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Protocols in ecological and environmental plant physiology

 
 

Functional Plant Biology publishes new and significant information on the functional biology of plants at all scales from the molecular through whole plant to community. More

Editor-in-Chief: Sergey Shabala

 
 
 

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Published online 11 November 2014
Metabolomics deciphers quantitative resistance mechanisms in diploid potato clones against late blight 
Kalenahalli N. Yogendra, Ajjamada C. Kushalappa, Felipe Sarmiento, Ernesto Rodriguez and Teresa Mosquera

Potato production is threatened worldwide by late blight disease, which destroys crops and lays a heavy financial burden on producers. Diploid potatoes with high disease resistance were analysed for the first time to identify the resistance related metabolites and associated genes responsible for impeding the pathogen. Phenylpropanoids, flavonoids, fatty acids and alkaloids induced reinforcement of secondary cell walls deterring pathogen advancement, and the genes involved can be used in breeding following validation.

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Published online 10 November 2014
Seasonal changes in the photosynthetic response to CO2 and temperature in apple (Malus domestica cv. ‘Red Gala 
Dennis H. Greer

Extreme summer temperatures are increasingly frequent and are known to cause a loss in crop productivity. The aim was to test the photosynthetic performance of economically important Malus domestica (apple) trees under these conditions and discovered that extreme heat compromised the photosynthetic process but recovery occurred when the temperatures subsided. These results provide a basis for comprehending the impact of climate change.

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Published online 06 November 2014
Foliar trait contrasts between African forest and savanna trees: genetic versus environmental effects 
Franziska Schrodt, Tomas F. Domingues, Ted R. Feldpausch, Gustavo Saiz, Carlos Alberto Quesada, Michael Schwarz, F. Yoko Ishida, Halidou Compaore, Adamo Diallo, Gloria Djagbletey, Fidele Hien, Bonaventure Sonké, Herman Toedoumg, Loius Zapfack, Pierre Hiernaux, Eric Mougin, Michael. I. Bird, John Grace, Simon L. Lewis, Elmar M. Veenendaal and Jon Lloyd

Plants are generally assumed to become more sclerophyllous as precipitation declines – but not in West Africa where leaf mass per unit area actually declines decreasing rainfall. Foliar potassium concentrations increase dramatically with increasing aridity, also differentiating ecotonal forest and savanna species. This suggests an important but as yet unidentified role for K as a modulator of tropical vegetation structure and function.

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Published online 05 November 2014
Automatic estimation of wheat grain morphometry from computed tomography data 
Harry Strange, Reyer Zwiggelaar, Craig Sturrock, Sacha J. Mooney and John H. Doonan

Accurate and non-invasive measures of wheat grain morphometry can have impact on improvements in milling yield. An automated approach is presented to extract such measures from wheat CT data. The results show significant differences in measures between two disparate strains of wheat.

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Published online 24 October 2014
Auxin-modulated root growth inhibition in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings with ammonium as the sole nitrogen source 
Huaiyu Yang, Jenny von der Fecht-Bartenbach, Ji?í Friml, Jan U. Lohmann, Benjamin Neuhäuser and Uwe Ludewig

Ammonium and NO3 are the major nitrogen sources of plants. Although NH4+ is preferred, plant growth is suppressed at higher concentrations. Here, the transcriptomes of seedlings grown on (NH4)2SO4, KNO3 or NH4NO3 were compared. A major difference in auxin-regulated genes was observed and the importance of auxin was confirmed using mutants in the auxin pathway.

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Published online 15 October 2014
Heterotrimeric G-proteins involved in the MeJA regulated ion flux and stomatal closure in Arabidopsis thaliana 
Suli Yan, Shuitian Luo, Shanshan Dong, Ting Zhang, Jingru Sun, Ningning Wang, Hongjun Yao and Yingbai Shen

Heterotrimeric G-proteins are important elements of the transmembrane signal transmission components. Researchers have indicated that MeJA induced stomatal closure in many species. However, whether heterotrimeric G-proteins involved in the MeJA induced stomatal signal cascade has not yet been evaluated. In this study, heterotrimeric G-proteins were found to regulate the transmembrane H+, Ca2+, K+ flux and then control stomatal closure in Arabidopsis thaliana guard cells response to MeJA. This result provides new insight into the signal cascade of MeJA-induced stomatal closure.

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Published online 08 October 2014
Ionic and photosynthetic homeostasis in quinoa challenged by salinity and drought – mechanisms of tolerance 
Fatemeh Razzaghi, Sven-Erik Jacobsen, Christian Richardt Jensen and Mathias Neumann Andersen

Global food production is limited by salinity and drought. Quinoa is a solution, producing seed even at seawater salinities. Unlike other crops, quinoa increased uptake of potassium at high salt concentrations, maintaining photosynthesis and improving water use efficiency. The saturated electrical conductivity resulting in 50% yield was estimated to be 25 dS m–1, higher than any other known crop.

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Published online 08 October 2014
Shoot branching in response to nodal roots is mimicked by application of exogenous cytokinin in Trifolium repens 
Roderick G. Thomas and Michael J. M. Hay

Regulation of axillary bud outgrowth in Trifolium repens is dominated by supply of a xylem-transported stimulatory signal from nodal roots. The present study shows this stimulus could be cytokinin-based. It suggests that, in contrast to its much reduced role in erect-stemmed species, xylem-transported cytokinin plays a key role in the outgrowth of axillary buds in prostrate nodally-rooting species.

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Published online 24 September 2014
Resilience of a semi-deciduous shrub, Cistus salvifolius, to severe summer drought and heat stress 
Olga M. Grant, ?ukasz Tronina, José I. García-Plazaola, Raquel Esteban, João Santos Pereira and M. Manuela Chaves

Climate change is expected to exacerbate summer drought in Mediterranean environments. We analysed the response of a rockrose species to a heat wave superimposed on severe drought, discovering that a combination of physiological and biochemical adjustments allowed survival, with recovery following autumn rains. The shrub’s capacity to withstand substantial seasonal variability may also buffer the impact of significant inter-annual variation in water availability, indicating potential resilience to climate change in the understorey of Mediterranean oak woodlands.

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Published online 23 September 2014
Surface reconstruction of wheat leaf morphology from three-dimensional scanned data 
Daryl M. Kempthorne, Ian W. Turner, John A. Belward, Scott W. McCue, Mark Barry, Joseph Young, Gary J. Dorr, Jim Hanan and Jerzy A. Zabkiewicz

Realistic virtual models of leaf surfaces are important for several applications in plant sciences, such as simulating agrichemical spray droplet motion on the leaf surface. Although there are effective approaches for reconstructing leaf surface from 3D scanned data, complications arise when dealing with wheat (Triticum aestivum) leaves, which tend to twist and bend. We present an algorithm that overcomes this topological difficulty, allowing significantly more leaf varieties to be modelled in this way.

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Published online 22 September 2014
Blobs and curves: object-based colocalisation for plant cells 
Carl J. Nelson, Patrick Duckney, Timothy J. Hawkins, Michael J. Deeks, P. Philippe Laissue, Patrick J. Hussey and Boguslaw Obara

Quantifying the colocalisation of labels is a major application of fluorescent microscopy in plant biology. Pixel-based quantification of colocalisation, such as Pearson’s correlation coefficient, gives limited information for further analysis. We show how applying bioimage informatics tools to a commonplace experiment allows further quantifiable results to be extracted. We use our object-based colocalisation technique to extract distance information, show temporal changes and demonstrate the advantages and pitfalls of using bioimage informatics for plant science.

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Published online 18 September 2014
Nitrogen supply controls vegetative growth, biomass and nitrogen allocation for grapevine (cv. Shiraz) grown in pots 
Aurélie Metay, Jessica Magnier, Nicolas Guilpart and Angélique Christophe

Apart from water, nitrogen is also an important limiting factor in grape growing. The effects of nitrogen deficiency were investigated with 2-year-old Vitis vinifera cv. Shiraz plants grown in pots and exposed to various N supplies under well watered conditions. Primary axis elongation, leaf emergences on the primary and the secondary axes and lamina area expansion were significantly inhibited by nitrogen deficiency from flowering in an intensity-dependent manner.

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Published online 18 September 2014
Seed coating reduces respiration losses and affects sugar metabolism during germination and early seedling growth in cereals 
Linda Gorim and Folkard Asch

We investigated how and why cereal seedlings performed better when grown from hydro-absorber coated seeds. We analysed the proportion of reserves mobilised for growth and respiration and sucrose mobilisation and found that mobilisation efficiency was higher resulting in higher biomass when cereals were coated and in each cereal, sucrose was mobilised differently. Further investigations into oxygen availability while imbibition is occurring have to be done.

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Published online 17 September 2014
Suppression of starch synthesis in rice stems splays tiller angle due to gravitropic insensitivity but does not affect yield 
Masaki Okamura, Tatsuro Hirose, Yoichi Hashida, Ryu Ohsugi and Naohiro Aoki

In rice (Oryza sativa L.), tiller angle – defined as the angle between the main culm and its side tillers – is one of the important factors involved in light use efficiency. Our analysis of a low stem starch mutant revealed suppression of starch synthesis in rice stems splays tiller angle due to gravitropic insensitivity but does not necessarily impact dry matter production. These findings provided new insights for rice breeding to improve plant architecture.

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Published online 16 September 2014
Water use efficiency in Sangiovese grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) subjected to water stress before veraison: different levels of assessment lead to different conclusions 
Maria Clara Merli, Matteo Gatti, Marco Galbignani, Fabio Bernizzoni, Eugenio Magnanini and Stefano Poni

How grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) use irrigation under drought needs to be determined. Previous work shows contradictory results regarding the method used. Single-leaf and whole-canopy methods for assessing water use efficiency (WUE) were compared in V. vinifera cv. Sangiovese subjected to progressive water deficit before veraison. Single-leaf WUE assessment was poorly correlated with yield and grape composition, whereas whole-canopy assessment was more reliable. Guidelines were that not less than 70% of daily water use should be supplied to Sangiovese vines before veraison.

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Published online 16 September 2014
Importance of natural cloud regimes to ecophysiology in the alpine species, Caltha leptosepala and Arnica parryi, Snowy Range Mountains, southeast Wyoming, USA 
Adriana Sanchez, Nicole M. Hughes and William K. Smith

Natural cloud regimes across the globe are expected to change with continued global warming. Yet, little is known about the impacts on plants, except for a few studies showing potentially strong effects on photosynthetic carbon gain and transpirational water loss. We found that these changes to the natural cloud regime had substantial impacts on photosynthesis, transpiration and water use efficiency.

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Published online 12 September 2014
Does age matter under winter photoinhibitory conditions? A case study in stems and leaves of European mistletoe (Viscum album) 
Fátima Míguez, Beatriz Fernández-Marín, Antonio Hernández, José Maria Becerril and José Ignacio García-Plazaola

European mistletoe (Viscum album) is an evergreen hemiparasitic plant characterised by a continuous photosynthetic surface composed of leaves and stems. We have taken advantage of these traits and used this species as a perfect model plant to study the interactive effect of age and winter on photosynthetic regulation. Winter, as in other temperate evergreens, induces a downregulation of photosynthesis, which in stems is compensated by an ageing-dependent stimulatory effect. Overall, this case study supports the theory of negative senescence.

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Published online 04 September 2014
High night temperature induces contrasting responses for spikelet fertility, spikelet tissue temperature, flowering characteristics and grain quality in rice 
Onoriode Coast, Richard H. Ellis, Alistair J. Murdoch, Cherryl Quiñones and Krishna S. V. Jagadish

High night temperature (HNT) can significantly reduce rice yield and quality. Flowering dynamics, spikelet tissue temperature determines seed-set among diverse rice genotypes exposed to early and/or late night temperature stress. Documented for the first time is a critical night temperature threshold of 27°C beyond which reduction in spikelet fertility is induced. The different sensitivities to HNT of cultivars for spikelet fertility and quality will complement plant breeding efforts targeted towards enhancing resilience of rice cultivars to warmer climates.

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Published online 04 September 2014
Higher flower and seed number leads to higher yield under water stress conditions imposed during reproduction in chickpea 
Raju Pushpavalli, Mainassara Zaman-Allah, Neil C. Turner, Rekha Baddam, Mandali V. Rao and Vincent Vadez

Ten chickpea genotypes contrasting in yield under terminal stress in the field were exposed to a controlled drought treatment in the glasshouse during reproduction. The ranking for relative seed yield (yield water stress/yield well watered) in the glasshouse conditions differed from the field. High seed yield under drought was linked to higher flower, pod and seed number, especially under mild water stress, while seed size was hardly affected by the drought treatment

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Published online 28 August 2014
Transcriptional regulation of phosphate transporters from Lolium perenne and its mycorrhizal symbionts in response to phosphorus supply 
Qianhe Liu, Anthony J. Parsons, Hong Xue, Chris S. Jones and Susanne Rasmussen

Phosphorus is essential for plant growth but little is known about its acquisition in pasture grasses. We isolated a phosphate transporter gene from perennial ryegrass together with genes associated with mycorrhizal fungal colonisation and studied how these were affected by varying phosphate supply. This research will help understand phosphorus uptake in pasture grasses and how the relationship with symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi supports this.

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Published online 28 August 2014
Radial oxygen loss and physical barriers in relation to root tissue age in species with different types of aerenchyma 
Milena E. Manzur, Agustín A. Grimoldi, Pedro Insausti and Gustavo G. Striker

Plants grown under flooding conditions display a large variation in aeration strategies in order to maintain suitable levels of oxygen to survive. We investigated these responses in three lowland grassland species, focusing into radial oxygen loss from roots, with different arrangement of aerenchyma. We found that hypoxia response as the oxygenation of roots depends on species and we discuss the physiological implications of the different responses.

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Published online 26 August 2014
Changes in timing of water uptake and phenology favours yield gain in terminal water stressed chickpea AtDREB1A transgenics 
Krithika Anbazhagan, Pooja Bhatnagar-Mathur, Kiran K. Sharma, Rekha Baddam, P. B. Kavi Kishor and Vincent Vadez

Effect of DREB1A on the yield under stress of transgenic chickpea was tested in a lysimetric system. Only modest yield benefits were found and higher yield related with higher water availability during the reproduction and grain filling period and the capacity to successfully produce filled pods from late flowers. This confirms earlier results obtained with chickpea germplasm.

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Published online 25 August 2014
Potential advantages of highly mycotrophic foraging for the establishment of early successional pioneer plants on sand 
Ingo Höpfner, Martina Friede, Stephan Unger and Wolfram Beyschlag

Nutrient uptake through symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi can be considered as an alternative to nutrient acquisition via roots. A comparison of both strategies in sand pioneer plants revealed that in ‘mycorrhiza strategists’ the enlargement of the absorptive surface area was clearly promoted and led to enhanced soil phosphorus depletion compared with ‘root strategists’. Thus, mycorrhizal fungi may be an important factor for the establishment of some plant species in nutrient poor sandy habitats.

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Published online 21 August 2014
PvLOX2 silencing in common bean roots impairs arbuscular mycorrhiza-induced resistance without affecting symbiosis establishment 
Guadalupe A. Mora-Romero, Maria A. Gonzalez-Ortiz, Francisco Quiroz-Figueroa, Carlos L. Calderon-Vazquez, Sergio Medina-Godoy, Ignacio Maldonado-Mendoza, Analilia Arroyo-Becerra, Anahí Perez-Torres, Fulgencio Alatorre-Cobos, Federico Sanchez and Melina Lopez-Meyer

Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization elicits mycorrhizal-induced resistance (MIR), an enhanced pathogen defence response. To investigate the role of the oxylipin biosynthetic pathway in this phenomenon, we silenced lipoxygenases in normally AM colonized common bean roots and observed MIR impairment against a foliar pathogen. These findings provide novel insights into the onset of MIR, and will eventually be of great benefit to agriculture.

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Published online 20 August 2014
Increasing nitrogen supply stimulates phosphorus acquisition mechanisms in the fynbos species Aspalathus linearis 
Pravin M. Maistry, A. Muthama Muasya, Alex J. Valentine and Samson B. M. Chimphango

The mechanisms for growth of Aspalathus linearis (Rooibos tea) in the nutrient-poor soils of the Core Cape subregion, and its response to combined addition of N and P, are not known. When addition of N induced low availability of P, the species increased partitioning of resources towards acquisition of P and also enhanced growth. Our findings show that plant growth is colimited by multiple resources.

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Published online 20 August 2014
Light-stimulated heat tolerance in leaves of two neotropical tree species, Ficus insipida and Calophyllum longifolium 
G. Heinrich Krause, Klaus Winter, Barbara Krause and Aurelio Virgo

In the tropics, climate warming and intensified extreme weather events may lead to elevated peak temperatures transgressing the limit of thermal tolerance in plant leaves, causing permanent tissue damage. We demonstrate experimentally that light absorbed by leaves in excess of photosynthetic utilisation ameliorates thermal tolerance. Our results contradict the widespread notion that exposure of leaves to high light in combination with heat aggravates leaf damage.

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Published online 19 August 2014
Automated estimation of leaf area development in sweet pepper plants from image analysis 
Graham W. Horgan, Yu Song, Chris A. Glasbey, Gerie W. A. M. van der Heijden, Gerrit Polder, J. Anja Dieleman, Marco C. A. M. Bink and Fred A. van Eeuwijk

The total area of the leaves on a plant is important in horticulture, but manually measuring it is tedious and destructive. Getting a computer to recognise and count leaves is difficult, so we have used statistical methods to relate leaf area to the variations in colour in an image. This has potential to be a big help for scientists developing and testing new crop cultivars.

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blank image Functional Plant Biology
Volume 41 Number 12 2014

 
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Descriptive Table of Contents 
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Early detection of Psa infection in kiwifruit by means of infrared thermography at leaf and orchard scale 
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Wouter H. Maes , Peter E. H. Minchin , William P. Snelgar and Kathy Steppe
pp. 1207-1220

Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) the causal agent of bacterial canker of kiwifruit, has become a worldwide threat for the kiwifruit industry. In this work, we show that Psa can be detected at early stages of infection both at leaf and canopy scale using infrared thermography. At leaf scale, this method will be able to assist fundamental research of infection mechanisms; at canopy scale, the method could be used to identify regions of Psa-infection to be pruned out to prevent further devastating spread of the disease.

 
  
 

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Do wide crowns in arid woodland trees reflect hydraulic limitation and reduction of self-shading? 
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Martín Escoto-Rodríguez , José M. Facelli and Jennifer R. Watling
pp. 1221-1229

In arid lands many trees develop broad crowns that affect many ecological interactions, but how that form is acquired is unresolved. We measured crown shape and carbon isotope ratios. We found that upper branches suffered more water stress than laterally spreading branches, and that lower branches were affected by self-shading. When lower and upper branches are stressed, lateral spreading at middle crown become the best alternative for growth. These results advance our understanding of crown development in trees.

 
  
 

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Drought tolerances of three stem-succulent halophyte species of an inland semiarid salt lake system 
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Victoria A. Marchesini , Chuanhua Yin , Timothy D. Colmer and Erik J. Veneklaas
pp. 1230-1238

Tecticornia species are dominant in saline habitats differing in the frequency and intensity of drought and flooding. In controlled conditions, the comparative response of three species to drying soil was remarkably similar, despite their distribution at opposite ends of a water availability gradient. Combined osmotic and matrix components of soil water potential during drought stress in drying saline soils have important implications for the understanding of physiological tolerance mechanisms and habitat requirements of salt lake halophytes.

 
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Seedling mortality during biphasic drought in sandy Mediterranean soils 
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Stephen M. Benigno , Kingsley W. Dixon and Jason C. Stevens
pp. 1239-1248

Increasing drought events may further exacerbate the currently high seedling mortality patterns observed in restoration programs. This paper demonstrates a catastrophic decrease in physiological resilience of three Mediterranean tree species during the seedling establishment phase to successive droughts. An understanding of plant functional requirements through critical development stages will enable restoration practitioners to overcome high failure rates and improve biodiversity outcomes generally.

 
  
 

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Development of a diurnal dehydration index for spring barley phenotyping 
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Pablo Rischbeck , Peter Baresel , Salah Elsayed , Bodo Mistele and Urs Schmidhalter
pp. 1249-1260

Breeding for drought tolerance is important for improving yield stability in agriculture in the coming decades. A new approach for precise, high-throughput and low-cost optical measurement of drought stress in barley was developed. This may enable the identification of drought tolerant varieties in field trials.

 
  
 

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Response of floret fertility and individual grain weight of wheat to high temperature stress: sensitive stages and thresholds for temperature and duration 
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P. V. Vara Prasad and Maduraimuthu Djanaguiraman
pp. 1261-1269

High temperature (HT) stress causes significant yield losses in wheat. The two periods most sensitive to short episodes of HT stress were identified as gamete development and fertilisation. Short episodes (5 days) of mean temperatures >24°C decreased floret fertility. Increasing duration (from 2 to 30 days) of HT stress (mean temperature of 30°C) linearly decreased floret fertility and individual grain weight.

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Brachypodium distachyon: a model species for aluminium tolerance in Poaceae 
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Roberto Contreras , Ana M. Figueiras , Francisco J. Gallego and Cesar Benito
pp. 1270-1283

Aluminium (Al) toxicity is the main abiotic stress limiting plant productivity in acidic soils. Brachypodium distachyon (Bd) is a good model species for Al tolerance in Poaceae. The exudation of organic acids was involved in the Al tolerance of Brachypodium. An insertion was present in the promoter region of BdALMT1 (Al-activated malate transporter) gene of tolerant diploid and allotetraploid plants.

 
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Post–flood nitrogen and basal phosphorus management affects survival, metabolic changes and anti-oxidant enzyme activities of submerged rice (Oryza sativa) 
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Priyanka Gautam , Banwari Lal , Rajagounder Raja , Mirza Jaynul Baig , Deepika Haldar , Liza Rath , Mohammad Shahid , Rahul Tripathi , Sangita Mohanty , Pratap Bhattacharyya and Amaresh Kumar Nayak
pp. 1284-1294

Post-flood nitrogen and basal phosphorus application were evaluated on submergence tolerance of rice under clear and turbid water with submergence tolerant and susceptible cultivars. Urea spray and basal phosphorus improved survival, chlorophyll, non-structural carbohydrates and reduced shoot elongation and ethylene even in turbid water. Nutrient management options can provide opportunities for better survival and establishment of submerged rice, helping farmers to cope with the existing problems in flood-prone areas.

 
  
 

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Functional characterisation of a WRKY transcription factor of wheat and its expression analysis during leaf rust pathogenesis 
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Dhananjay Kumar , Anjali Kapoor , Dharmendra Singh , Lopamudra Satapathy , Ashwini Kumar Singh , Manish Kumar , Kumble Vinod Prabhu and Kunal Mukhopadhyay
pp. 1295-1309

The WRKY TFs has been a subject of intense research; however, their functional analysis in crops like wheat is still lacking. The molecular structure of a WRKY gene JX028549 was revealed and its spatio-temporal expression showed upregulation in response to the leaf rust pathogenesis. The results contribute towards understanding the structure and function of a wheat WRKY TF that can be used as a candidate gene to improve biotic stress tolerance.

 
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Photoperiodic variations induce shifts in the leaf metabolic profile of Chrysanthemum morifolium 
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Katrine Heinsvig Kjaer , Morten Rahr Clausen , Ulrik Kræmer Sundekilde , Bent Ole Petersen , Hanne Christine Bertram and Carl-Otto Ottosen
pp. 1310-1322

Diurnal patterns in leaf primary metabolites are complex, and vary in relation to light intensity and photoperiodic variation. We demonstrate a coupling between diurnal patterns in leaf metabolites and leaf expansion, and that diurnal patterns of some metabolites are not affected by photoperiodic variation. The results enlighten the plasticity of primary metabolism and leaf expansion in an ever-changing environment.

 
  
 

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Rhizobium-induced elevation in xylem cytokinin delivery in pigeonpea induces changes in shoot development and leaf physiology 
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Jean W. H. Yong , D. Stuart Letham , S. Chin Wong and Graham D. Farquhar
pp. 1323-1335

Pigeon pea, inoculated with Rhizobium strain IC3342, offers a novel system to study the role of xylem cytokinin in shoot development. With a 3-fold elevation in xylem cytokinin delivery to the shoot, various aspects of leaf physiology and shoot development were altered especially lateral bud outgrowth. Overall, xylem sap cytokinin appears to act as a pleiotropic regulator of plant development.

 
  
 

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Vigour reduction in girdled peach trees is related to lower midday stem water potentials 
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Sergio Tombesi , Kevin R. Day , R. Scott Johnson , Rebecca Phene and Theodore M. DeJong
pp. 1336-1341

Trunk girdling (horticultural practice used to increase fruit size) reduces vegetative shoot growth although there appears to be higher availability of carbohydrates above the girdle in girdled trees. This research indicates that early spring scaffold girdling decreased stem water potential above the girdle suggesting that early spring girdling not only influences phloem flow (that is interrupted by girdling) but also decreases xylem flow. The decreased stem water potentials appear to be directly related to reductions in vegetative shoot growth and explain why early spring girdling reduces shoot growth. It is hypothesized that early spring girdling affects xylem flow because the girdling process interrupts cambial activity and the production of new xylem however girdling may also influence root activity.

 
  
 

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These articles have been peer reviewed and accepted for publication. They are still in production and have not been edited, so may differ from the final published form.

    FP14206  Accepted 19 November 2014
    Plant hydraulic conductance adapts to shoot number but limits shoot vigor in grapevines
    Markus Keller, Laura Deyermond, Bhaskar Bondada
    Abstract


    FP14167  Accepted 09 November 2014
    The variability in the xylem architecture of grapevine petiole and its contribution to hydraulic differences
    Uri Hochberg, Asfaw Degu, Tanya Gendler, Aaron Fait, Shimon Rachmilevitch
    Abstract


    FP14189  Accepted 07 November 2014
    Hydrogen peroxide promotes programmed cell death and salicylic acid accumulation during the induced production of sesquiterpenes in cultured cell suspensions of Aquilaria sinensis
    Juan Liu, Yanhong Xu, Zheng Zhang, Jianhe Wei
    Abstract


    FP14166  Accepted 06 November 2014
    Sufficient leaf transpiration and nonstructural carbohydrate are benefit for high-temperature tolerance among rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars and nitrogen treatments
    Dongliang Xiong, Tingting Yu, Xiaoxia Ling, Shah Fahad, Shaobing Peng, Yong Li, Jianliang Huang
    Abstract


    FP14222  Accepted 03 November 2014
    The structure and activity of nodulation-suppressing CLE peptide hormones of legumes.
    April Hastwell, Peter Gresshoff, Brett Ferguson
    Abstract


    FP14190  Accepted 03 November 2014
    Isolation and functional characterization of CDPKs gene from Arachis hypogaea L. under salt stress
    Yan Li, Feng Fang, Feng Guo, Jingjing Meng, xinguo Li, Guangmin Xia, Shubo Wan
    Abstract


    FP14172  Accepted 29 October 2014
    Water relations of an invasive halophyte (Spartina patens (Ait.) Muhl.): osmoregulation and ionic effects on xylem hydraulics
    Valentino Casolo, Martina Tomasella, Valentina De Col, Enrico Braidot, Tadeja Savi, Andrea Nardini
    Abstract


    FP14025  Accepted 29 October 2014
    How different pruning severities alter shoot structure: A modelling approach in young ‘Nonpareil’ almond trees
    Claudia Negrón, Loreto Conatdor, Bruce Lampinen, Samuel Metcalf, Yann Guédon, Evelyne Costes, Theodore DeJong
    Abstract


    FP14209  Accepted 25 October 2014
    Linking osmotic adjustment and stomatal characteristics with salinity stress tolerance in contrasting barley accessions
    Min Zhu, Meixue Zhou, Lana Shabala, Sergey Shabala
    Abstract


    FP14125  Accepted 13 October 2014
    Intraspecific variation in leaf growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L) under Australian Grain Free Air CO2 Enrichment (AGFACE): Is it regulated through carbon and/or nitrogen supply?
    Chamindathee Thilakarathne, Sabine Tausz-Posch, Karen Cane, Robert Norton, Glenn Fitzgerald, Michael Tausz, Saman Seneweera
    Abstract


    FP14071  Accepted 01 October 2014
    On the Evaluation of Methods for the Recovery of Plant Root Systems from X-ray Computed Tomography Images
    Stefan Mairhofer, Craig Sturrock, Darren Wells, Malcolm Bennett, Sacha Mooney, Tony Pridmore
    Abstract


    FP14056  Accepted 29 August 2014
    Image based estimation of oat panicle development using local texture patterns
    Roger Boyle, Fiona Corke, Catherine Howarth
    Abstract




The Most Read ranking is based on the number of downloads from the CSIRO PUBLISHING website of articles published in the previous 12 months. Usage statistics are updated daily.

Rank Paper Details
1. Published 12 December 2013
Development and evaluation of a field-based high-throughput phenotyping platform

Pedro Andrade-Sanchez, Michael A. Gore, John T. Heun, Kelly R. Thorp, A. Elizabete Carmo-Silva, Andrew N. French, Michael E. Salvucci and Jeffrey W. White

2. Published 11 February 2014
Root growth and anchorage by transplanted ‘Tifgreen’ (Cynodon dactylon x C. transvaalensis) turfgrass

Jeffrey S. Amthor and James B. Beard

3. Published 6 January 2014
Wheat genotypes with high early vigour accumulate more nitrogen and have higher photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency during early growth

Jiayin Pang, Jairo A. Palta, Gregory J. Rebetzke and Stephen P. Milroy

4. Published 30 September 2014
Genomics for drought resistance – getting down to earth

Abraham Blum

5. Published 11 February 2014
Identification of stay-green and early senescence phenotypes in high-yielding winter wheat, and their relationship to grain yield and grain protein concentration using high-throughput phenotyping techniques

Sebastian Kipp, Bodo Mistele and Urs Schmidhalter

6. Published 6 January 2014
Plot size matters: interference from intergenotypic competition in plant phenotyping studies

Greg J. Rebetzke, Ralph (Tony) A. Fischer, Anthony F. van Herwaarden, Dave G. Bonnett, Karine Chenu, Allan R. Rattey and Neil A. Fettell

7. Published 14 March 2014
Awn primordium to tipping is the most decisive developmental phase for spikelet survival in barley

Ahmad M. Alqudah and Thorsten Schnurbusch

8. Published 15 November 2013
FT genes and regulation of flowering in the legume Medicago truncatula

Joanna Putterill, Lulu Zhang, Chin Chin Yeoh, Martin Balcerowicz, Mauren Jaudal and Erika Varkonyi Gasic

9. Published 15 November 2013
Plant–aphid interactions with a focus on legumes

Lars G. Kamphuis, Katherine Zulak, Ling-Ling Gao, Jonathan Anderson and Karam B. Singh

10. Published 14 August 2014
Crop yield components – photoassimilate supply- or utilisation limited-organ development?

John W. Patrick and Kim Colyvas

11. Published 15 November 2013
Water: the most important ‘molecular’ component of water stress tolerance research

Vincent Vadez, Jana Kholova, Mainassara Zaman-Allah and Nouhoun Belko

12. Published 7 May 2014
Variation in mesophyll conductance among Australian wheat genotypes

Eisrat Jahan, Jeffrey S. Amthor, Graham D. Farquhar, Richard Trethowan and Margaret M. Barbour

13. Published 15 November 2013
Overexpression of miR160 affects root growth and nitrogen-fixing nodule number in Medicago truncatula

Pilar Bustos-Sanmamed, Guohong Mao, Ying Deng, Morgane Elouet, Ghazanfar Abbas Khan, Jérémie Bazin, Marie Turner, Senthil Subramanian, Oliver Yu, Martin Crespi and Christine Lelandais-Brière

14. Published 12 December 2013
Root growth and N dynamics in response to multi-year experimental warming, summer drought and elevated CO2 in a mixed heathland-grass ecosystem

M. F. Arndal, I. K. Schmidt, J. Kongstad, C. Beier and A. Michelsen

15. Published 15 November 2013
VIGS technology: an attractive tool for functional genomics studies in legumes

Stéphanie Pflieger, Manon M. S. Richard, Sophie Blanchet, Chouaib Meziadi and Valérie Geffroy

16. Published 8 April 2014
Soil water availability influences the temperature response of photosynthesis and respiration in a grass and a woody shrub

Tony Joseph, David Whitehead and Matthew H. Turnbull

17. Published 8 April 2014
Drought resistance and soil water extraction of a perennial C4 grass: contributions of root and rhizome traits

Yi Zhou, Christopher J. Lambrides and Shu Fukai

18. Published 11 February 2014
PrometheusWiki Gold Leaf Protocol: gas exchange using LI-COR 6400

John R. Evans and Louis S. Santiago

19. Published 30 September 2014
Mucilage exudation facilitates root water uptake in dry soils

Mutez A. Ahmed, Eva Kroener, Maire Holz, Mohsen Zarebanadkouki and Andrea Carminati

20. Published 14 March 2014
Differential physiological responses of different rice (Oryza sativa) cultivars to elevated night temperature during vegetative growth

Ulrike Glaubitz, Xia Li, Karin I. Köhl, Joost T. van Dongen, Dirk K. Hincha and Ellen Zuther


      
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