CSIRO Publishing blank image blank image blank image blank imageBooksblank image blank image blank image blank imageJournalsblank image blank image blank image blank imageAbout Usblank image blank image blank image blank imageShopping Cartblank image blank image blank image You are here: Journals > Marine & Freshwater Research   
Marine & Freshwater Research
Journal Banner
  Advances in the Aquatic Sciences
blank image Search
blank image blank image
blank image
  Advanced Search

Journal Home
About the Journal
Editorial Structure
Online Early
Current Issue
Just Accepted
All Issues
Special Issues
Research Fronts
Virtual Issues
Sample Issue
For Authors
General Information
Submit Article
Author Instructions
Open Access
For Referees
General Information
Review an Article
Referee Guidelines
For Subscribers
Subscription Prices
Customer Service
Print Publication Dates
Library Recommendation

blue arrow e-Alerts
blank image
Subscribe to our Email Alert or RSS feeds for the latest journal papers.

red arrow Connect with us
blank image
facebook twitter logo LinkedIn


Article << Previous     |     Next >>   Contents Vol 65(6)

Optimising an integrated pest-management strategy for a spatially structured population of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) using meta-population modelling

Paul Brown A B D and Dean Gilligan C

A Fisheries Management and Science Branch, Fisheries Victoria, Department of Environment and Primary Industries. PO Box 114, Queenscliff, Vic. 3225, Australia.
B Present address: The Murray–Darling Freshwater Research Centre and La Trobe University, PO Box 3428, Mildura, Vic. 3501, Australia.
C NSW Department of Primary Industries – Fisheries NSW, Level 1, Suite 8, Braysyth Building, Corner of Beach Road and Orient Street, Batemans Bay, NSW 2536, Australia.
D Corresponding author. Email: paul.brown@latrobe.edu.au

Marine and Freshwater Research 65(6) 538-550 http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/MF13117
Submitted: 8 May 2013  Accepted: 1 October 2013   Published: 7 May 2014

PDF (578 KB) $25
 Export Citation

To evaluate strategies within a carp-control plan, we developed a meta-population model of the geographic arrangement, biological connections and ‘unfished’ stock structure of the pest population of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in a large river catchment. The model was tuned to recent observations of biomass. Published data were used to estimate sampling biases and yield from available carp-control tools. We simulated proposed carp-removal activities and also the potential effects of biological-control options; cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CHV-3) and daughterless-carp gene technology. Outputs compared the population abundance before carp control (before 2009) and after a ~70-year period of sustained management. Models suggest that the proposed levels of carp removal may reduce biomass by ~50%. Although substantial, this control level may not be sufficient to reduce carp biomass densities below thresholds associated with ecological damage. In contrast, a CHV-3 bio-control program has potential to reduce carp biomass densities to, or exceeding, target levels, if mortality rates exceed 30% and broad-scale outbreaks occur in at least 40% of years, despite the likely development of resistance. A synergistic bio-control program using CHV-3, followed by a gene technology-based sex-ratio distortion program, is potentially the most effective strategy for reducing carp biomass by over 90% in the long term.

Additional keywords: Australia, CarpSim, IPM, Lachlan River, Murray–Darling River basin, pest fish.


Arlinghaus, R., and Mehner, T. (2003). Socioeconomic characterisation of specialised common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) anglers in Germany and implications for inland fisheries management and eutrophication control. Fisheries Research 61, 19–33.
CrossRef |

Bajer, P., and Sorensen, P. (2010). Recruitment and abundance of an invasive fish, the common carp, is driven by its propensity to invade and reproduce in basins that experience winter-time hypoxia in interconnected lakes. Biological Invasions 12, 1101–1112.
CrossRef |

Bajer, P., Sullivan, G., and Sorensen, P. W. (2009). Effects of a rapidly increasing population of common carp on vegetative cover and waterfowl in a recently restored midwestern shallow lake. Hydrobiologia 632, 235–245.
CrossRef |

Bajer, P. G., Chizinski, C. J., and Sorensen, P. W. (2011). Using the Judas technique to locate and remove wintertime aggregations of invasive common carp. Fisheries Management and Ecology 18, 497–505.
CrossRef |

Barrett, J. (2004). Introducing the Murray–Darling basin native fish strategy and initial steps towards demonstration reaches. Ecological Management & Restoration 5, 15–23.
CrossRef |

Bax, N. J., and Thresher, R. E. (2009). Ecological, behavioral, and genetic factors influencing the recombinant control of invasive pests. Ecological Applications 19, 873–888.
CrossRef | PubMed |

Beverton, R. J. H., and Holt, S. J. (1957). ‘On the Dynamics of Exploited Fish Populations. Fisheries Investment Series 2. Vol. 19.’ (UK Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries: London.)

Brown, P. (2010). ‘Sustainability of Recreational Fisheries for Murray Cod: Creel Surveys on the Murray Goulburn, Ovens and Loddon Rivers 2006–2008.’ (Fisheries Revenue Allocation Committee: Melbourne.)

Brown, P., and Robertson, S. (2007). ‘CarpSim.’ Available at http://www.dpi.vic.gov.au/dpi/vro/vrosite.nsf/pages/pest_animals_carpsim [accessed 27 October 2010].

Brown, P., and Walker, T. I. (2004). CARPSIM: stochastic simulation modelling of wild carp. (Cyprinus carpio L.) population dynamics, with applications to pest control. Ecological Modelling 176, 83–97.
CrossRef |

Brown, P., Sivakumaran, K. P., Stoessel, D., and Giles, A. (2005). Population biology of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in the mid-Murray River and Barmah Forest Wetlands, Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research 56, 1151–1164.
CrossRef |

Bureau of Meteorology (2010). ‘Australian Hydrological Geospatial Fabric (Geofabric) Version 1.0.’ Available at http://www.bom.gov.au/water/geofabric/ [accessed 29 August 2011].

Casal, C. M. V. (2006). Global documentation of fish introductions: the growing crisis and recommendations for action. Biological Invasions 8, 3–11.
CrossRef |

Chick, J. H., and Pegg, M. A. (2001). Invasive carp in the Mississippi River Basin. Science 292, 2250–2251.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

DAFF (2010). ‘Australian Pest Animal Management Program (APAMP).’ Available at http://www.daff.gov.au/brs/land/feral-animals/apamp [accessed 27 October 2010].

Davis, S. A., Catchpole, E. A., and Pech, R. P. (1999). Models for the introgression of a transgene into a wild population within a stochastic environment, with applications to pest control. Ecological Modelling 119, 267–275.
CrossRef |

Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities. (2010). ‘Australian Wetlands Database.’ Available at http://www.environment.gov.au/water/topics/wetlands/database/index.html [accessed 29 August 2011].

Dishon, A., Perelberg, A., Bishara-Shieban, J., Ilouze, M., Davidovich, M., Werker, S., and Kotler, M. (2005). Detection of carp interstitial nephritis and gill necrosis virus in fish droppings. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 71, 7285–7291.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

   (a) Driver, P. D., Stuart, I., Closs, G. P., and Harris, J. (2006). Carp (Cyprinus carpio L), impacts and recruitment in Australian wetlands: strategies for management. Paper presented at the Native fish and wetlands in the Murray–Darling Basin. (Ed. B. Phillips.) Action plan, knowledge gaps and supporting papers, Murray–Darling Basin Commission, Canberra ACT.

Elkins, A., Barrow, R., and Rochfort, S. (2009). Carp chemical sensing and the potential of natural environmental attractants for control of carp: a review. Environmental Chemistry 6, 357–368.
CrossRef | CAS |

Fisheries.co.uk (2010). ‘Anglers Put on Alert over Killer Carp Disease – Use Dry Nets.’ Available at http://www.fisheries.co.uk/news/news/khv.htm [accessed 28 October 2010].

Fletcher, R. F., Morison, A. K., and Hume, D. J. (1985). Effects of carp Cyprinus carpio L. on communities of aquatic vegetation and turbidity of waterbodies in the lower Goulburn River basin. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 36, 311–327.
CrossRef |

Forsyth, D. M., Koehn, J. D., MacKenzie, D. I., and Stuart, I. G. (2013). Population dynamics of invading freshwater fish: common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in the Murray–Darling Basin, Australia. Biological Invasions 15, 341–354.
CrossRef |

French, J., Wilcox, D., and Jerrine Nichols, S. (1999). Passing of northern pike and common carp through experimental barriers designed for use in wetland restoration. Wetlands 19, 883–888.
CrossRef |

Gehrke, P., Brown, P., Schiller, C. B., Moffatt, D., and Bruce, A. M. (1995). River regulation and fish communities in the Murray–Darling River system, Australia. Regulated Rivers: Research and Management 11, 363–375.
CrossRef |

Gehrke, P. C., Schiller, C. B., and Brown, P. (1999). Native fish and river flows: the Paroo perspective. In ‘A Free Flowing River: the Ecology of the Paroo River’. (Ed. R. T. Kingsford.) pp. 201–222. (NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service: Sydney.)

Gilligan, D. (2012). ‘Case Study: Carp Spawning Hotspots.’ Case study on the identification of carp spawning and recruitment hotspots in the Murray–Darling Basin. Available at http://www.feral.org.au/pestsmart/carp/ [accessed 30 September 2013].

Gilligan, D., Jess, L., McLean, G., Asmus, M., Wooden, I., Hartwell, D., McGregor, C., Stuart, I., Vey, A., Jeffries, M., Lewis, B., and Bell, K. (2010). Identifying and implementing targeted carp control options for the Lower Lachlan catchment. Fisheries Final Report Series No. 118, Industry & Investment NSW, Sydney.

Haas, K., Kãhler, U., Diehl, S., Kãhler, P., Dietrich, S., Holler, S., Jaensch, A., Niedermaier, M., and Vilsmeier, J. (2007). Influence of fish on habitat choice of water birds: a whole system experiment. Ecology 88, 2915–2925.
CrossRef | PubMed |

Haenen, O. L. M., Way, K., Bergmann, S. M., and Ariel, E. (2004). The emergence of koi herpesvirus and its significance to European aquaculture. Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathologists 24, 293–306.

Hedrick, R. P., Gilad, O., Yun, S., Spangenberg, J. V., Marty, G. D., Nordhausen, R. W., Kebus, M. J., Bercovier, H., and Eldar, A. (2000). A herpesvirus associated with mass mortality of juvenile and adult koi, a strain of common carp. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 12, 44–57.
CrossRef |

Hilborn, R., and Walters, C. (1992). ‘Quantitative Fisheries Stock Assessment: Choice, Dynamics and Uncertainty.’ (Chapman & Hall: London.)

Hillyard, K. A., Smith, B. B., Conallin, A. J., and Gillanders, B. M. (2010). Optimising exclusion screens to control exotic carp in an Australian lowland river. Marine and Freshwater Research 61, 418–429.
CrossRef | CAS |

Hobday, A. J., and Lough, J. M. (2009). Projected climate change in Australian marine and freshwater environments. Marine and Freshwater Research 62, 1000–1014.
CrossRef |

Humphries, P., Brown, P., Douglas, J., Pickworth, A., Strongman, R., Hall, K., and Serafini, L. (2008). Flow-related patterns in abundance and composition of the fish fauna of a degraded Australian lowland river. Freshwater Biology 53, 789–813.
CrossRef | CAS |

Jerde, C. L., Chadderton, W. L., Mahon, A. R., Renshaw, M. A., Corush, J., Budny, M. L., Mysorekar, S., and Lodge, D. M. (2013). Detection of Asian carp DNA as part of a Great Lakes basin-wide surveillance program. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences/Journal Canadien des Sciences Halieutiques et Aquatiques 70, 522–526.
| CAS |

Koehn, J. D., and MacKenzie, R. F. (2004). Priority management actions for alien freshwater fish species in Australia. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 38, 457–472.
CrossRef |

Koehn, J., Brumley, A., and Gehrke, P. C. (2000). ‘Managing the Impacts of Carp.’ (Bureau of Resource Sciences: Canberra.)

Kogan, M. (1998). Integrated pest management: historical perspectives and contemporary developments. Annual Review of Entomology 43, 243–270.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Lapidge, K. L. (Ed.) (2003). ‘Proceedings of the National Carp Control Workshop, March 2003.’ (Cooperative Research Centre for Pest Animal Control: Canberra.)

Lim, H., and Sorensen, P. W. (2010). ‘Making and Using Female Sex Pheromone Implants which Attract Mature Male Common Carp.’ (Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre: Canberra.)

Lin, H. R., and Peter, R. E. (1991). Aquaculture. In ‘Cyprinid Fishes: Systematics, Biology and Exploitation’. (Eds I. J. Winfield and J. S. Nelson.) pp. 590–617. (Chapman Hall: London.)

Lorenzen, K. (1996). The relationship between body weight and natural mortality in fish: a comparison of natural ecosystems and aquaculture. Journal of Fish Biology 49, 627–642.
CrossRef |

Lowe, S. J., Browne, M., and Boudjelas, S. (2000). ‘100 of the World’s Worst Invasive Alien Species.’ (IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG): Auckland, New Zealand.)

Matsuzaki, S., Usio, N., Takamura, N., and Washitani, I. (2009). Contrasting impacts of invasive engineers on freshwater ecosystems: an experiment and meta-analysis. Oecologia 158, 673–686.
CrossRef | PubMed |

McColl, K. A., Sunarto, A., Williams, L. M., and Crane, M. S. (2007). Koi herpes virus: dreaded pathogen or white knight. Aquaculture Health International 9, 4–6.

McColl, K. A., Sunarto, A., Williams, L. M., Brown, P., Gilligan, D., Bell, K., East, I., and Crane, M. S. (2011). Koi herpesvirus (KHV): its potential as a biological control agent for carp in Australia. In ‘Proceedings of the 15th Australasian Vertebrate Pest Conference, Sydney’. (Eds G. Saunders and C. Lane.) p. 119. Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre and the NSW Primary Industries.

McNeil, D., Stuart, I., and Thurtell, L. (2009). ‘Lake Brewster Water Efficiency Project: Fish Management and Operations Plan.’ (Lachlan Catchment Management Authority: Forbes, NSW.)

MDBC (2000). ‘National Management Strategy for Carp Control 2000–2005.’ (Murray–Darling Basin Commission: Canberra.)

Meijer, M. L., De Haan, M. W., Breukelaar, A. W., and Buiteveld, H. (1990). Is reduction of the benthivorous fish an important cause of high transparency following biomanipulation in shallow lakes? Hydrobiologia 200/201, 303–315.
CrossRef |

Miller, S. A., and Crowl, T. A. (2006). Effects of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) on macrophytes and invertebrate communities in a shallow lake. Freshwater Biology 51, 85–94.
CrossRef |

Morrongiello, J. R., Crook, D. A., King, A. J., Ramsey, D. L., and Brown, P. (2011). Impacts of drought and predicted effects of climate change on fish growth in temperate Australian lakes. Global Change Biology 17, 745–755.
CrossRef |

   (a) Moy, P. B., Polls, I., and Dettmers, J. M. (2011). The Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal aquatic nuisance species dispersal barrier. In ‘Invasive Asian Carps in North America’. (Ed. D. C. Chapman and H. M. Hoff.) pp. 127–137. (American Fisheries Society: Bethesda, MD.)

   (b) Norris, A., Hutchison, M., Chilcott, K., and Stewart, D. (2010). Comparing the effectiveness of carp removal techniques: an assessment of techniques suitable for local government and community groups. Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre, Canberra.

NSW DPI (2006). Reducing the impact of weirs on aquatic habitat – New South Wales detailed weir review. Lachlan CMA region. Report to the New South Wales Environmental Trust. NSW Department of Primary Industries, Flemington, Sydney.

Parkos, J. J., Santucci, V. J., and Wahl, D. H. (2003). Effects of adult common carp (Cyprinus carpio) on multiple trophic levels in shallow mesocosms. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 60, 182–192.
CrossRef |

Perelberg, A., Ronen, A., Hutoran, M., Smith, Y., and Kotler, M. (2005). Protection of cultured Cyprinus carpio against a lethal viral disease by an attenuated virus vaccine. Vaccine 23, 3396–3403.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Phelps, Q. E., Graeb, B. D. S., and Willis, D. W. (2008). Influence of the Moran effect on spatiotemporal synchrony in common carp recruitment. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 137, 1701–1708.
CrossRef |

Ricker, W. E. (1975). Computation and interpretation of biological statistics of fish populations. Bulletin of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 191, 29–73.

Roberts, J., and Tilzey, R. (1996). ‘Controlling Carp. Exploring the Options for Australia. Proceedings of a Workshop, 22–24 October 1996, Albury.’ (CSIRO Land and Water: Griffith, NSW.)

Roberts, J., Ebner, B., and Madden, J. (1997). A financial analysis of implementing selected carp control options. Consultancy Report 97/4. SIRO Land and Water, Griffith, NSW.

Saunders, G., Cooke, B., McColl, K., Shine, R., and Peacock, T. (2010). Modern approaches for the biological control of vertebrate pests: an Australian perspective. Biological Control 52, 288–295.
CrossRef |

Schleen, L., Christie, G., Heinrich, J., Bergstedt, R., Young, R., Morse, T., Lavis, D., Bills, T., Johnson, J., and Ebener, M. (2003). Development and implementation of an integrated program for control of sea lampreys in the St. Marys River. Journal of Great Lakes Research 29, 677–693.
CrossRef |

Settle, C., and Shogren, J. E. (2002). Modeling native-exotic species within Yellowstone Lake. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 84, 1323–1328.
CrossRef |

Shea, K. (1998). Management of populations in conservation, harvesting and control. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 13, 371–375.
CrossRef | CAS |

Shields, J. T. (1958). Experimental control of carp reproduction through water drawdowns in Fort Randall Reservoir, South Dakota. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 87, 23–33.
CrossRef |

Simberloff, D. (2003). How much information on population biology is needed to manage introduced species? Conservation Biology 17, 83–92.
CrossRef |

Sorensen, P. W., and Stacey, N. E. (2004). Brief review of fish pheromones and discussion of their possible uses in the control of non-indigenous teleost fishes. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 38, 399–417.
CrossRef | CAS |

Stein, J. L., Hutchison, M. F., and Stein, J. A. (2009). ‘Development of a Continent-wide Spatial Framework for the Ecohydrological Classification.’ (Australian National University: Canberra.)

Stuart, I., and Conallin, A. (2009). The Williams’ carp separation cage: new innovations and a commercial trial. In ‘Proceedings of the Murray–Darling Basin Authority Native Fish Forum 2009, 1–2 September 2009’. (Ed. J. Pritchard.) pp. 118–122. (Murray–Darling Basin Authority: Canberra.)

Stuart, I., and Jones, M. (2002). ‘Ecology and Management of Common Carp in the Barmah–Millewa Forest.’ (Arthur Rylah Institute for Environmental Research: Melbourne.)

Stuart, I. G., and Jones, M. J. (2006). Large, regulated forest floodplain is an ideal recruitment zone for non-native common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Marine and Freshwater Research 57, 337–347.
CrossRef |

Stuart, I. G., Williams, A., McKenzie, J., and Holt, T. (2006). Managing a migratory pest species: a selective trap for common carp. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 26, 888–893.
CrossRef |

Stuart, I. G., Zampatti, B. P., and Baumgartner, L. J. (2008). Can a low-gradient vertical-slot fishway provide passage for a lowland river fish community? Marine and Freshwater Research 59, 332–346.
CrossRef |

Summerfelt, R. C. (1999). Lake and reservoir management. In ‘Inland Fisheries Management in North America’., 2nd edn. (Eds C. C. Kohler and W. A. Hubert.) pp. 285–320. (American Fisheries Society: Bethesda, MD.)

Thresher, R. E. (1997). Physical removal as an option for the control of feral carp populations. In ‘Controlling Carp: Exploring Options for Australia’. (Eds J. Roberts and R. Tilzey.) pp. 58–73. (CSIRO Land and Water: Griffith, NSW.)

Thresher, R. (2008). Autocidal technology for the control of invasive fish. Fisheries 33, 114–121.
CrossRef |

Thwaites, L. A., and Smith, B. B. (2010). Design and installation of a novel wetland carp harvesting set-up at Lake Bonney, South Australia. SARDI Publication No. F2010/000295-1. SARDI Research Report Series No. 469. South Australian Research and Development Institute, Adelaide.

Thwaites, L. A., Smith, B. B., Decelis, M., Fleer, D., and Conallin, A. (2010). A novel push trap element to manage carp (Cyprinus carpio L.): a laboratory trial. Marine and Freshwater Research 61, 42–48.
CrossRef |

Trexler, J. C., Loftus, W. F., Jordan, F., Lorenz, J. J., Chick, J. H., and Kobza, R. M. (2000). Empirical assessment of fish introductions in a subtropical wetland: an evaluation of contrasting views. Biological Invasions 2, 265–277.
CrossRef |

Uchii, K., Matsui, K., Iida, T., and Kawabata, Z. (2009). Distribution of the introduced cyprinid herpesvirus 3 in a wild population of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. Journal of Fish Diseases 32, 857–864.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Uchii, K., Telschow, A., Minamoto, T., Yamanaka, H., Honjo, M. N., Matsui, K., and Kawabata, Z. (2011). Transmission dynamics of an emerging infectious disease in wildlife through host reproductive cycles. The ISME Journal 5, 244–251.
CrossRef | PubMed |

Verrill, D. D., and Berry, C. R. (1995). Effectiveness of an electrical barrier and lake drawdown for reducing common carp and bigmouth buffalo abundances. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 15, 137–141.
CrossRef |

Yamamoto, T., Kohmatsu, Y., and Yuma, M. (2006). Effects of summer drawdown on cyprinid fish larvae in Lake Biwa, Japan. Limnology 7, 75–82.
CrossRef |

Young, R. J., Jones, M. L., Bence, J. R., McDonald, R. B., Mullett, K. M., and Bergstedt, R. A. (2003). Estimating parasitic sea lamprey abundance in Lake Huron from heterogeneous data sources. Journal of Great Lakes Research 29, 214–225.
CrossRef |

Zambrano, L., Scheffer, M., and Martinez-Ramos, M. (2001). Catastrophic response of lakes to benthivorous fish introduction. Oikos 94, 344–350.
CrossRef |

Subscriber Login

Legal & Privacy | Contact Us | Help


© CSIRO 1996-2016