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International Journal of Wildland Fire
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International Journal of Wildland Fire welcomes papers on basic and applied aspects of wildland fire science including, but not confined to, ecological impact, modelling fire and its effects, and management of fire. More

Editors in Chief: Susan G. Conard and Stefan Doerr


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Published online 22 June 2016
Analysis of forest fire fatalities in Greece: 1977–2013 
Michalis Diakakis, Gavriil Xanthopoulos and Leontios Gregos

Protection of people from forest fires demands a thorough understanding of the dangerous situations faced during emergencies. This study sheds light on these situations by analysing the circumstances under which 208 forest fire-related deaths occurred in Greece. Findings identified specific factors and conditions that can increase the risk of fatalities during a forest fire in the country.

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Published online 20 June 2016
Dispersal-limited detritivores in fire-prone environments: persistence and population structure of terrestrial amphipods (Talitridae) 
L. Menz, H. Gibb and N. P. Murphy

Knowledge of invertebrate responses to fire is often hampered by taxonomic resolution. We used DNA to examine the impact of fire severity on terrestrial amphipod assemblages. The diversity of these important detritivores has been underestimated, but populations of common species have recovered 3 years following severe bushfire, despite limited dispersal capabilities.

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    | Supplementary Material (50 KB)
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Published online 16 June 2016
Fire spread in chaparral – a comparison of laboratory data and model predictions in burning live fuels 
David R. Weise, Eunmo Koo, Xiangyang Zhou, Shankar Mahalingam, Frédéric Morandini and Jacques-Henri Balbi

Prescribed burning in chaparral occurs under marginal burning conditions that are often difficult to predict. This paper compares the ability of several models to predict fire spread success and fire rate of spread with observed rate of spread from laboratory fires in fuel beds composed of only live chaparral shrubs.

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Published online 02 June 2016
Projecting wildfire area burned in the south-eastern United States, 2011–60 
Jeffrey P. Prestemon, Uma Shankar, Aijun Xiu, K. Talgo, D. Yang, Ernest Dixon, Donald McKenzie and Karen L. Abt

Climate and society are changing and these changes are likely to affect factors important to overall wildfire activity, including aggregate fuels distributions, ignition sources and rates, fire spread and suppression. We evaluated how these changes, occurring from 2011 to 2060, could affect wildfire area burned in the south-eastern US.

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    | Supplementary Material (6.2 MB)
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Published online 31 May 2016
Modelling the spatial patterns of ignition causes and fire regime features in southern France: implications for fire prevention policy 
Thomas Curt, Thibaut Fréjaville and Sébastien Lahaye

The causes of wildfire ignitions vary regionally and seasonally in southern France. Ignitions resulting from negligence and accidents are more frequent in urban areas and during summer, intentional ignitions are more frequent in pastures and ignitions resulting from professional negligence are more frequent in hinterlands from autumn to spring.

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    | Supplementary Material (647 KB)
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Published online 25 May 2016
Fire effects on pollination in a sexually deceptive orchid 
Julian Brown, Alan York and Fiona Christie

We observed pollinator visitation to flowers of sexually deceptive Caladenia tentaculata and related it to post-fire age class at multiple spatial scales. Visitation was highest when the sample location was recently burnt and there was long-unburnt vegetation in the surrounding landscape.

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Published online 16 May 2016
Predicting post-fire canopy mortality in the boreal forest from dNBR derived from time series of Landsat data 
Ignacio San-Miguel, David W. Andison, Nicholas C. Coops and Gregory J. M. Rickbeil

We assessed the degree to which Landsat-derived spectral indices and additional ancillary data can be used to classify canopy mortality when compared with aerial-photographic interpretation for 10 fires in Alberta and Saskatchewan, Canada. The results suggest that models based on three and two mortality classes can be used to map historical fire patterns in a cost-effective manner to support management decisions.

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Published online 16 May 2016
Shifting fire regimes from late to early dry-season fires to abate greenhouse emissions does not completely equate with terrestrial vertebrate biodiversity co-benefits on Cape York Peninsula, Australia 
Justin J. Perry, Eric P. Vanderduys and Alex S. Kutt

Fire regimes that reduce greenhouse gas emissions provide economic benefit to land owners through carbon markets and quantifying ancillary biodiversity benefit will provide added value through voluntary markets. This study finds that more research is required to quantify the co-benefits for terrestrial fauna in northern Australia.

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Published online 11 May 2016
Modelling spatiotemporal variability in fires in semiarid savannas: a satellite-based assessment around Africa 
Niti B. Mishra, Kumar P. Mainali and Kelley A. Crews

We show various drivers impact spatiotemporal differences in burned area and fire frequency in African savanna. Precipitation amount positively influenced the burned area in the following dry season. At finer spatial scales, human-made structures such as boreholes and fences strongly affect heterogeneity in fire event distribution. Vegetation morphology and land use are significant predictors of fire events. Use of spatial models that account for spatial autocorrelation dramatically improve model fit to data.

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Published online 11 May 2016
The formation of charcoal reflectance and its potential use in post-fire assessments 
Claire M. Belcher and Victoria A. Hudspith

When studied using reflectance microscopy, charcoals are capable of reflecting variable amounts of light from their surface. We show that the most reflective charcoals form as fires transition from flaming to smouldering. Reflectance may therefore have the potential to provide quantitative information relating to surface heating following wildfire events.

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   | Supplementary Material (157 KB)  |        Open Access Article
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Published online 11 May 2016
Fine woody fuel particle diameters for improved planar intersect fuel loading estimates in Southern Rocky Mountain ponderosa pine forests 
Emma Vakili, Chad M. Hoffman and Robert E. Keane

This study provides mean squared diameter estimates for fine woody fuels in ponderosa pine forests of Colorado and New Mexico under different management scenarios for use in fuel load estimation with the planar intersect technique. Analysis showed that similarly accurate estimates could be produced from as few as 35 samples.

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Published online 05 April 2016
Targeting forest management through fire and erosion modelling 
William J. Elliot, Mary Ellen Miller and Nic Enstice

Fire intensity and soil erosion models were used on a 1500-km2 forested watershed to aid in targeting areas that would most benefit from forest management to reduce fire risk. Soil erosion following wildfire was estimated to be reduced by 56 percent if areas most susceptible to fire and erosion were thinned.

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Published online 24 March 2016
Firestick Ecology: Fairdinkum Science in Plain English 
Reviewed by Neil Burrows
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Published online 02 February 2016
How drought-induced forest die-off alters microclimate and increases fuel loadings and fire potentials 
Katinka X. Ruthrof, Joseph B. Fontaine, George Matusick, David D. Breshears, Darin J. Law, Sarah Powell and Giles Hardy

Drought-induced forest die-offs are expected to change fuels and microclimate and likely influence fire behaviour. Fuel loading and microclimate measurements following die-off in south-western Australia showed that die-off plots had 20% higher quantities of 1-h fuels and elevated temperature and wind, which when combined, predicted a 30% higher rate of fire spread.

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Published online 02 February 2016
Regional aspects of modelling burned areas in Europe 
Andrey Krasovskii, Nikolay Khabarov, Mirco Migliavacca, Florian Kraxner and Michael Obersteiner

This paper presents a series of improvements to the quantitative modelling of burned areas in Europe under historical climate. Our analysis is carried out for 2000–2008 for 17 European countries. The annual burned areas modelled by an improved version of the Standalone Fire Model (SFM) are in good agreement with historical observations.

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Published online 01 October 2015
Lack of soil seedbank change with time since fire: relevance to seed supply after prescribed burns 
Matthew P. Chick, Janet S. Cohn, Craig R. Nitschke and Alan York

Environmental variability, geographic variability and time since disturbance influence plant diversity in soil seedbanks. Knowledge around the relative importance of each of these factors is lacking. This research examined the influence of environmental, geographical and temporal variability on species richness and composition in the soil seedbank within a fire-prone heathy-woodland.

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    | Supplementary Material (269 KB)
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Published online 14 September 2015
Too much, too soon? A review of the effects of increasing wildfire frequency on tree mortality and regeneration in temperate eucalypt forests 
Thomas A. Fairman, Craig R. Nitschke and Lauren T. Bennett

We use south-eastern Australia as a case study to review effects of increasingly frequent and severe wildfires on tree mortality and regeneration in temperate eucalypt forests. We propose conceptual models to articulate these changes and highlight knowledge gaps in our understanding of alternative stable states in these forests.

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blank image International Journal of Wildland Fire
Volume 25 Number 6 2016

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Assessing the effect of a fuel break network to reduce burnt area and wildfire risk transmission 
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Tiago M. Oliveira , Ana M. G. Barros , Alan A. Ager and Paulo M. Fernandes
pp. 619-632

We modelled the effect of fuel break networks (FBNs) on burned area and fire transmission under three treatment scenarios. We found that burned area was reduced up to 17% and large-fire incidence decreased. We illustrate how FBNs contribute to the portfolio of risk management and how this approach can better inform the risk governance process.

    | Supplementary Material (532 KB)

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Forest fuels and potential fire behaviour 12 years after variable-retention harvest in lodgepole pine 
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Justin S. Crotteau , Christopher R. Keyes , Elaine K. Sutherland , David K. Wright and Joel M. Egan
pp. 633-645

Variable-retention harvesting can be used to create structurally complex, multi-aged lodgepole pine stands, promoting resilience to disturbances. Twelve years post-harvest, treated stands had high variability in potential fire behaviour. Although treatments increased modelled fireline intensity relative to controls, resultant overstorey structures increased thresholds necessary for crown fire propagation.


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Effects of post-fire logging on fuel dynamics in a mixed-conifer forest, Oregon, USA: a 10-year assessment 
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John L. Campbell , Daniel C. Donato and Joseph B. Fontaine
pp. 646-656

Logging following high-severity wildfire in Oregon initially led to elevated surface fuel loads and associated fire hazard compared with unlogged burned forests. By 10 years post-fire, these differences had begun to attenuate as standing fire-killed trees fragmented and live shrubs saturated the surface layer in both logged and unlogged sites.


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Concurrent and antecedent soil moisture relate positively or negatively to probability of large wildfires depending on season 
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Erik S. Krueger , Tyson E. Ochsner , J. D. Carlson , David M. Engle , Dirac Twidwell and Samuel D. Fuhlendorf
pp. 657-668

Large wildfires in Oklahoma, USA were associated with low concurrent soil moisture in both the growing and dormant seasons, but high soil moisture during the growing season also increased wildfire probability in subsequent dormant seasons. Therefore, both wet and dry growing seasons increased wildfire probability, but at different times and for different reasons.


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Burned area prediction with semiparametric models 
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Miguel Boubeta , María José Lombardía , Wenceslao González-Manteiga and Manuel Francisco Marey-Pérez
pp. 669-678

Semiparametric models provide a tool to predict the burned area over a particular time. The predictions obtained are competitive. The two bootstrap prediction intervals given are computationally fast. The methodology used can be applied to other hazard risks.


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Models for predicting fire ignition probability in graminoids from boreo–temperate moorland ecosystems 
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Victor M. Santana and Rob H. Marrs
pp. 679-684

There is an increase in dead fuel of graminoids after winter in boreo–temperate ecosystems. This dead fuel and its low moisture content plays an important role in determining initial fire ignition. Here, we assess the probability of ignition as a function of the dead fuel moisture content, which assists in improving fire predictions.

    | Supplementary Material (142 KB)

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Temporal dependence of burn severity assessment in Siberian larch (Larix sibirica) forest of northern Mongolia using remotely sensed data 
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Thuan Chu , Xulin Guo and Kazuo Takeda
pp. 685-698

We assessed burn severity in Siberian larch forest for different lag times, using Landsat-based indices. Assessment accuracy decreased with increasing lag time. The dNBR was the best predictor of burn severity for 7 years post-fire. After larch regeneration became established, the dNDMI became the best predictor.


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Resilience of European beech forests (Fagus sylvatica L.) after fire in a global change context 
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Janet Maringer , Marco Conedera , Davide Ascoli , Dirk R. Schmatz and Thomas Wohlgemuth
pp. 699-710

Increasing risk of forest fires due to climate change is expected to limit the spread of European beech forests in the future. A regeneration assessment in 36 burnt beech stands at the Southern Alps showed, however, high resilience of this species. This demonstrates its stimulation, not limitation, by single forest fires.

    | Supplementary Material (37 KB)

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Flammable Mexico 
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Juli G. Pausas
pp. 711-713

Mexico is a highly diverse country and part of its diversity can only be understood by considering the high frequency of fires. A new fire science book highlights the importance of considering fire in understanding the ecology and management of Mexican ecosystems.

   | Book Review (117 KB)

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These articles have been peer reviewed and accepted for publication. They are still in production and have not been edited, so may differ from the final published form.

    WF15171  Accepted 21 June 2016
    The role of weather, past fire and topography in crown fire occurrence in eastern Australia
    Michael Storey, Owen Price, Elizabeth Tasker

    WF15081  Accepted 10 June 2016
    Predicting wildfire spread and behavior in Mediterranean landscapes
    Michele Salis, Bachisio Arca, Fermin Alcasena, Margarita Arianoutsou, Valentina Bacciu, Pierpaolo Duce, Beatriz Duguy, Nikos Koutsias, Giorgos Mallinis, Ioannis Mitsopoulos, Jose Moreno, José Perez, Itziar Rodriguez, Fotios Xystrakis, Gonzalo Zavala, Donatella Spano

    WF15026  Accepted 07 June 2016
    High severity fire reduces early successional boreal larch forest aboveground productivity by shifting stand density in northeastern China
    Wenhua Cai, Jian Yang

    WF15228  Accepted 26 May 2016
    Positive effects of fire on birds may appear only under narrow combinations of fire severity and time-since-fire
    Richard (Dick) Hutto, David Patterson

    WF16013  Accepted 24 May 2016
    Identifying key climate and environmental factors affecting rates of post-fire big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) recovery in the northern Columbia Basin (USA)
    Doug Shinneman, Susan McIlroy

    WF15211  Accepted 24 May 2016
    Fire regime from 1973 to 2011 in northwestern Patagonia grasslands
    Facundo Oddi, Luciana Ghermandi

    WF15214  Accepted 20 May 2016
    The impact of aging on laboratory fire behaviour in masticated shrub fuelbeds of California and Oregon
    Jesse Kreye, Morgan Varner, Jeffrey Kane, Eric Knapp, Warren Reed

    WF15216  Accepted 17 May 2016
    Modelling fire probability in the Brazilian Amazon using the Maximum Entropy method
    Marisa Fonseca, Luiz Eduardo Aragão, André Lima, Liana Anderson, Yosio Shimabukuro, Egidio Arai

    WF16036  Accepted 17 May 2016
    Evaluation of the predictive capacity of dead fuel moisture models for Eastern Australia grasslands
    Miguel Cruz, Susan Kidnie, Stuart Matthews, Richard Hurley, Alen Slijepcevic, David Nichols, Jim Gould

    WF15194  Accepted 17 May 2016
    Response of soil seed bank to a prescribed burning in a subtropical pine-oak forest
    Susana Zuloaga-Aguilar, Alma Orozco-Segovia, Oscar Briones, Enrique Jardel

    WF15181  Accepted 06 May 2016
    Traditional fire knowledge system in a subtropical montane socio-ecosystem in a natural protected area
    Héctor Martínez-Torres, Alicia Castillo-Álvarez, M. Isabel Ramírez-Ramírez, Diego Pérez-Salicrup

    WF15191  Accepted 28 April 2016
    A power series formulation for two-dimensional wildfire shapes
    James Hilton, Claire Miller, Andrew Sullivan

    WF15109  Accepted 18 March 2016
    Places where wildfire potential and social vulnerability coincide in the coterminous United States
    Gabriel Wigtil, Roger Hammer, Jeffrey Kline, Miranda Mockrin, Susan Stewart, Daniel Roper, Volker Radeloff

    WF13206  Accepted 20 March 2014
    An accuracy assessment of the MTBS burned area product for shrub-steppe fires in the northern Great Basin, United States
    Aaron Sparks, Luigi Boschetti, Wade Tinkham, Alistair Smith, Karen Lannom, Beth Newingham


The Most Read ranking is based on the number of downloads from the CSIRO PUBLISHING website of articles published in the previous 12 months. Usage statistics are updated daily.

Rank Paper Details
1. Published 15 October 2015
Climate change presents increased potential for very large fires in the contiguous United States

R. Barbero, J. T. Abatzoglou, N. K. Larkin, C. A. Kolden and B. Stocks

2. Published 1 December 2015
Wildfire smoke and public health risk

Fabienne Reisen, Sandra M. Duran, Mike Flannigan, Catherine Elliott and Karen Rideout

3. Published 4 June 2015
A generic, empirical-based model for predicting rate of fire spread in shrublands

Wendy R. Anderson, Miguel G. Cruz, Paulo M. Fernandes, Lachlan McCaw, Jose Antonio Vega, Ross A. Bradstock, Liam Fogarty, Jim Gould, Greg McCarthy, Jon B. Marsden-Smedley, Stuart Matthews, Greg Mattingley, H. Grant Pearce and Brian W. van Wilgen

4. Published 28 August 2015
Operational wildfire suppression modelling: a review evaluating development, state of the art and future directions

Thomas J. Duff and Kevin G. Tolhurst

5. Published 1 December 2015
Spatial patterns of wildfire ignitions in south-eastern Australia

Kathryn M. Collins, Owen F. Price and Trent D. Penman

6. Published 27 July 2015
An empirical wildfire risk analysis: the probability of a fire spreading to the urban interface in Sydney, Australia

Owen Price, Rittick Borah, Ross Bradstock and Trent Penman

7. Published 27 July 2015
Small mammals decline with increasing fire extent in northern Australia: evidence from long-term monitoring in Kakadu National Park

Michael J. Lawes, Brett P. Murphy, Alaric Fisher, John C. Z. Woinarski, Andrew C. Edwards and Jeremy Russell-Smith

8. Published 4 April 2016
Wildfire survival plans in theory and practice

Christine Eriksen, Trent Penman, Bronwyn Horsey and Ross Bradstock

9. Too much, too soon? A review of the effects of increasing wildfire frequency on tree mortality and regeneration in temperate eucalypt forests

Thomas A. Fairman, Craig R. Nitschke and Lauren T. Bennett

10. Published 15 October 2015
Limitations and utilisation of Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity products for assessing wildfire severity in the USA

Crystal A. Kolden, Alistair M. S. Smith and John T. Abatzoglou

11. Published 4 April 2016
1984–2010 trends in fire burn severity and area for the conterminous US

Joshua J. Picotte, Birgit Peterson, Gretchen Meier and Stephen M. Howard

12. Published 27 July 2015
Bird diversity increases after patchy prescribed fire: implications from a before–after control–impact study

Holly Sitters, Julian Di Stefano, Fiona J. Christie, Paul Sunnucks and Alan York

13. Published 1 December 2015
Long-distance spotting potential of bark strips of a ribbon gum (Eucalyptus viminalis)

James Hall, Peter F. Ellis, Geoffrey J. Cary, Glenys Bishop and Andrew L. Sullivan

14. Published 3 March 2016
Relations between soil hydraulic properties and burn severity

John A. Moody, Brian A. Ebel, Petter Nyman, Deborah A. Martin, Cathelijne Stoof and Randy McKinley

15. Published 4 February 2016
Wildland fire limits subsequent fire occurrence

Sean A. Parks, Carol Miller, Lisa M. Holsinger, L. Scott Baggett and Benjamin J. Bird

16. Published 4 June 2015
Words matter: radio misunderstandings in wildland firefighting

Elena Gabor

17. Published 7 January 2016
Measurements relating fire radiative energy density and surface fuel consumption – RxCADRE 2011 and 2012

Andrew T. Hudak, Matthew B. Dickinson, Benjamin C. Bright, Robert L. Kremens, E. Louise Loudermilk, Joseph J. O'Brien, Benjamin S. Hornsby and Roger D. Ottmar

18. Published 7 January 2016
High-resolution infrared thermography for capturing wildland fire behaviour: RxCADRE 2012

Joseph J. O'Brien, E. Louise Loudermilk, Benjamin Hornsby, Andrew T. Hudak, Benjamin C. Bright, Matthew B. Dickinson, J. Kevin Hiers, Casey Teske and Roger D. Ottmar

19. Published 15 October 2015
Sources and implications of bias and uncertainty in a century of US wildfire activity data

Karen C. Short

20. Published 4 May 2016
Structure-level fuel load assessment in the wildland–urban interface: a fusion of airborne laser scanning and spectral remote-sensing methodologies

Nicholas S. Skowronski, Scott Haag, Jim Trimble, Kenneth L. Clark, Michael R. Gallagher and Richard G. Lathrop

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