Marine and Freshwater Research Marine and Freshwater Research Society
Advances in the aquatic sciences
REVIEW

Looking backwards to look forwards: the role of natural history in temperate reef ecology

Stephen J. Hawkins A B , Nova Mieszkowska B , Louise B. Firth A B C I , Katrin Bohn A , Michael T. Burrows D , Moira A. MacLean A , Richard C. Thompson E , Benny K. K. Chan F , Colin Little G and Gray A. Williams H

A Ocean and Earth Science, National Oceanography Centre Southampton, Waterfront Campus, University of Southampton, European Way, Southampton, Hampshire SO14 3ZH, UK.

B The Marine Biological Association of the UK, The Laboratory, Citadel Hill, Plymouth, PL1 2PB, UK.

C School of Geography, Earth & Environmental Science, Plymouth University, Drake Circus, Plymouth, PL4 8AA, UK.

D Department of Ecology, Scottish Association for Marine Science, Scottish Marine Institute, Oban, Argyll PA37 1QA, UK.

E School of Marine Science and Engineering, Plymouth University, Drake Circus, Plymouth, PL4 8AA, UK.

F Biodiversity Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan.

G Beggars Knoll, Long River Road, Newtown, Westbury BA13 3ED, UK.

H The Swire Institute of Marine Science and School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong, Special Administrative Region, P.R. China.

I Corresponding author. Email: louise.firth@plymouth.ac.uk

Marine and Freshwater Research 67(1) 1-13 http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/MF14413
Submitted: 16 December 2014  Accepted: 27 June 2015   Published: 27 August 2015

Abstract

Temperate reefs are superb tractable systems for testing hypotheses in ecology and evolutionary biology. Accordingly there is a rich history of research stretching back over 100 years, which has made major contributions to general ecological and evolutionary theory as well as providing better understanding of how littoral systems work by linking pattern with process. A brief resumé of the history of temperate reef ecology is provided to celebrate this rich heritage. As a community, temperate reef ecologists generally do well designed experiments and test well formulated hypotheses. Increasingly large datasets are being collected, collated and subjected to complex meta-analyses and used for modelling. These datasets do not happen spontaneously – the burgeoning subject of macroecology is possible only because of the efforts of dedicated natural historians whether it be observing birds, butterflies, or barnacles. High-quality natural history and old-fashioned field craft enable surveys or experiments to be stratified (i.e. replicates are replicates and not a random bit of rock) and lead to the generation of more insightful hypotheses. Modern molecular approaches have led to the discovery of cryptic species and provided phylogeographical insights, but natural history is still required to identify species in the field. We advocate a blend of modern approaches with old school skills and a fondness for temperate reefs in all their splendour.

Additional keywords: experiments, historical ecology.


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