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  Ecology, Management and Conservation in Natural and Modified Habitats
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Wildlife Research covers all major aspects of the ecology, management and conservation of wild animals in natural and modified habitats. More

Editors: Andrea Taylor and Piran White



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Published online 17 June 2016
Complex demographic responses of a common small mammal to a plant invasion 
Andrea R. Litt and Robert J. Steidl

Invasions by non-native plants alter the distribution of resources in ways that can affect the demography of animal populations. We found that the life-history strategy of a common rodent changed markedly in invaded areas relative to native grasslands. If life-history changes in response to environmental conditions are common, single demographic parameters could provide misleading measures of conservation and management activities.

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Published online 17 June 2016
Incubating snowy plovers (Charadrius nivosus) exhibit site-specific patterns of disturbance from human activities 
Cara A. Faillace and Bradley W. Smith

Shorebird declines are linked to disturbance from human activities. We examined if disturbance of nesting snowy plovers varied by location or activity type and found that bird response depended on location and whether or not the approaching person was walking a dog. Buffer zones around shorebird nests must account for location and types of activities encountered, implying the need for more conservative buffers. Photograph by Hugh McLaughlin.

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Published online 17 June 2016
Reducing the primary exposure risk of Henderson crakes (Zapornia atra) during aerial broadcast eradication by selecting appropriate bait colour 
Steffen Oppel, Jennifer L. Lavers, Alexander L. Bond and Gavin Harrison

Removing non-native invasive species from islands is a valuable tool to protect native species, but carries the risk that some native species may be inadvertently killed in the process. We studied whether using a different colour of bait, which is typically used to eliminate invasive rats from islands, may reduce the risk to a native flightless rail species. Our results show that Henderson crakes consumed fewer blue than green bait pellets, and that selecting an appropriate bait colour could reduce the negative side-effects of a popular conservation tool. Photograph by Steffen Oppel.

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Published online 17 June 2016
Soil phosphorus predicts feral pig (Sus scrofa) occupancy, detection probability and feeding activity in a temperate montane rainforest 
David M. Forsyth, Robert B. Allen, Roy K. J. Allen, Kathrin Affeld and Darryl I. MacKenzie

Feral pigs (Sus scrofa) are a widespread invasive species but little is known about their habits in temperate rainforest. We used a grid of cameras to investigate how pigs used a New Zealand rainforest and found that soil phosphorus best predicted pig activity, including feeding. Our study highlights how cameras can reveal the habits of cryptic wildlife in rugged environments.

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    | Supplementary Material (299 KB)
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blank image Wildlife Research
Volume 43 Number 3 2016

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Effects of culling on vigilance behaviour and endogenous stress response of female fallow deer 
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I. Pecorella , F. Ferretti , A. Sforzi and E. Macchi
pp. 189-196

Information on effects of culling on behaviour and stress of ungulates is scarce. We studied the effects of culling on behaviour and stress response of female fallow deer and we found that culling determined an increase of vigilance and a decrease of feeding rates. Only a short-term (24 h) increase of hormonal stress response occurred, which suggests that culling did not trigger long-term physiological effects. Photo by Francesco Ferretti.


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Diagnosing species decline: a contextual review of threats,causes and future directions for management and conservation of the eastern quoll 
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Bronwyn A. Fancourt
pp. 197-211

Diagnosing the cause of a species’ decline is one of the most challenging tasks faced by conservation practitioners. Here I adopt a methodical diagnostic framework to comprehensively evaluate potential causal factors and propose a hypothesis as to the cause of decline of the eastern quoll in Tasmania. This case study illustrates an approach by which practical species conservation problems might be solved and recovery strategies may be better informed. Photograph by Bronwyn Fancourt.


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Comparative efficacy of levonorgestrel and deslorelin contraceptive implants in free-ranging eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) 
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Michelle E. Wilson and Graeme Coulson
pp. 212-219

Lethal control of wildlife populations is often controversial, particularly in peri-urban areas, but fertility control offers an acceptable, non-lethal alternative. We tested implants of two different contraceptives in a wild kangaroos: one implant (deslorelin) was ineffective but the other (levonorgestrel) successfully stopped breeding for at least 5 years. Long-term fertility control is now a realistic option for managing kangaroo populations. Photograph by Graeme Coulson.


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Survival of translocated sharp-tailed grouse: temporal threshold and age effects 
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Steven R. Mathews , Peter S. Coates and David J. Delehanty
pp. 220-227

An important technique for restoring grouse populations to their former range is to transport grouse from strong populations and into restored historic range. Unfortunately, re-establishment fails when translocated grouse perish in their new location. We showed that Columbian sharp-tailed grouse are especially vulnerable for 50 days following release but that yearling grouse survive at significantly higher rates than adult grouse. Photograph by Chris Tulimiero, 2014.

   |        Open Access Article

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A review of biodiversity outcomes from possum-focused pest control in New Zealand 
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Andrea E. Byrom , John Innes and Rachelle N. Binny
pp. 228-253

In New Zealand, pest control is done across ~10 million ha or about one third of the total land area, mainly to prevent losses to the primary sector from wildlife vectors of bovine tuberculosis (TB) by invasive possums. Control is done using the toxin 1080 via aerial delivery in bait, or with ground-based control using traps and/or poison. Possum control has reduced TB rates, but collateral benefits for native biodiversity have not been quantified. We reviewed information on 84 measures of native biodiversity response (including vegetation, invertebrates, lizards, frogs, and birds) from 47 studies to provide a quantitative assessment of potential benefits. Both ground and aerial control of this invasive pest have provided substantial benefits for native biota. The findings provide a strong evidence base for the impacts of invasive pests on native biota not just in New Zealand but globally, and demonstrate a major return on investment from invasive species control programmes. Photograph by Andrea Byrom.


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Do indirect bite count surveys accurately represent diet selection of white-tailed deer in a forested environment? 
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Marcus A. Lashley , M. Colter Chitwood , Garrett M. Street , Christopher E. Moorman and Christopher S. DePerno
pp. 254-260

Diet selection is important to understand when managing for ungulates but measuring diet selection is often expensive and time consuming. We compared a cost and time efficient method (indirect bite counts on plants) with microhistolgical surveys of diet selection. Bite counts identified most of the plants most important to the diet but was only 48% similar to microhistological diet selection.


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An assessment of animal welfare for the culling of peri-urban kangaroos 
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Jordan O. Hampton and David M. Forsyth
pp. 261-266

The culling of peri-urban kangaroos is increasingly common in Australia but the practice remains contentious, especially with regards to animal welfare. Quantitative assessment of a culling program revealed a very short average duration of stress for kangaroos. Peri-urban culling can produce animal welfare outcomes for kangaroo that are superior to those from many other wildlife shooting techniques. Photograph by Jordan Hampton.


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Land-cover patterns surrounding Caucasian grouse leks in Arasbaran region, East Azerbaijan, Iran 
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Nader Habibzadeh and Omid Rafieyan
pp. 267-275

We applied spatial analysis at three spatial extents to assess how the importance of different land-cover patterns and patch characteristics surrounding leks of Caucasian grouse (CG) change with scale within the Arasbaran landscape in East Azerbaijan, Iran. The probability of lek occurrence at each of the spatial scales increases with a larger amount of open, young forests in the landscape. Photograph: lek habitat along with flying and standing posture of CG in Kalan core zone of Arasbaran biosphere reserve, 24 April 2014, by Behnam Gorbani.

    | Supplementary Material (89 KB)

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These articles have been peer reviewed and accepted for publication. They are still in production and have not been edited, so may differ from the final published form.

    WR16012  Accepted 27 June 2016
    Tigers (Panthera tigris) respond to fine spatial-scale habitat factors: Occupancy-based habitat association of tigers in Chitwan National Park, Nepal
    Hemanta Kafley, Matthew Gompper, Mandira Sharma, Baburam Lamichhane, Rupak Maharjan

    WR15187  Accepted 26 June 2016
    Modelling survival and breeding dispersal to unobservable nest sites
    Giacomo Tavecchia, Ana Sanz-Aguilar, Belinda Cannell

    WR16037  Accepted 13 June 2016
    Burrow fumigation versus trapping for pocket gopher (Thomomys spp.) management: a comparison of efficacy and cost effectiveness.
    Roger Baldwin, Ryan Meinerz, Steve Orloff

    WR15205  Accepted 13 June 2016
    Birth-site selection and timing of births in American bison: effects of habitat and proximity to anthropogenic features
    Joshua Kaze, Jericho Whiting, Eric Freeman, Steven Bates, Randy Larsen

    WR15231  Accepted 06 June 2016
    Roads, routes, and rams: does sexual segregation contribute to anthropogenic risks in a desert-dwelling ungulate?
    Vernon Bleich, Jericho Whiting, John Kie, R. Terry Bowyer

    WR15209  Accepted 04 June 2016
    Population dynamics of feral horses (Equus caballus) in an exotic coniferous plantation in Australia.
    Magdalena Zabek, David Berman, Simon Blomberg, Christina Collins, John Wright

    WR16045  Accepted 25 May 2016
    Dietary overlap and co-existence of sympatric wild yak, Tibetan wild ass and Tibetan antelope in Arjin Shan National Nature Reserve of Xinjiang Province, China
    Jianbin Shi, Feiying Lu, Xiaowen Li, Zihui Zhang, Xukun Su, Shikui Dong, Donghua Xu, Xiang Zhang

    WR15216  Accepted 15 May 2016
    Effective field-based methods to quantify personality in brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula)
    Valentina Mella, Jordan Krucler, Lakshmi Sunderasan, Jason Hawkins, Anushika Herath, Kyla Johnstone, Sandra Troxell-Smith, Peter Banks, Clare McArthur

    WR15134  Accepted 11 May 2016
    Live-capture of feral cats using tracking dogs and darting, with comparisons to leg-hold trapping
    Hugh McGregor, Jordan Hampton, Danielle Lisle, Sarah Legge

    WR16001  Accepted 11 May 2016
    Space use by female agile antechinus: are teat number and home range size linked?
    Alan Lill, Juliey Beckman

    WR15223  Accepted 21 April 2016
    The role of non-declining amphibian species as reservoirs for Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in an amphibian community
    Michelle Stockwell, Deborah Bower, John Clulow, Michael Mahony

    WR13220  Accepted 24 February 2014
    Information on population trends and biological constraints from bat counts in roost cavities: a twenty two-year case study of an hibernaculum of Pipistrelle bats (Pipistrellus pipistrellus, Schreber).
    Christian Kerbiriou, Jean François Julien, Sophie Monsarrat, Philippe Lustrat, Alexandre Haquart, Alexandre Robert


The Most Read ranking is based on the number of downloads from the CSIRO PUBLISHING website of articles published in the previous 12 months. Usage statistics are updated daily.

Rank Paper Details
1. Published 18 September 2015
The effectiveness and cost of camera traps for surveying small reptiles and critical weight range mammals: a comparison with labour-intensive complementary methods

Dustin J. Welbourne, Christopher MacGregor, David Paull and David B. Lindenmayer

2. Published 15 July 2015
Monitoring the use of road-crossing structures by arboreal marsupials: insights gained from motion-triggered cameras and passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags

Kylie Soanes, Peter A. Vesk and Rodney van der Ree

3. Published 15 July 2015
Density and home range of feral cats in north-western Australia

Hugh W. McGregor, Sarah Legge, Joanne Potts, Menna E. Jones and Christopher N. Johnson

4. Published 4 January 2016
Human–wildlife interactions in urban areas: a review of conflicts, benefits and opportunities

Carl D. Soulsbury and Piran C. L. White

5. Published 17 February 2016
Multiple cameras required to reliably detect feral cats in northern Australian tropical savanna: an evaluation of sampling design when using camera traps

Danielle Stokeld, Anke S. K. Frank, Brydie Hill, Jenni Low Choy, Terry Mahney, Alys Stevens, Stuart Young, Djelk Rangers, Warddeken Rangers and Graeme R. Gillespie

6. Published 17 February 2016
Toxic Trojans: can feral cat predation be mitigated by making their prey poisonous?

J. L. Read, D. Peacock, A. F. Wayne and K. E. Moseby

7. Published 17 February 2016
Precision, accuracy and bias of walked line-transect distance sampling to estimate eastern grey kangaroo population size

Ruth Glass, David M. Forsyth, Graeme Coulson and Marco Festa-Bianchet

8. Published 15 July 2015
What drives cat-owner behaviour? First steps towards limiting domestic-cat impacts on native wildlife

Edith MacDonald, Taciano Milfont and Michael Gavin

9. Published 15 July 2015
Is fire a threatening process for Liopholis kintorei, a nationally listed threatened skink?

Danae Moore, Michael Ray Kearney, Rachel Paltridge, Steve McAlpin and Adam Stow

10. Published 9 November 2015
Dingo interactions with exotic mesopredators: spatiotemporal dynamics in an Australian arid-zone study

T. Schroeder, M. M. Lewis, A. D. Kilpatrick and K. E. Moseby

11. Published 12 June 2015
The ecological impacts of commensal species: black rats, Rattus rattus, at the urban–bushland interface

Peter B. Banks and Helen M. Smith

12. Published 3 June 2016
Diagnosing species decline: a contextual review of threats,causes and future directions for management and conservation of the eastern quoll

Bronwyn A. Fancourt

13. Published 24 August 2015
The influence of urban encroachment on squirrel gliders (Petaurus norfolcensis): effects of road density, light and noise pollution

Mitchell J. Francis, Peter G. Spooner and Alison Matthews

14. Published 18 September 2015
Spatially explicit capture–recapture analysis of bobcat (Lynx rufus) density: implications for mesocarnivore monitoring

Daniel H. Thornton and Charles E. Pekins

15. Published 4 January 2016
A cross-continental look at the patterns of avian species diversity and composition across an urbanisation gradient

Barbara Clucas and John M. Marzluff

16. Published 11 May 2016
Priorities for management of chytridiomycosis in Australia: saving frogs from extinction

Lee F. Skerratt, Lee Berger, Nick Clemann, Dave A. Hunter, Gerry Marantelli, David A. Newell, Annie Philips, Michael McFadden, Harry B. Hines, Ben C. Scheele, Laura A. Brannelly, Rick Speare, Stephanie Versteegen, Scott D. Cashins and Matt West

17. Published 24 August 2015
Feral cat diet and predation on endangered endemic mammals on a biodiversity hot spot (Amami–Ohshima Island, Japan)

Kazumi Shionosaki, Fumio Yamada, Takuya Ishikawa and Shozo Shibata

18. Published 18 September 2015
Assessing capture and tagging methods for brolgas, Antigone rubicunda (Gruidae)

Inka Veltheim, Felipe Chavez-Ramirez, Richard Hill and Simon Cook

19. Published 17 February 2016
Ground penetrating radar as a non-invasive tool to better understand the population dynamics of a fossorial species: mapping the warrens of southern hairy-nosed wombats (Lasiorhinus latifrons)

Michael J. Swinbourne, David A. Taggart, Elisa Sparrow, Michael Hatch and Bertram Ostendorf

20. Published 9 November 2015
Space use by resident and transient coyotes in an urban–rural landscape mosaic

Numi Mitchell, Michael W. Strohbach, Ralph Pratt, Wendy C. Finn and Eric G. Strauss

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Volume 43 (3)

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