Marine and Freshwater Research Marine and Freshwater Research Society
Advances in the aquatic sciences
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Using sedimentary diatoms to identify reference conditions and historical variability in shallow lake ecosystems in the Yangtze floodplain

Xuhui Dong A B F , Xiangdong Yang A , Xu Chen C , Qian Liu D , Min Yao E , Rong Wang A and Min Xu A
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China.

B Aarhus Institute of Advanced Studies, Høegh-Guldbergs Gade 6B, Aarhus C, DK-8000 Denmark.

C State Key Laboratory of Geobiology and Environmental Geology, Faculty of Earth Sciences, China University of Geosciences (Wuhan), Wuhan 430074, China.

D College of Harbor, Coastal and Offshore Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China.

E School of Environment and Planning, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng 252059, China.

F Corresponding author. Email: xhdong@niglas.ac.cn

Marine and Freshwater Research 67(6) 803-815 https://doi.org/10.1071/MF14262
Submitted: 1 September 2014  Accepted: 17 April 2015   Published: 4 September 2015

Abstract

The reference condition and historical variability of aquatic ecosystems are key ecological characters for understanding the dynamic and ecological assessment of wetland systems. Based on high-resolution chronological sequences of diatom records from 10 lakes in the Yangtze floodplain, this study aims to determine their ecological and chemical reference conditions, the historical variability and its controlling factors. Mesotrophic species Aulacoseria granulata, along with non-planktonic species Fragilaria spp., Navicula spp., Cocconeis placentula, Achnanthidium minutissimum, Cymbella spp. etc, were most abundant in the reference samples (1800–50). Accordingly, a relatively high chemical reference (50 µg L–1 in diatom-inferred total phosphorus concentration) was defined. The degree of floristic change comparing present with reference samples reveals that six of the 10 lakes have undergone significant ecological changes. The historical variability in those lakes was found to be regulated by the distance from the Yangtze River (negatively) and the lake catchment area (positively). This reflects the mechanism driving ecological change in floodplain lakes: the ecological conditions were sensitive to the nutrient input from the catchment and disturbance by the Yangtze River. This study demonstrates the robustness of palaeolimnological techniques in reconstructing the historical ecological characters of lake ecosystems, which may provide essential information for the management of wider types of wetland.

Additional keywords: ecological character, palaeolimnology, wetland.


References

Andersen, J. H., Conley, D. J., and Hedal, S. (2004). Palaeoecology, reference conditions and classification of ecological status: the EU Water Framework Directive in practice. Marine Pollution Bulletin 49, 283–290.
Palaeoecology, reference conditions and classification of ecological status: the EU Water Framework Directive in practice.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXmsVeru74%3D&md5=a2fd760820042338db73e4206f27124cCAS | 15341820PubMed | open url image1

Anonymous (2003). Common Implementation Strategy for the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC). Guidance on establishing reference conditions and ecological status class boundaries for inland surface waters. Available at: http://forum.europa.eu.int/Public/irc/env/wfd/library [accessed 1 August 2014].

Appleby, P. G. (2001). Chronostratigraphic techniques in Recent sediments. In ‘Tracking Environmental Change Using Lake Sediments. Vol. 1’. (Eds W. M. Last and J. P. Smol.) pp. 171–203. (Springer: The Netherlands.)

Appleby, P. G., Nolan, P. J., Gifford, D. W., Godfrey, M. J., Oldfield, F., Anderson, N. J., and Battarbee, R. W. (1987). Pb-210 dating by low background gamma-counting. Hydrobiologia 37, 21–27.
Pb-210 dating by low background gamma-counting.CrossRef | open url image1

Battarbee, R. W. (1999). The importance of palaeolimnology to lake restoration. Hydrobiologia 395–396, 149–159.
The importance of palaeolimnology to lake restoration.CrossRef | open url image1

Battarbee, R. W., Jones, V. J., Flower, R. J., Cameron, N. G., Bennion, H., Carvalho, L., Juggins, S., Smol, J. P., Birks, H. J. B., and Last, W. M. (2001). ‘Tracking Environmental Change Using Lake Sediments. Volume 3: Terrestrial, Algal, and Siliceous Indicators.’ (Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht, The Netherlands.)

Battarbee, R. W., Anderson, N. J., Jeppesen, E., and Leavitt, P. R. (2005). Combining palaeolimnological and limnological approaches in assessing lake ecosystem response to nutrient reduction. Freshwater Biology 50, 1772–1780.
Combining palaeolimnological and limnological approaches in assessing lake ecosystem response to nutrient reduction.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXhtFGqsbrE&md5=ef91ddd6f19b6a79bb94489870e2681eCAS | open url image1

Bennion, H., and Battarbee, R. W. (2007). The European Union Water Framework Directive: opportunities for palaeolimnology. Journal of Paleolimnology 38, 285–295.
The European Union Water Framework Directive: opportunities for palaeolimnology.CrossRef | open url image1

Bennion, H., and Simpson, G. L. (2011). The use of diatom records to establish reference conditions for UK lakes subject to eutrophication. Journal of Paleolimnology 45, 469–488.
The use of diatom records to establish reference conditions for UK lakes subject to eutrophication.CrossRef | open url image1

Bennion, H., Juggins, S., and Anderson, N. J. (1996). Predicting epilimnetic phosphorus concentrations using an improved diatom-based transfer function and its application to lake eutrophication management. Environmental Science & Technology 30, 2004–2007.
Predicting epilimnetic phosphorus concentrations using an improved diatom-based transfer function and its application to lake eutrophication management.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK28XisFant7k%3D&md5=8b0584a9a4aa151557b100569b775638CAS | open url image1

Bennion, H., Fluin, J., and Simpson, G. L. (2004). Assessing eutrophication and reference conditions for Scottish freshwater lochs using subfossil diatoms. Journal of Applied Ecology 41, 124–138.
Assessing eutrophication and reference conditions for Scottish freshwater lochs using subfossil diatoms.CrossRef | open url image1

Bennion, H., Battarbee, R. W., Sayer, C. D., Simpson, G. L., and Davidson, T. A. (2011a). Defining reference conditions and restoration targets for lake ecosystems using palaeolimnology: a synthesis. Journal of Paleolimnology 45, 533–544.
Defining reference conditions and restoration targets for lake ecosystems using palaeolimnology: a synthesis.CrossRef | open url image1

Bennion, H., Simpson, G., John Anderson, N., Clarke, G., Dong, X., Hobæk, A., Guilizzoni, P., Marchetto, A., Sayer, C., Thies, H., and Tolotti, M. (2011b). Defining ecological and chemical reference conditions and restoration targets for nine European lakes. Journal of Paleolimnology 45, 415–431.
Defining ecological and chemical reference conditions and restoration targets for nine European lakes.CrossRef | open url image1

Birks, H. J. B. (2012). Ecological palaeoecology and conservation biology: controversies, challenges, and compromises. International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management 8, 292–304.
Ecological palaeoecology and conservation biology: controversies, challenges, and compromises.CrossRef | open url image1

Chen, X., Yang, X. D., Dong, X. H., and Liu, Q. (2011). Nutrient dynamics linked to hydrological condition and anthropogenic nutrient loading in Chaohu Lake (southeast China). Hydrobiologia 661, 223–234.
Nutrient dynamics linked to hydrological condition and anthropogenic nutrient loading in Chaohu Lake (southeast China).CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXhsFCkt7vL&md5=709db5b625a6604819d36073142e8ae7CAS | open url image1

Davidson, T. A., and Jeppesen, E. (2013). The role of palaeolimnology in assessing eutrophication and its impact on lakes. Journal of Paleolimnology 49, 391–410.
The role of palaeolimnology in assessing eutrophication and its impact on lakes.CrossRef | open url image1

Davidson, T. A., Reid, M., Sayer, C., and Chilcott, S. (2013). Palaeolimnological records of shallow lake biodiversity change: exploring the merits of single versus multi-proxy approaches. Journal of Paleolimnology 49, 431–446.
Palaeolimnological records of shallow lake biodiversity change: exploring the merits of single versus multi-proxy approaches.CrossRef | open url image1

Davis, J., and Brock, M. (2008). Detecting unacceptable change in the ecological character of Ramsar wetlands. Ecological Management & Restoration 9, 26–32.
Detecting unacceptable change in the ecological character of Ramsar wetlands.CrossRef | open url image1

Dong, X. H., Bennion, H., Battarbee, R., Yang, X. D., Yang, H. D., and Liu, E. F. (2008). Tracking eutrophication in Taihu Lake using the diatom record: potential and problems. Journal of Paleolimnology 40, 413–429.
Tracking eutrophication in Taihu Lake using the diatom record: potential and problems.CrossRef | open url image1

Dong, X. H., Anderson, N. J., Yang, X. D., Chen, X., and Shen, J. (2012). Carbon burial by shallow lakes on the Yangtze floodplain and its relevance to regional carbon sequestration. Global Change Biology 18, 2205–2217.
Carbon burial by shallow lakes on the Yangtze floodplain and its relevance to regional carbon sequestration.CrossRef | open url image1

European Union (2000). Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2000 on establishing a framework for community action in the field of water policy. Official Journal of the European Communities L327, 1–72. open url image1

Finlayson, C. M., D’Cruz, R., and Davidson, N. (2005). ‘Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Wetlands and Water: Synthesis.’ (World Resources Institute: Washington, DC.)

Finlayson, C. M., Davidson, N., Pritchard, D., Milton, G. R., and MacKay, H. (2011). The Ramsar Convention and ecosystem-based approaches to the wise use and sustainable development of wetlands. Journal of International Wildlife Law and Policy 14, 176–198.
The Ramsar Convention and ecosystem-based approaches to the wise use and sustainable development of wetlands.CrossRef | open url image1

Gell, P., Tibby, J., Fluin, J., Leahy, P., Reid, M., Adamson, K., Bulpin, S., MacGregor, A., Wallbrink, P., and Hancock, G. (2005). Accessing limnological change and variability using fossil diatom assemblages, south-east Australia. River Research and Applications 21, 257–269.
Accessing limnological change and variability using fossil diatom assemblages, south-east Australia.CrossRef | open url image1

Gell, P., Fritz, S., Battarbee, R., and Tibby, J. (2007). LIMPACS – human and climate interactions with lake ecosystems: setting research priorities in the study of the impact of salinisation and climate change on lakes, 2005–2010. Hydrobiologia 591, 99–101.
LIMPACS – human and climate interactions with lake ecosystems: setting research priorities in the study of the impact of salinisation and climate change on lakes, 2005–2010.CrossRef | open url image1

Gell, P., Mills, K., and Grundell, R. (2013). A legacy of climate and catchment change: the real challenge for wetland management. Hydrobiologia 708, 133–144.
A legacy of climate and catchment change: the real challenge for wetland management.CrossRef | open url image1

Huang, F., and Zhang, M. (2000). Pollen and phytolith evidence for rice cultivation during the Neolithic at Longqiuzhuang, eastern Jianghuai, China. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 9, 161–168.
Pollen and phytolith evidence for rice cultivation during the Neolithic at Longqiuzhuang, eastern Jianghuai, China.CrossRef | open url image1

Hübener, T., Adler, S., Werner, P., Schult, M., Erlenkeuser, H., Meyer, H., and Bahnwart, M. (2009). A multi-proxy palaeolimnological reconstruction of trophic state reference conditions for stratified carbonate-rich lakes in northern Germany. Hydrobiologia 631, 303–327.
A multi-proxy palaeolimnological reconstruction of trophic state reference conditions for stratified carbonate-rich lakes in northern Germany.CrossRef | open url image1

Jeppesen, E., Meerhoff, M., Davidson, T. A., Trolle, D., Sondergaar, D. M., Lauridsen, T. L., Beklioglu, M., Brucet, S., Volta, P., and González-Bergonzoni, I. (2014). Climate change impacts on lakes: an integrated ecological perspective based on a multi-faceted approach, with special focus on shallow lakes. Journal of Limnology 73, 84–107.
Climate change impacts on lakes: an integrated ecological perspective based on a multi-faceted approach, with special focus on shallow lakes.CrossRef | open url image1

Juggins, S. (Ed.) (2004). ‘C2 Data Analysis. Version 1.4 Beta (Build 3.2).’ (University of Newcastle: Newcastle, UK.)

Juggins, S., Anderson, N. J., Hobbs, J. M. R., and Heathcote, A. J. (2013). Reconstructing epilimnetic total phosphorus using diatoms: statistical and ecological constraints. Journal of Paleolimnology 49, 373–390.
Reconstructing epilimnetic total phosphorus using diatoms: statistical and ecological constraints.CrossRef | open url image1

Kattel, G., Gell, P., Perga, M.-E., Jeppesen, E., Grundell, R., Weller, S., Zawadzki, A., and Barry, L. (2015). Tracking a century of change in trophic structure and dynamics in a floodplain wetland: integrating palaeoecological and palaeoisotopic evidence. Freshwater Biology 60, 711–723.
Tracking a century of change in trophic structure and dynamics in a floodplain wetland: integrating palaeoecological and palaeoisotopic evidence.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2MXksF2js7Y%3D&md5=ab77c6142e8040cba54e7335c5493a0aCAS | open url image1

Kauppila, P., Weckstrom, K., Vaalgamaa, S., Korhola, A., Pitkanen, H., Reuss, N., and Drew, S. (2005). Tracing pollution and recovery using sediments in an urban estuary, northern Baltic Sea: are we far from ecological reference conditions? Marine Ecology Progress Series 290, 35–53.
Tracing pollution and recovery using sediments in an urban estuary, northern Baltic Sea: are we far from ecological reference conditions?CrossRef | open url image1

Krammer, K., and Lange-Bertalot, H. (1986–1991). Bacillariophyceae. In ‘Süsswasserflora von Mitteleuropa’. (Eds H. Ettl, J. Gerloff, H. Heynig and D. Mollenhauer.) pp. 1–876 (Gustav Fischer Verlag: Stuttgart.)

Landres, P., Morgan, P., and Swanson, F. (1999). Overview of the use of historical variability concepts in managing ecological systems. Ecological Applications 9, 1179–1188.
Overview of the use of historical variability concepts in managing ecological systems.CrossRef | open url image1

Leavitt, P., Fritz, S., Anderson, N., Barker, P., Blenckner, T., Bunting, L., Catalan, J., Conley, D., Hobbs, W., and Jeppesen, E. (2009). Palaeolimnological evidence of the effects on lakes of energy and mass transfer from climate and humans. Limnology and Oceanography 54, 2330–2348.
Palaeolimnological evidence of the effects on lakes of energy and mass transfer from climate and humans.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXhsFOlsrnJ&md5=fa27a56f2eb94588dbb2355ac01c2b05CAS | open url image1

Leira, M., Jordan, P., Taylor, D., Dalton, C., Bennion, H., Rose, N., and Irvine, K. (2006). Assessing the ecological status of candidate reference lakes in Ireland using palaeolimnology. Journal of Applied Ecology 43, 816–827.
Assessing the ecological status of candidate reference lakes in Ireland using palaeolimnology.CrossRef | open url image1

Li, Y., Acharya, K., and Yu, Z. (2011). Modeling impacts of Yangtze River water transfer on water ages in Lake Taihu, China. Ecological Engineering 37, 325–334.
Modeling impacts of Yangtze River water transfer on water ages in Lake Taihu, China.CrossRef | open url image1

Liu, E. F., Yang, X. D., Shen, J., Dong, X. H., Zhang, E. L., and Wang, S. M. (2007). Environmental response to climate and human impact during the last 400 years in Taibai Lake catchment, middle reach of Yangtze River, China. The Science of the Total Environment 385, 196–207.
Environmental response to climate and human impact during the last 400 years in Taibai Lake catchment, middle reach of Yangtze River, China.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXhtVajs7jP&md5=4037927774c7be7d34b74bbe00eb2e41CAS | open url image1

Liu, Q., Yang, X. D., Anderson, N. J., Liu, E. F., and Dong, X. H. (2012). Diatom ecological response to altered hydrological forcing of a shallow lake on the Yangtze floodplain, SE China. Ecohydrology 5, 316–325.
Diatom ecological response to altered hydrological forcing of a shallow lake on the Yangtze floodplain, SE China.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC38Xht1SqsLvN&md5=ee1b909fb6881765d07a130f88be6ceaCAS | open url image1

McGowan, S., Leavitt, P. R., Hall, R. I., Wolfe, B. B., Edwards, T. W. D., Karst-Riddoch, T., and Vardy, S. R. (2011). Interdecadal declines in flood frequency increase primary production in lakes of a northern river delta. Global Change Biology 17, 1212–1224.
Interdecadal declines in flood frequency increase primary production in lakes of a northern river delta.CrossRef | open url image1

Meyer, C. B., Knight, D. H., and Dillon, G. K. (2010). Use of the historic range of variability to evaluate ecosystem sustainability. In ‘Climate Change and Sustainable Development’. (Ed. R. A. Reck.) pp. 251–261. (Linton Atlantic Books: Yarnton, UK)

Morgan, P., Aplet, G. H., Haufler, J. B., Humphries, H. C., Moore, M. M., and Wilson, W. D. (1994). Historical range of variability: a useful tool for evaluating ecosystem change. Journal of Sustainable Forestry 2, 87–111.
Historical range of variability: a useful tool for evaluating ecosystem change.CrossRef | open url image1

Overpeck, J. T., Webb, T., and Prentice, I. C. (1985). Quantitative interpretation of fossil pollen spectra: dissimilarity coefficients and the method of modern analogues. Quaternary Research 23, 87–108.
Quantitative interpretation of fossil pollen spectra: dissimilarity coefficients and the method of modern analogues.CrossRef | open url image1

Owen, R., and Crossley, R. (1992). Spatial and temporal distribution of diatoms in sediments of Lake Malawi, central Africa, and ecological implications. Journal of Paleolimnology 7, 55–71.
Spatial and temporal distribution of diatoms in sediments of Lake Malawi, central Africa, and ecological implications.CrossRef | open url image1

Phillips, B. (2006). Critique of the Framework for describing the ecological character of Ramsar Wetlands (Department of Sustainability and Environment, Victoria, 2005) based on its application at three Ramsar sites: Ashmore Reed National Nature Reserve, the Coral Sea Reserves (Coringa–Herald and Lihou Reeds and Cays), and Elizabeth and Middleton Reeds Marine National Nature Reserve. Mainstream Environmental Consulting Pty Ltd, Waramanga, ACT.

R Development Core Team (2009). ‘R: Programming Environment for Data Analysis and Graphics.’ R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Available at: http://www.R-project.org [accessed 5 June 2015].

Sayer, C. D. (2001). Problems with the application of diatom–total phosphorus transfer functions: examples from a shallow English lake. Freshwater Biology 46, 743–757.
Problems with the application of diatom–total phosphorus transfer functions: examples from a shallow English lake.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXltFWqt7w%3D&md5=e385e0fca8969469f0738ba0889732d8CAS | open url image1

Sayer, C. D., Bennion, H., Davidson, T. A., Burgess, A., Clarke, G., Hoare, D., Frings, P., and Hatton-Ellis, T. (2012). The application of palaeolimnology to evidence-based lake management and conservation: examples from UK lakes. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 22, 165–180.
The application of palaeolimnology to evidence-based lake management and conservation: examples from UK lakes.CrossRef | open url image1

Scheffer, M., Hosper, S., Meijer, M., Moss, B., and Jeppesen, E. (1993). Alternative equilibria in shallow lakes. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 8, 275–279.
Alternative equilibria in shallow lakes.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BC3M7itVyqtQ%3D%3D&md5=475deba4f6e8ef086d0f2122964b6240CAS | open url image1

Simpson, G., and Oksanen, J. (2013). analogue: analogue matching and Modern Analogue Technique transfer function models (R package version 0.12–0). Available at: http://cran.r-project.org/package=analogue [accessed 5 June 2015].

Simpson, G. L., Shilland, E. M., Winterbottom, J. M., and Keay, J. (2005). Defining reference conditions for acidified waters using a modern analogue approach. Environmental Pollution 137, 119–133.
Defining reference conditions for acidified waters using a modern analogue approach.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXltFWjt78%3D&md5=6bbcf747ca1a59393648c8a52fcf7144CAS | 15944044PubMed | open url image1

Smol, J. P., and Stoermer, E. F. (2010). ‘The Diatoms: Applications for the Environmental and Earth Sciences.’ (Cambridge University Press.)

ter Braak, C. J. F., and Smilauer, P. (2002). ‘CANOCO Reference Manual and CanoDraw for Windows User’s Guide: Software for Canonical Community Ordination (Version 4.5).’ (Microcomputer Power: Ithaca, NY.)

Wang, S. M., and Dou, H. S. (Eds) (1998). ‘Lakes in China.’ (Science Press: Beijing.)

Wardrop, D. H., Kentula, M. E., Brooks, R. P., Fennessy, M. S., Chamberlain, S. J., Havens, K. J., and Hershner, C. (2013). Monitoring and assessment of wetlands: concepts, case studies, and lessons learned. In ‘Mid-Atlantic Freshwater Wetlands: Advances in Wetlands Science, Management, Policy, and Practice’. pp. 381–419. (Springer.)

Xie, P. (2009). ‘A Historical of Chao Lake: Blue Green Algae, Eutrophication and Geological Evolution.’ (Science Press: Beijing.)

Yang, G. S., Ma, R. H., Zhang, L., Jiang, J. H., Yao, S. C., Zhang, M., and Zeng, H. (2010). Lake status, major problems and protection strategy in China. Journal of Lake Sciences 22, 799–810. open url image1

Yang, X. D., Anderson, N. J., Dong, X. H., and Shen, J. (2008). Surface sediment diatom assemblages and epilimnetic total phosphorus in large, shallow lakes of the Yangtze floodplain: their relationships and implications for assessing long-term eutrophication. Freshwater Biology 53, 1273–1290.
Surface sediment diatom assemblages and epilimnetic total phosphorus in large, shallow lakes of the Yangtze floodplain: their relationships and implications for assessing long-term eutrophication.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXoslemurw%3D&md5=5fa179f96dcaab57f69067cfe02a754eCAS | open url image1

Yin, H. F., Liu, G. R., Pi, J. G., Chen, G. J., and Li, C. A. (2007). On the river–lake relationship of the middle Yangtze reaches. Geomorphology 85, 197–207.
On the river–lake relationship of the middle Yangtze reaches.CrossRef | open url image1

Zhang, E., Liu, E., Jones, R., Langdon, P., Yang, X., and Shen, J. (2010). A 150-year record of recent changes in human activity and eutrophication of Lake Wushan from the middle reach of the Yangze River, China. Journal of Limnology 69, 235–241.
A 150-year record of recent changes in human activity and eutrophication of Lake Wushan from the middle reach of the Yangze River, China.CrossRef | open url image1

Zhang, E., Cao, Y., Langdon, P., Jones, R., Yang, X., and Shen, J. (2012). Alternate trajectories in historic trophic change from two lakes in the same catchment, Huayang Basin, middle reach of Yangtze River, China. Journal of Paleolimnology 48, 367–381.
Alternate trajectories in historic trophic change from two lakes in the same catchment, Huayang Basin, middle reach of Yangtze River, China.CrossRef | open url image1

Zhang, K., Dearing, J., Dawson, T. P., Dong, X., Yang, X., and Zhang, W. (2015). Poverty alleviation strategies in eastern China lead to critical ecological dynamics. The Science of the Total Environment 506–507, 164–181.
Poverty alleviation strategies in eastern China lead to critical ecological dynamics.CrossRef | 25460950PubMed | open url image1

Zhang, Q., Dong, X., Chen, S., and Yang, X. (2013a). Quantitative reconstruction of the history of total phosphorus concentrations in Shitang Lake, Anhui Province over the past 100 years. Journal of Ecology and Rural Environment 29, 494–499.
Quantitative reconstruction of the history of total phosphorus concentrations in Shitang Lake, Anhui Province over the past 100 years.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3sXitVSjsrnP&md5=8947408b3bbc8e0d401c406e098ce852CAS | open url image1

Zhang, Q., Dong, X., Yao, M., Chen, S., and Yang, X. (2013b). Environmental changes in response to altered hydrological connectivities with the Yangtze River in Zhangdu Lake over the past 200 years. Journal of Lake Sciences 25, 463–470.
Environmental changes in response to altered hydrological connectivities with the Yangtze River in Zhangdu Lake over the past 200 years.CrossRef | open url image1



Rent Article (via Deepdyve) Export Citation Cited By (3)

View Altmetrics