., Leroux, C., Lévêque, L., and Davoult, D. (2013). Temporal variation in organic matter supply in kelp forests: linking structure to trophic functioning. Marine Ecology Progress Series 494, 87–105.
Temporal variation in organic matter supply in kelp forests: linking structure to trophic functioning.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXktl2ns7s%3D&md5=3ccaa5f41aa6fbd7d9b0d92df883d7c5CAS |

Leinaas, H., and Christie, H. (1996). Effects of removing sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis): stability of the barren state and succession of kelp forest recovery in the east Atlantic. Oecologia 105, 524–536.
Effects of removing sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis): stability of the barren state and succession of kelp forest recovery in the east Atlantic.CrossRef |

Lemm, A. J., Hegge, B. J., and Masselink, G. (1999). Offshore wave climate, Perth (Western Australia), 1994–96. Marine and Freshwater Research 50, 95–102.
Offshore wave climate, Perth (Western Australia), 1994–96.CrossRef |

Luning, K. (1979). Growth strategies of three Laminaria species (Phaeophyceae) inhabiting different depth zones in the sublittoral region of Helgoland (North Sea). Marine Ecology Progress Series 1, 195–207.
Growth strategies of three Laminaria species (Phaeophyceae) inhabiting different depth zones in the sublittoral region of Helgoland (North Sea).CrossRef |

Mabin, C., Gribben, P., Fischer, A., and Wright, J. (2013). Variation in the morphology, reproduction and development of the habitat-forming kelp Ecklonia radiata with changing temperature and nutrients. Marine Ecology Progress Series 483, 117–131.
Variation in the morphology, reproduction and development of the habitat-forming kelp Ecklonia radiata with changing temperature and nutrients.CrossRef |

Madsen, O. S., Wright, L. D., Boon, J. D., and Chisholm, T. A. (1993). Wind stress, bed roughness and sediment suspension on the inner shelf during an extreme storm event. Continental Shelf Research 13, 1303–1324.
Wind stress, bed roughness and sediment suspension on the inner shelf during an extreme storm event.CrossRef |

Mann, K. H. (2000). ‘Ecology of Coastal Waters.’ (Blackwell: Malden, MA, USA.)

Moy, F. E., and Christie, H. (2012). Large-scale shift from sugar kelp (Saccharina latissima) to ephemeral algae along the south and west coast of Norway. Marine Biology Research 8, 309–321.
Large-scale shift from sugar kelp (Saccharina latissima) to ephemeral algae along the south and west coast of Norway.CrossRef |

Norderhaug, K., Christie, H., Rinde, E., Gundersen, H., and Bekkby, T. (2014). Importance of wave and current exposure to fauna communities in Laminaria hyperborea kelp forests. Marine Ecology Progress Series 502, 295–301.
Importance of wave and current exposure to fauna communities in Laminaria hyperborea kelp forests.CrossRef |

Parke, M. (1948). Laminaria ochroleuca de la Pylaie growing on the coast of Britain. Nature 162, 295–296.
Laminaria ochroleuca de la Pylaie growing on the coast of Britain.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaH1c%2FmvVaqug%3D%3D&md5=9f96c0ec2fc4476ca19256e1e350d189CAS | 18934880PubMed |

Pedersen, M. F., Nejrup, L. B., Fredriksen, S., Christie, H., and Norderhaug, K. M. (2012). Effects of wave exposure on population structure, demography, biomass and productivity of the kelp Laminaria hyperborea. Marine Ecology Progress Series 451, 45–60.
Effects of wave exposure on population structure, demography, biomass and productivity of the kelp Laminaria hyperborea.CrossRef |

Reed, D. C., Rassweiler, A., Carr, M. H., Cavanaugh, K. C., Malone, D. P., and Siegel, D. A. (2011). Wave disturbance overwhelms top-down and bottom-up control of primary production in California kelp forests. Ecology 92, 2108–2116.
Wave disturbance overwhelms top-down and bottom-up control of primary production in California kelp forests.CrossRef | 22164835PubMed |

Rosman, J. H., Koseff, J. R., Monismith, S. G., and Grover, J. (2007). A field investigation into the effects of a kelp forest (Macrocystis pyrifera) on coastal hydrodynamics and transport. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 112, C02016.
A field investigation into the effects of a kelp forest (Macrocystis pyrifera) on coastal hydrodynamics and transport.CrossRef |

Russell, B. D., Thompson, J.-A. I., Falkenberg, L. J., and Connell, S. D. (2009). Synergistic effects of climate change and local stressors: CO2 and nutrient-driven change in subtidal rocky habitats. Global Change Biology 15, 2153–2162.
Synergistic effects of climate change and local stressors: CO2 and nutrient-driven change in subtidal rocky habitats.CrossRef |

Saunders, M., and Metaxas, A. (2008). High recruitment of the introduced bryozoan Membranipora membranacea is associated with kelp bed defoliation in Nova Scotia, Canada. Marine Ecology Progress Series 369, 139–151.
High recruitment of the introduced bryozoan Membranipora membranacea is associated with kelp bed defoliation in Nova Scotia, Canada.CrossRef |

Scheibling, R. E., Kelly, N. E., and Raymond, B. G. (2009). Physical disturbance and community organization on a subtidal cobble bed. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 368, 94–100.
Physical disturbance and community organization on a subtidal cobble bed.CrossRef |

Sheppard, C. R. C., Jupp, B. P., Sheppard, A. L. S., and Bellamy, D. J. (1978). Studies on the growth of Laminaria hyperborea (Gunn.) Fosl. and Laminaria ochroleuca De La Pylaie on the French Channel Coast. Botanica Marina 11, 109–116.

Sjøtun, K., and Fredriksen, S. (1995). Growth allocation in Laminaria hyperborea (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae) in relation to age and wave exposure Marine Ecology Progress Series 126, 213–222.
Growth allocation in Laminaria hyperborea (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae) in relation to age and wave exposureCrossRef |

Slingo, J., Belcher, S., Scaife, A., McCarthy, M., Saulter, A., McBeath, K., Jenkins, A., Huntingford, C., Marsh, T., Hannaford, J., and Parry, S. (2014). The recent storms and floods in the UK. Report by the Met Office and Centre for Ecology and Hydrology. Met Office, Exeter, UK.

Smale, D. A., Kendrick, G. A., and Wernberg, T. (2010). Assemblage turnover and taxonomic sufficiency of subtidal macroalgae at multiple spatial scales. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 384, 76–86.
Assemblage turnover and taxonomic sufficiency of subtidal macroalgae at multiple spatial scales.CrossRef |

Smale, D. A., Wernberg, T., and Vance, T. (2011). Community development on subtidal temperate reefs: the influences of wave energy and the stochastic recruitment of a dominant kelp. Marine Biology 158, 1757–1766.
Community development on subtidal temperate reefs: the influences of wave energy and the stochastic recruitment of a dominant kelp.CrossRef |

Smale, D. A., Burrows, M. T., Moore, P. J., O’ Connor, N., and Hawkins, S. J. (2013). Threats and knowledge gaps for ecosystem services provided by kelp forests: a northeast Atlantic perspective. Ecology and Evolution 3, 4016–4038.
Threats and knowledge gaps for ecosystem services provided by kelp forests: a northeast Atlantic perspective.CrossRef | 24198956PubMed |

Smale, D. A., Wernberg, T., Yunnie, A. L. E., and Vance, T. (2015). The rise of Laminaria ochroleuca in the Western English Channel (UK) and comparisons with its competitor and assemblage dominant Laminaria hyperborea. Marine Ecology 36, 1033–1044.
The rise of Laminaria ochroleuca in the Western English Channel (UK) and comparisons with its competitor and assemblage dominant Laminaria hyperborea.CrossRef |

Smyth, T. J., Fishwick, J. R., Al-Moosawi, L., Cummings, D. G., Harris, C., Kitidis, V., Rees, A., Martinez-Vicente, V., and Woodward, E. M. S. (2010). A broad spatio-temporal view of the Western English Channel observatory. Journal of Plankton Research 32, 585–601.
A broad spatio-temporal view of the Western English Channel observatory.CrossRef |

Southward, A. J., and Orton, J. H. (1954). The effects of wave-action on the distribution and numbers of the commoner plants and animals living on the Plymouth breakwater. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 33, 1–19.
The effects of wave-action on the distribution and numbers of the commoner plants and animals living on the Plymouth breakwater.CrossRef |

Southward, A. J., Langmead, O., Hardman-Mountford, N. J., Aiken, J., Boalch, G. T., Dando, P. R., Genner, M. J., Joint, I., Kendall, M. A., Halliday, N. C., Harris, R. P., Leaper, R., Mieszkowska, N., Pingree, R. D., Richardson, A. J., Sims, D. W., Smith, T., Walne, A. W., and Hawkins, S. J. (2004). Long-term oceanographic and ecological research in the Western English Channel. In ‘Advances in Marine Biology’. Volume 47, pp. 1–105. (Academic Press: Waltham, MA, USA.)

Steneck, R. S., Graham, M. H., Bourque, B. J., Corbett, D., Erlandson, J. M., Estes, J. A., and Tegner, M. J. (2002). Kelp forest ecosystems: biodiversity, stability, resilience and future. Environmental Conservation 29, 436–459.
Kelp forest ecosystems: biodiversity, stability, resilience and future.CrossRef |

Thomsen, M. S., and Wernberg, T. (2005). Miniview: what affects the forces required to break or dislodge macroalgae? European Journal of Phycology 40, 139–148.
Miniview: what affects the forces required to break or dislodge macroalgae?CrossRef |

Thomsen, M. S., Wernberg, T., and Kendrick, G. A. (2004). The effect of thallus size, life stage, aggregation, wave exposure and substrate conditions on the forces required to break or dislodge the small kelp Ecklonia radiata. Botanica Marina 47, 454–460.
The effect of thallus size, life stage, aggregation, wave exposure and substrate conditions on the forces required to break or dislodge the small kelp Ecklonia radiata.CrossRef |

Tuya, F., Cacabelos, E., Duarte, P., Jacinto, D., Castro, J. J., Silva, T., Bertocci, I., Franco, J. N., Arenas, F., Coca, J., and Wernberg, T. (2012). Patterns of landscape and assemblage structure along a latitudinal gradient in ocean climate. Marine Ecology Progress Series 466, 9–19.
Patterns of landscape and assemblage structure along a latitudinal gradient in ocean climate.CrossRef |

Wang, X. L., Feng, Y., and Swail, V. R. (2014). Changes in global ocean wave heights as projected using multimodel CMIP5 simulations. Geophysical Research Letters 41, 1026–1034.
Changes in global ocean wave heights as projected using multimodel CMIP5 simulations.CrossRef |

Wernberg, T., Kendrick, G. A., and Toohey, B. D. (2005). Modification of the physical environment by an Ecklonia radiata (Laminariales) canopy and its implications to associated foliose algae. Aquatic Ecology 39, 419–430.
Modification of the physical environment by an Ecklonia radiata (Laminariales) canopy and its implications to associated foliose algae.CrossRef |

Wernberg, T., Russell, B. D., Moore, P. J., Ling, S. D., Smale, D. A., Coleman, M., Steinberg, P. D., Kendrick, G. A., and Connell, S. D. (2011). Impacts of climate change in a global hotspot for temperate marine biodiversity and ocean warming. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 400, 7–16.
Impacts of climate change in a global hotspot for temperate marine biodiversity and ocean warming.CrossRef |

Wernberg, T., Smale, D. A., Tuya, F., Thomsen, M. S., Langlois, T. J., de Bettignies, T., Bennett, S., and Rousseaux, C. S. (2013). An extreme climatic event alters marine ecosystem structure in a global biodiversity hotspot. Nature Climate Change 3, 78–82.
An extreme climatic event alters marine ecosystem structure in a global biodiversity hotspot.CrossRef |

Wolf, J., and Woolf, D. K. (2006). Waves and climate change in the north-east Atlantic. Geophysical Research Letters 33, L06604.
Waves and climate change in the north-east Atlantic.CrossRef |

Woolf, D. K., Challenor, P. G., and Cotton, P. D. (2002). Variability and predictability of the North Atlantic wave climate. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 107, 3145.
Variability and predictability of the North Atlantic wave climate.CrossRef |



Rent Article (via Deepdyve) Export Citation Cited By (12)

View Altmetrics