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  Ecology, Management and Conservation in Natural and Modified Habitats
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Wildlife Research covers all major aspects of the ecology, management and conservation of wild animals in natural and modified habitats. More

Editors: Stan Boutin, Andrea Taylor and Piran White


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Published online 28 September 2015
Space use by resident and transient coyotes in an urban–rural landscape mosaic 
Numi Mitchell, Michael W. Strohbach, Ralph Pratt, Wendy C. Finn and Eric G. Strauss

Coyotes in urban areas cause concern about human–wildlife conflicts. Space use by coyotes shows avoidance of humans, but also intraspecific competition between territorial resident coyotes and transient coyotes. Coexistence strategies can build on the tendency of coyotes to avoid humans, but must consider that transient coyotes show a tendency to occupy less desirable habitats including land cover with high human activity. Photograph by Dave Hornoff, The Conservation Agency.

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Published online 03 August 2015
The fancy city life: Kuhl's pipistrelle, Pipistrellus kuhlii, benefits from urbanisation 
Leonardo Ancillotto, Alessandra Tomassini and Danilo Russo

Understanding why some species benefit from urbanisation is central for appropriate wildlife management in human-dominated ecosystems. We found that the bat Pipistrellus kuhlii, increasing its range across Europe, obtains major reproductive advantages in urban areas. Although this fitness advantage may help explain the observed increase in geographical distribution, a positive effect of climate change on this warm-adapted bat cannot be ruled out. Photograph by Jens Rydell.

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Published online 03 August 2015
A cross-continental look at the patterns of avian species diversity and composition across an urbanisation gradient 
Barbara Clucas and John M. Marzluff

As the world becomes more urban, the importance of protecting wildlife in urban areas increases. We found that certain bird species do better in human-dominated areas, in particular those that use bird feeders. In order to conserve the greatest bird diversity in urban areas, urban planners and residents should provide a variety of habitats, supplemental natural foods and nesting places for birds. Photograph by Jacob Clifford.

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Published online 17 July 2015
Spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) concentrate around urban waste dumps across Tigray, northern Ethiopia 
Gidey Yirga, Herwig Leirs, Hans H. De Iongh, Tsehaye Asmelash, Kindeya Gebrehiwot, Jozef Deckers and Hans Bauer

The spotted hyena lives in remarkably close proximity to humans in the degraded and prey-depleted landscapes in Tigray, northern Ethiopia. We sought to provide an estimate of hyena abundance at garbage dumps and open agricultural areas. A very large hyena population persists in unprotected areas of Tigray, where they concentrate around urban waste dumps at night for scavengeable food resources. Photograph by Gidey Yirga.

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Published online 01 July 2015
Human–wildlife interactions in urban areas: a review of conflicts, benefits and opportunities 
Carl D. Soulsbury and Piran C. L. White

There is a pressing need to understand the type and nature of human–wildlife interactions within urban environments, to help manage, mitigate or even promote these interactions. There is an inherent bias in the literature towards quantifying and assessing human–wildlife conflict, whereas the benefit wildlife brings to urban areas is poorly characterised, but includes benefits such as ecosystem services and through to health and wellbeing. Research is critically needed to improve our understanding in this area, requiring wildlife biologists to work with other research disciplines.

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Published online 10 June 2015
Good neighbours: distribution of black-tufted marmoset (Callithrix penicillata) in an urban environment 
Bruno Teixeira, Andre Hirsch, Vinicius D. L. R. Goulart, Luiza Passos, Camila P. Teixeira, Philip James and Robert Young

The increasing growth of human urban populations leads to complex alterations of landscapes, the effects of which on wildlife are not fully understood. The way wildlife responds to such impacts is an important aspect to be considered in urban planning and management. We found that marmoset groups were found in green areas surrounded by highly populated areas; however, socioeconomical factors were significantly related to the occurrence of primate groups.

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Published online 11 March 2015
Boldness and urban dwelling in little ravens 
Aaron Vines and Alan Lill

To successfully inhabit cities, birds must be inherently able or learn to cope with high volumes of pedestrian and vehicular traffic. This study showed that urban little ravens were much more tolerant of approaches by pedestrians than their exurban counterparts, but urban individuals living in high- and low-volume traffic areas varied little in their tolerance of human proximity and a simulated vehicle sound. A high level of boldness appears to be important in facilitating urban-living by native little ravens and may be genetically and/or learning-based.

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Volume 42 Number 5 2015

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Assessing capture and tagging methods for brolgas, Antigone rubicunda (Gruidae) 
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Inka Veltheim , Felipe Chavez-Ramirez , Richard Hill and Simon Cook
pp. 373-381

Researchers have an ethical responsibility to use, and report on, methods that minimise death and injury to study animals. We developed safe capture and tagging methods for an Australian crane, the brolga, after published methods proved ineffective or posed a welfare risk for this species. Use of call playback and taxidermy decoys with our noose trap design can reduce capture-related deaths and injuries to brolgas, and other crane species with similar behaviour. Photograph by Inka Veltheim.


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Population regulation of African buffalo in the Mara–Serengeti ecosystem 
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Holly T. Dublin and Joseph O. Ogutu
pp. 382-393

Understanding the processes that regulate animal populations is a central theme in ecology. We test predictions of hypotheses concerning food limitation, competition, predation, disease and land use changes on buffalo population dynamics in an African savanna – the Mara–Serengeti Ecosystem. Buffalo population growth is apparently regulated by density-dependent food limitation and interspecific completion. The effects of density-dependent food limitation, interspecific competition, predation and land use changes on the Mara–Serengeti buffalo population are amplified by recurrent El Niño droughts, thus prolonging the recovery times and threatening the persistence of buffalo populations. Photograph by Reto Buehler.

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Spatially explicit capture–recapture analysis of bobcat (Lynx rufus) density: implications for mesocarnivore monitoring 
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Daniel H. Thornton and Charles E. Pekins
pp. 394-404

Density estimates for carnivores (number of individuals per unit area) are fundamental to successful conservation and management, yet remain challenging to obtain for many species. We used camera trapping and recently developed statistical methods to generate precise density estimates of a common carnivore, the bobcat, in Texas. Our results highlight the utility of this method for density estimation of small carnivores, and also indicate that if such methods are combined across multiple studies, inference about regional variability in density is achievable.

    | Supplementary Material (136 KB)

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Using site-occupancy models to prepare for the spread of chytridiomyosis and identify factors affecting detectability of a cryptic susceptible species, the Tasmanian tree frog 
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Scott D. Cashins , Annie Philips and Lee F. Skerratt
pp. 405-413

Although the disease chytridiomycosis has spread globally and caused severe amphibian decline, some remote regions in Australia remain disease free. In order to detect the spread and impact of chytridiomycosis, we used multistate site-occupancy modelling. Although we did not detect spread or impact, this approach has the potential to provide an early warning for cryptic species threatened by a spreading disease and enable a relatively rapid conservation response.


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The effectiveness and cost of camera traps for surveying small reptiles and critical weight range mammals: a comparison with labour-intensive complementary methods 
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Dustin J. Welbourne , Christopher MacGregor , David Paull and David B. Lindenmayer
pp. 414-425

Improving research methods can reduce survey and management costs of wildlife, especially for cryptic species. Camera traps were found to be less costly than traditional methods while being more effective for mammals and as effective for reptiles. Researchers using camera traps to survey critical weight range mammals can confidently include small reptiles as target species in surveys with little extra cost, and herpetologists can confidently adopt camera traps as a reliable survey tool.


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The preference for yew (Taxus baccata) by a red (Sciurus vulgaris) only squirrel population 
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Amy Haigh , Ruth O’Riordan and Fidelma Butler
pp. 426-436

The introduction of the grey squirrel has resulted in a reduction of red squirrel only areas and limited data on the habitat preferences of reds. This research aimed to examine red squirrel habitat preferences in an area which is currently free of grey squirrels to investigate tree species which could give reds a competitive advantage. Yew, a species that is used little by greys, was selected most commonly by red squirrels, indicating the importance of this species in red squirrel management.


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The role of the bandwidth matrix in influencing kernel home range estimates for snakes using VHF telemetry data 
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Javan M. Bauder , David R. Breininger , M. Rebecca Bolt , Michael L. Legare , Christopher L. Jenkins and Kevin McGarigal
pp. 437-453

The performance of many kernel home range estimators with handheld radio telemetry data from many small-bodied taxa remains largely unexplored. We evaluated multiple kernel home range estimators from two snake species and found that estimators varied in their performance relative to the five criteria we considered. Our study provides guidelines to help researchers choose a kernel home range estimator that best suits their data and study objectives. Photograph by Kevin Stohlgren.

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Intra-annual patterns in adult band-tailed pigeon survival estimates 
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Michael L. Casazza , Peter S. Coates , Cory T. Overton and Kristy B. Howe
pp. 454-459

Band-tailed pigeons are a migratory species whose populations have undergone long-term declines despite high breeding season survival. We used VHF and PTT transmitters to estimate survival during four seasonal periods and found that threats to survival are greatest during migration periods and lowest during the nesting period. These findings may affect species management including harvest and disease monitoring strategies. Photograph by Cory Overton.

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These articles have been peer reviewed and accepted for publication. They are still in production and have not been edited, so may differ from the final published form.

    WR14209  Accepted 17 September 2015
    Increasing abundance of pups of the long-nosed fur seal Arctocephalus forsteri on Kangaroo Island, South Australia over 26 breeding seasons to 2013-14
    Peter Shaughnessy, Simon Goldsworthy

    WR15108  Accepted 14 September 2015
    Out of sight but not out of mind: corvids prey extensively on eggs of burrow-nesting penguins
    Kasun Ekanayake, Duncan Sutherland, Peter Dann, Michael Weston

    WR15050  Accepted 06 September 2015
    More famine than feast. Pattern and variation in a potentially degenerating mammal fauna on Cape York Peninsula
    Justin Perry, Eric Vanderduys, Alex Kutt

    WR15044  Accepted 03 September 2015
    Observations on effects of feral pig (Sus scrofa) age and gender on diet
    Jason Wishart, Mike Braysher, Steven Lapidge, Stephen Sarre, Jim Hone

    WR15039  Accepted 03 September 2015
    Home range, habitat use and movements by little raven Corvus mellori in a coastal peri-urban landscape
    Desley Whisson, Michael Weston, Kelly Shannon

    WR15064  Accepted 05 August 2015
    Mixed stock analysis of a resident green turtle, Chelonia mydas, population in New Caledonia links rookeries in the South Pacific
    Tyffen Read, Nancy FitzSimmons, Laurent Wantiez, Michael Jensen, Florent Keller, Olivier Chateau, Richard Farman, Jonathan Werry, Kenneth MacKay, George Petro, Col Limpus

    WR13220  Accepted 24 February 2014
    Information on population trends and biological constraints from bat counts in roost cavities: a twenty two-year case study of an hibernaculum of Pipistrelle bats (Pipistrellus pipistrellus, Schreber).
    Christian Kerbiriou, Jean François Julien, Sophie Monsarrat, Philippe Lustrat, Alexandre Haquart, Alexandre Robert


The Most Read ranking is based on the number of downloads from the CSIRO PUBLISHING website of articles published in the previous 12 months. Usage statistics are updated daily.

Rank Paper Details
1. Published 20 February 2015
Effects of low-level culling of feral cats in open populations: a case study from the forests of southern Tasmania

Billie T. Lazenby, Nicholas J. Mooney and Christopher R. Dickman

2. Published 20 February 2015
A critical review of habitat use by feral cats and key directions for future research and management

Tim S. Doherty, Andrew J. Bengsen and Robert A. Davis

3. Published 6 October 2014
Lessons from long-term predator control: a case study with the red fox

Roger Kirkwood, Duncan R. Sutherland, Stuart Murphy and Peter Dann

4. Published 6 October 2014
Interactions between the superb lyrebird (Menura novaehollandiae) and fire in south-eastern Australia

Daniel T. Nugent, Steven W. J. Leonard and Michael F. Clarke

5. Published 4 March 2015
How many are there? The use and misuse of continental-scale wildlife abundance estimates

Jim Hone and Tony Buckmaster

6. Published 22 May 2015
How to snap your cat: optimum lures and their placement for attracting mammalian predators in arid Australia

J. L. Read, A. J. Bengsen, P. D. Meek and K. E. Moseby

7. Published 15 July 2015
Density and home range of feral cats in north-western Australia

Hugh W. McGregor, Sarah Legge, Joanne Potts, Menna E. Jones and Christopher N. Johnson

8. Published 6 October 2014
Effects of coordinated poison-baiting programs on survival and abundance in two red fox populations

Andrew Bengsen

9. Published 17 April 2015
How guardian dogs protect livestock from predators: territorial enforcement by Maremma sheepdogs

Linda van Bommel and Chris N. Johnson

10. Published 18 September 2015
The effectiveness and cost of camera traps for surveying small reptiles and critical weight range mammals: a comparison with labour-intensive complementary methods

Dustin J. Welbourne, Christopher MacGregor, David Paull and David B. Lindenmayer

11. Published 15 July 2015
Is fire a threatening process for Liopholis kintorei, a nationally listed threatened skink?

Danae Moore, Michael Ray Kearney, Rachel Paltridge, Steve McAlpin and Adam Stow

12. Published 17 April 2015
Seasonal and individual variation in selection by feral cats for areas with widespread primary prey and localised alternative prey

Jennyffer Cruz, Chris Woolmore, M. Cecilia Latham, A. David M. Latham, Roger P. Pech and Dean P. Anderson

13. Published 6 October 2014
At home in a new range: wild red deer in south-eastern Queensland

Matt Amos, Greg Baxter, Neal Finch and Peter Murray

14. Published 17 April 2015
Predicting the future range and abundance of fallow deer in Tasmania, Australia

J. M. Potts, N. J. Beeton, D. M. J. S. Bowman, G. J. Williamson, E. C. Lefroy and C. N. Johnson

15. Published 18 December 2014
Testing the regional genetic representativeness of captive koala populations in South-East Queensland

Jennifer M. Seddon, Kristen E. Lee, Stephen D. Johnston, Vere N. Nicolson, Michael Pyne, Frank N. Carrick and William A. H. Ellis

16. Published 6 October 2014
Effects of a GnRH vaccine on the movement and activity of free-living wild boar (Sus scrofa)

Roger J. Quy, Giovanna Massei, Mark S. Lambert, Julia Coats, Lowell A. Miller and David P. Cowan

17. Published 17 April 2015
Remote sensing can locate and assess the changing abundance of hollow-bearing trees for wildlife in Australian native forests

Christopher J. Owers, Rodney P. Kavanagh and Eleanor Bruce

18. Published 20 February 2015
Habitat use and behaviour of birds in areas invaded by buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) and in restored habitat

Lauren Young and Christine Schlesinger

19. Published 20 March 2015
Population recovery of the yellow-footed rock-wallaby following fox control in New South Wales and South Australia

Andy Sharp, Melinda Norton, Chris Havelberg, Wendy Cliff and Adam Marks

20. Published 15 July 2015
What drives cat-owner behaviour? First steps towards limiting domestic-cat impacts on native wildlife

Edith MacDonald, Taciano Milfont and Michael Gavin

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