Emu Emu Society
Journal of BirdLife Australia
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Preliminary surveillance for beak and feather disease virus in wild parrots of New Caledonia: implications of a reservoir species for Ouvea Parakeets

Bethany Jackson A B M , Almudena Lorenzo C , Jörn Theuerkauf D , Antoine Barnaud E F , Thomas Duval G , Philippe Guichard H , Henri Bloc H , Anna Baouma E F , Daisy Stainton I , Simona Kraberger I , Steve Murphy J , Natalie Clark B , Chelsea Dillon B , Thomas Knight B and Arvind Varsani I K L

A School of Veterinary and Life Sciences, Murdoch University, Perth, WA 6150, Australia.

B Auckland Zoological Park, Motions Road, Western Springs, Auckland 1022, New Zealand.

C Direction de l’Environnement de la Province Sud, Service des Aires Aménagées Protégées, Antenne territoriale du Grand Nouméa, Parc Zoologique et Forestier, Michel Corbasson, BP 3718, 98846 Nouméa Cedex, New Caledonia.

D Museum and Institute of Zoology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Wilcza 64, 00-679 Warsaw, Poland.

E Province des Iles Loyauté, Direction du Développement Economique, BP 50 98820 Wé, Lifou, New Caledonia.

F Association pour la Sauvegarde de la Biodiversité d’Ouvéa, BP 22, 98814, Fayaoué, Ouvéa, New Caledonia.

G Hémisphères, BP438, 98822 Poindimié, New Caledonia.

H Syndicat mixte des Grandes Fougères, BP 10, 98 881 Farino, New Caledonia.

I School of Biological Sciences and Biomolecular Interaction Centre, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, 8140, New Zealand.

J School of Marine and Tropical Biology, James Cook University, Townsville, Qld 4811, Australia.

K Electron Microscope Unit, Division of Medical Biochemistry, Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, Cape Town, 7701, South Africa.

L Department of Plant Pathology and Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA.

M Corresponding author. Email: bethanyjackson2003@gmail.com

Emu 114(3) 283-289 http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/MU14029
Submitted: 9 December 2013  Accepted: 3 April 2014   Published: 18 July 2014

Abstract

Beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) is a recognised key threat for the conservation of parrots globally, causing morbidity and mortality of individuals in susceptible species. We present findings from a survey in 2012 to investigate the presence of BFDV in wild New Caledonian parrots, including the endangered Ouvea Parakeet (Eunymphicus uvaeensis). Blood and feather samples from seven Ouvea Parakeets and 13 New Caledonian Rainbow Lorikeets (Trichoglossus haematodus deplanchii), and feathers from 15 New Caledonian Rainbow Lorikeets, five Horned Parakeets (Eunymphicus cornutus) and six New Caledonian Parakeets (Cyanoramphus saisseti) obtained from passive sampling, were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for BFDV. We identified a BFDV prevalence of 25% (95% CI 11–45%) in wild New Caledonian Rainbow Lorikeets, suggesting this species may act as a reservoir for persistence of BFDV in the wild, placing other parrots in New Caledonia at risk. All other parrot species tested negative for BFDV. New Caledonian Rainbow Lorikeets were introduced to Ouvéa Island in the 1970s, potentially bringing BFDV with them. As Ouvea Parakeets are restricted to this small island, we strongly recommend surveillance screening for BFDV in this species to guide future biosecurity and conservation efforts, and further understand the risk posed by BFDV to threatened parrots.


References

Barré, N., Theuerkauf, J., Ludovic, V., Primot, P., and Saoumoe, M. (2010). Exponential population increase in the endangered Ouvea Parakeet (Eunymphicus uvaeensis) after community-based protection from nest poaching. Journal of Ornithology 151, 695–701.
Exponential population increase in the endangered Ouvea Parakeet (Eunymphicus uvaeensis) after community-based protection from nest poaching.CrossRef | open url image1

BirdLife International (2013a). Eunymphicus cornutus (Horned Parakeet). In ‘IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2’. (International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.) Available at http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/22685185/0 [Verified 4 June 2014].

BirdLife International (2013b). Cyanoramphus saisseti (New Caledonian Parakeet). In ‘IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2’. (International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.) Available at http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/22729437/0 [Verified 4 June 2014].

BirdLife International (2013c). Eunymphicus uvaeensis (Uvea Parakeet). In ‘IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2’. (International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.) Available at http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/22728354/0 [Verified 4 June 2014].

Department of Environment and Heritage (2005). Threat abatement plan for Psittacine Beak and Feather Disease affecting endangered psittacine species. Department of the Environment and Heritage, Canberra.

Duncan, C., Backus, L., Lynn, T., Powers, B., and Salman, M. (2008). Passive, opportunistic wildlife disease surveillance in the Rocky Mountain Region, USA. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases 55, 308–314.
Passive, opportunistic wildlife disease surveillance in the Rocky Mountain Region, USA.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD1crosFKktg%3D%3D&md5=0484192616fd5f25dfdbb673ade98c55CAS | 18631229PubMed | open url image1

Edgar, R. C. (2004). MUSCLE: multiple sequence alignment with high accuracy and high throughput. Nucleic Acids Research 32, 1792–1797.
MUSCLE: multiple sequence alignment with high accuracy and high throughput.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXisF2ks7w%3D&md5=8c3b33dd3af87b049f02e602e0ce92a7CAS | 15034147PubMed | open url image1

Foley, J., Clifford, D., Castle, K., Cryan, P., and Ostfeld, R. S. (2011). Investigating and managing the rapid emergence of white-nose syndrome, a novel, fatal, infectious disease of hibernating bats. Conservation Biology 25, 223–231.
| 21284732PubMed | open url image1

Guindon, S. P., Dufayard, J. F., Lefort, V., and Anisimova, M. (2010). New algorithms and methods to estimate maximum-likelihood phylogenies: assessing the performance of PhyML 3.0. Systematic Biology 59, 307–321.
New algorithms and methods to estimate maximum-likelihood phylogenies: assessing the performance of PhyML 3.0.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXks1Kms7s%3D&md5=524fed9b72bf12e9ef33ae095811d03eCAS | open url image1

Ha, H., Anderson, I., Alley, M., and Springett, B. (2007). The prevalence of beak and feather disease virus infection in wild populations of parrots and cockatoos in New Zealand. New Zealand Veterinary Journal 55, 235–238.
The prevalence of beak and feather disease virus infection in wild populations of parrots and cockatoos in New Zealand.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXht1yhs7rL&md5=970ffaff98fd3578c9e3e39304147385CAS | 17928900PubMed | open url image1

Harkins, G. W., Martin, D. P., Christoffels, A., and Varsani, A. (2014). Towards inferring the global movement of beak and feather disease virus. Virology 450–451, 24–33.
Towards inferring the global movement of beak and feather disease virus.CrossRef | 24503064PubMed | open url image1

Harrison, G., and Lightfoot, T. (2006). ‘Clinical Avian Medicine.’ (Spix Publishing: Palm Beach, FL.)

Heath, L., Martin, D., Warburton, L., Perrin, M., Horsfield, W., Kingsley, C., Rybicki, E., and Williamson, A. L. (2004). Evidence of unique genotypes of beak and feather disease virus in Southern Africa. Journal of Virology 78, 9277–9284.
Evidence of unique genotypes of beak and feather disease virus in Southern Africa.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXntVKhs74%3D&md5=58bfdef644e69a842cb752466a058037CAS | 15308722PubMed | open url image1

Julian, L., Lorenzo, A., Chenuet, J. P., and Bonzon, M. (2012). Evidence of multiple introductions of beak and feather disease virus into the Pacific islands of Nouvelle-Caledonie (New Caledonia). Journal of General Virology 93, 2466–2472.
Evidence of multiple introductions of beak and feather disease virus into the Pacific islands of Nouvelle-Caledonie (New Caledonia).CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC38Xhs12ku7bF&md5=e7d5eecd1c2991000774a60497a2e359CAS | 22855782PubMed | open url image1

Julian, L., Piasecki, T., Chrzastek, K., and Walters, M. (2013). Extensive recombination detected among beak and feather disease virus isolates from breeding facilities in Poland. Journal of General Virology 94, 1086–1095.
Extensive recombination detected among beak and feather disease virus isolates from breeding facilities in Poland.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3sXnsV2lu7Y%3D&md5=07dba35448be85bc692253c814cf6986CAS | 23324468PubMed | open url image1

Kundu, S., Faulkes, C. G., Greenwood, A. G., and Jones, C. G. (2012). Tracking viral evolution during a disease outbreak: the rapid and complete selective sweep of a circovirus in the endangered Echo Parakeet. Journal of Virology 86, 5221–5229.
Tracking viral evolution during a disease outbreak: the rapid and complete selective sweep of a circovirus in the endangered Echo Parakeet.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC38XmtFGltrg%3D&md5=4365921f8e60f04112cec1139a31f078CAS | 22345474PubMed | open url image1

Legault, A., Chartendrault, V., Theuerkauf, J., Rouys, S., and Barré, N. (2011). Large-scale habitat selection by parrots in New Caledonia. Journal of Ornithology 152, 409–419.
Large-scale habitat selection by parrots in New Caledonia.CrossRef | open url image1

Legault, A., Theuerkauf, J., Rouys, S., Chartendrault, V., and Barré, N. (2012). Temporal variation in flock size and habitat use of parrots in New Caledonia. Condor 114, 552–563.
Temporal variation in flock size and habitat use of parrots in New Caledonia.CrossRef | open url image1

Legault, A., Theuerkauf, J., Chartendrault, V., and Rouys, S. (2013). Using ecological niche models to infer the distribution and population size of parakeets in New Caledonia. Biological Conservation 167, 149–160.
Using ecological niche models to infer the distribution and population size of parakeets in New Caledonia.CrossRef | open url image1

Lloyd-Smith, J. O., Cross, P. C., Briggs, C. J., Daugherty, M., Getz, W. M., Latto, J., Sanchez, M. S., Smith, A. B., and Swei, A. (2005). Should we expect population thresholds for wildlife disease? Trends in Ecology & Evolution 20, 511–519.
Should we expect population thresholds for wildlife disease?CrossRef | open url image1

Maddison, W. P., and Maddison, D. R. (2011). Mesquite: a modular system for evolutionary analysis. Version 2.75. Available at http://mesquiteproject.org [Verified 26 November 2013].

Massaro, M., Ortiz-Catedral, L., Julian, L., Galbraith, J., Kurenbach, B., Kearvell, J., Kemp, J., Hal, J., Elkington, S., Taylor, G., Greene, T., Wetering, J., Wetering, M., Pryde, M., Dilks, P., Heber, S., Steeves, T., Walters, M., Shaw, S., Potter, J., Farrant, M., Brunton, D., Hauber, M., Jackson, B., Bell, P., Moorhouse, R., McInnes, K., and Varsani, A. (2012). Molecular characterisation of beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) in New Zealand and its implications for managing an infectious disease. Archives of Virology 157, 1651–1663.
Molecular characterisation of beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) in New Zealand and its implications for managing an infectious disease.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC38Xht1OmtLfF&md5=b87de184342d7cd7847e263086e16034CAS | 22638639PubMed | open url image1

Nusser, S. M., Clark, W. R., Otis, D. L., and Huang, L. (2008). Sampling considerations for disease surveillance in wildlife populations. Journal of Wildlife Management 72, 52–60.
Sampling considerations for disease surveillance in wildlife populations.CrossRef | open url image1

Ortiz-Catedral, L., McInnes, K., Hauber, M. E., and Brunton, D. H. (2009). First report of beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) in wild Red-fronted Parakeets (Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae) in New Zealand. Emu 109, 244–247.
First report of beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) in wild Red-fronted Parakeets (Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae) in New Zealand.CrossRef | open url image1

Peters, A., Patterson, E. I., Baker, B. G. B., Holdsworth, M., Sarker, S., Ghorashi, S. A., and Raidal, S. R. (2014). Evidence of psittacine beak and feather disease virus spillover into wild critically endangered Orange-bellied Parrots (Neophema chrysogaster). Journal of Wildlife Diseases 50, 288–296.
Evidence of psittacine beak and feather disease virus spillover into wild critically endangered Orange-bellied Parrots (Neophema chrysogaster).CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXpsleltL8%3D&md5=29d3e2407b4c56454b8a5a6f6b85d0a7CAS | 24484492PubMed | open url image1

Posada, D. (2008). jModelTest: phylogenetic model averaging. Molecular Biology and Evolution 25, 1253–1256.
jModelTest: phylogenetic model averaging.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXotlKgsb4%3D&md5=7b8ec27883ab3cee8b54cb665c8d573aCAS | 18397919PubMed | open url image1

Raidal, S. R. (1995). Viral skin diseases of birds. Seminars in Avian and Exotic Pet Medicine 4, 72–82.
Viral skin diseases of birds.CrossRef | open url image1

Raidal, S. R., McElnea, C. L., and Cross, G. M. (1993). Seroprevalence of psittacine beak and feather disease in wild psittacine birds in New South Wales. Australian Veterinary Journal 70, 137–139.
Seroprevalence of psittacine beak and feather disease in wild psittacine birds in New South Wales.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaK3s3mtlymuw%3D%3D&md5=a7c22d7c0730ae430a895b390cf33510CAS | 8494522PubMed | open url image1

Rhyan, J. C., and Spraker, T. R. (2010). Emergence of disease from wildlife reservoirs. Veterinary Pathology 47, 34–39.
Emergence of disease from wildlife reservoirs.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BC3c%2Fjt1aqsw%3D%3D&md5=d9b6e07ad8fbb140d5417e5ff5c0d247CAS | 20080482PubMed | open url image1

Ritchie, B. W., Gregory, C. R., Latimer, K. S., Pesti, D., Campagnoli, R., and Lukert, P. D. (2000). A review of the most common viruses affecting Psittaciformes. International Zoo Yearbook 37, 257–273.
A review of the most common viruses affecting Psittaciformes.CrossRef | open url image1

Ritchie, P. A., Anderson, I. L., and Lambert, D. M. (2003). Evidence for specificity of psittacine beak and feather disease viruses among avian hosts. Virology 306, 109–115.
Evidence for specificity of psittacine beak and feather disease viruses among avian hosts.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXhs1Knt7k%3D&md5=7d8aeec423fdc322dda8f10aeae75467CAS | 12620803PubMed | open url image1

Sarker, S., Patterson, E. I., Peters, A., Baker, B. G. B., Forwood, J. K., Ghorashi, S. A., Holdsworth, M., Baker, R., Murray, N., and Raidal, S. R. (2014). Mutability dynamics of an emergent single stranded DNA virus in a naïve host. PLoS ONE 9, e85370.
Mutability dynamics of an emergent single stranded DNA virus in a naïve host.CrossRef | 24416396PubMed | open url image1

Sergeant, E. S. G. (2014). Epitools epidemiological calculators. AusVet Animal Health Services and Australian Biosecurity Cooperative Research Centre for Emerging Infectious Disease. Available at http://epitools.ausvet.com.au [Verified 27 February 2014].

Skerratt, L., Berger, L., Speare, R., Cashins, S., McDonald, K., Phillott, A., Hines, H., and Kenyon, N. (2007). Spread of Chytridiomycosis has caused the rapid global decline and extinction of frogs. EcoHealth 4, 125–134.
Spread of Chytridiomycosis has caused the rapid global decline and extinction of frogs.CrossRef | open url image1

Spaggiari, J., Chartendrault, V., and Barré, N. (2007). ‘Zones Importantes pour la Conservations des Oiseaux de Nouvelle-Calédonie.’ (Société Calédonienne d’Ornithologie and Birdlife International: Noumea.)

Theuerkauf, J., Rouys, S., Mériot, J. M., Gula, R., and Kuehn, R. (2009). Cooperative breeding, mate guarding, and nest sharing in two parrot species of New Caledonia. Journal of Ornithology 150, 791–797.
Cooperative breeding, mate guarding, and nest sharing in two parrot species of New Caledonia.CrossRef | open url image1

Todd, D. (2000). Circoviruses: immunosuppressive threats to avian species: a review. Avian Pathology 29, 373–394.
Circoviruses: immunosuppressive threats to avian species: a review.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD1M7htFersQ%3D%3D&md5=dd137e9b70d01788a02bdd339f5f7c8dCAS | 19184829PubMed | open url image1

Tomasek, O., and Tukac, V. D. (2007). Psittacine circovirus infection in parakeets of the genus Eunymphicus and treatment with β-(1,3/1,6)-D-Glucan. Avian Diseases 51, 989–991.
Psittacine circovirus infection in parakeets of the genus Eunymphicus and treatment with β-(1,3/1,6)-D-Glucan.CrossRef | 18251415PubMed | open url image1

Varsani, A., Regnard, G. L., Bragg, R., Hitzeroth, I. I., and Rybicki, E. P. (2011). Global genetic diversity and geographical and host-species distribution of beak and feather disease virus isolates. Journal of General Virology 92, 752–767.
Global genetic diversity and geographical and host-species distribution of beak and feather disease virus isolates.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXkslSmtLw%3D&md5=5d4a267178ec5922b176cbd543510160CAS | 21177924PubMed | open url image1

Warner, R. E. (1968). The role of introduced diseases in the extinction of the endemic Hawaiian avifauna. Condor 70, 101–120.
The role of introduced diseases in the extinction of the endemic Hawaiian avifauna.CrossRef | open url image1



Export Citation