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Sexual Health publishes contributions on sexual health from the widest perspectives including HIV/AIDS, STIs, issues of sexuality, and reproductive health. More

Editors: Christopher Fairley and Roy Chan

 
 
 

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Published online 03 March 2015
Let’s talk about sex: gender norms and sexual health in English schools 
Farah Jamal, Chris Bonell, Kai Wooder and Simon Blake

The sexual health of young people in England is an urgent public health concern. While interventions to address young people’s sexual health have focussed on knowledge, skills and contraception access, amazingly none in the UK has explicitly addressed the effects of the social hierarchies of gender and gendered behavioural ideals that shape young people’s sexual expectations, attitudes and behaviour. The lack of attention to gender is a persistent gap in health research, practice and policy. A rigorous evaluation of such an intervention package would go some way to building an evidence base for challenging gender norms, which appear to be strongly associated with adverse sexual health outcomes.

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Published online 02 March 2015
‘Drug users stick together’: HIV testing in peer-based drop-in centres among people who inject drugs in Thailand 
Lianping Ti, Kanna Hayashi, Sattara Hattirat, Paisan Suwannawong, Karyn Kaplan and Thomas Kerr

Between July 2011 and June 2012, 22 in-depth interviews were conducted with people who inject drugs (PWID) participating in the Mitsampan Community Research Project in Bangkok, Thailand. Semi-structured interviews explored willingness to access rapid HIV testing delivered by a healthcare professional or a trained peer within peer-based drop-in centres. Many PWID in this study sample noted the value of a peer-based approach to receiving testing and indicated their willingness to access rapid HIV testing in peer-based drop-in centres. The findings from this study highlight the potential for novel peer-based methods to complement existing HIV services in an effort to improve access to testing among this population.

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Published online 02 March 2015
Maternal and congenital syphilis in selected Latin America and Caribbean countries: a multi-country analysis using data from the Perinatal Information System 
Suzanne J. Serruya, Pablo Duran, Gerardo Martinez, Mario Romero, Sonja Caffe, Monica Alonso and Mariangela F. Silveira

This paper aims to describe characteristics related to maternal and congenital syphilis in selected countries of Latin America and Caribbean for the period 2010–12. The main limitation of the analyses was data quality leading to the conclusion that countries must continue to be supported to build capacity for collecting high-quality data on intervention coverage and inequities, and to use it as a basis for decisions.

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Published online 23 February 2015
From ‘sugar daddies’ to ‘sugar babies’: exploring a pathway among age-disparate sexual relationships, condom use and adolescent pregnancy in South Africa 
Elona Toska, Lucie D. Cluver, Mark Boyes, Marija Pantelic and Caroline Kuo

This cross-sectional survey of 447 sexually active girls aged 10–19 in South Africa identifies factors associated with adolescent pregnancy and explores a pathway of risk by assessing whether condom use mediated the relationship between age-disparate sexual relationships and adolescent pregnancy. Consistent condom use and school enrolment were associated with lower pregnancy rates, while age-disparate sex and long-term school absences with higher pregnancy rates, controlling for age, age at sexual initiation, poverty and residence. The indirect effect of age-disparate sex on adolescent pregnancy through condom use was significant, suggesting that not using condoms in age-disparate sexual relationships may drive adolescent pregnancy.

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Published online 23 February 2015
Chlamydia and gonorrhoea point-of-care testing in Australia: where should it be used? 
Lisa Natoli, Rebecca J. Guy, Mark Shephard, Basil Donovan, Christopher K. Fairley, James Ward, David G. Regan, Belinda Hengel, Lisa Maher and

With accurate molecular tests now available for diagnosis of chlamydia and gonorrhoea at the point of care (POC), we explored their potential utility in various clinical settings in Australia. Findings from in-depth interviews suggested that POC testing is likely to be of greatest benefit in remote Aboriginal communities where prevalence of sexually transmissible infections is high and treatment delays are common. Some respondents indicated that POC testing may be useful in juvenile justice services and in certain primary health care, general practice and outreach settings – although opinions were mixed, particularly in relation to urban services with easy access to pathology services.

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Published online 23 February 2015
Syphilis transmission: a review of the current evidence 
Juliet E. Stoltey and Stephanie E. Cohen

Syphilis remains widespread worldwide, with increasing rates among men who have sex with men.  This paper reviews available evidence regarding syphilis transmission, and discusses how key prevention interventions, such as syphilis screening and treatment, condoms, and risk-reduction counselling modify syphilis transmission dynamics.

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Published online 16 February 2015
Dark rooms in Brazilian nightclubs: a matter of concern for STD/HIV policymakers 
Zila M. Sanchez, Claudia M. A. Carlini and Solange Andreoni

A mixed methods study in Brazil identified patterns of drug use, violence and sexual behaviours in a representative sample of nightclubs and patrons. Ethnographic observations were performed inside the nightclubs and showed the existence of “dark rooms” – areas reserved for sexual intercourse – in nightclubs targeting men who have sex with men. The letter describes characteristics of the sexual behaviour in these areas.

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Published online 09 February 2015
Purchasing condoms near a college campus: environmental barriers 
Annie M. Wilson and Melinda J. Ickes

This study explored the number of businesses available to purchase condoms from within 2 miles of a large college campus and investigated environmental differences between types of businesses. The average unit price of male condoms was significantly higher in drug store/pharmacies compared with convenience-type stores and grocery stores and barriers to purchasing condoms were significantly higher in convenience stores/gas stations. An understanding of environmental barriers related to purchasing condoms is necessary and must be considered when targeting sexual health promotion on college campuses.

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Published online 09 February 2015
Increased testing for Neisseria gonorrhoeae with duplex nucleic acid amplification tests in Australia: implications for surveillance 
Basil Donovan, Wayne Dimech, Hammad Ali, Rebecca Guy and Margaret Hellard

Duplex testing for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae has become routine in most Australian laboratories, greatly increasing the number of tests performed for N. gonorrhoeae. Increasing notifications for N. gonorrhoeae should be interpreted with caution.

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Published online 27 January 2015
Sexual practices, partner concurrency and high rates of sexually transmissible infections among male sex workers in three cities in Vietnam 
Michael C. Clatts, Lloyd A. Goldsamt, Le Minh Giang and Gary Yu

Male sex workers (MSW) have high rates of unprotected sex with both male and female sexual partners, including both client partners and elective partners. Condom use is low and high rates of unprotected vaginal and anal sex were found across partner types. MSWs evidence high rates of sexually transmissible infections (STIs), notably ulcerative STIs that may facilitate HIV transmission. Despite high levels of behavioural risk, rates of health services utilisation are low, symptom-driven, lacking in full disclosure of sexual risk, and often abandoned before treatment has been completed. There is an urgent need to develop targeted sexual health interventions for MSW, both to reduce behavioural risk and to increase knowledge and skills related to health services utilisation.

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Published online 27 January 2015
Management of syphilis in HIV-positive individuals 
Fiona V. Cresswell and Martin Fisher

We explore the controversies that exist around the management of syphilis in HIV-positive individuals. The optimal antimicrobial regimen to treat syphilis in HIV is unknown due to a lack of randomised controlled trial data. We discuss the factors associated with poorer serological outcomes whereby enhanced antibiotic therapy, which penetrates the central nervous system, may be of benefit.

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Published online 27 January 2015
A review of recent advances in rapid point-of-care tests for syphilis 
Claire C. Bristow, Elysia Larson, Marjan Javanbakht, Emily Huang, Louise Causer and Jeffrey D. Klausner

This review explores the advances and utility of rapid point-of-care tests for syphilis using the World Health Organizations’ ASSURED criteria.

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Published online 22 January 2015
Increasing trends of syphilis among men who have sex with men in high income countries 
Phillip Read, Christopher K. Fairley and Eric P. F. Chow

This paper examines the male and female syphilis notification rates in high-income countries from 2000 to 2013. The male to female ratio and proportion of cases reported as being in men who have sex with men is calculated. This paper shows that in countries with high income, there is a near universal finding of increasing rates of syphilis in MSM. It is therefore clear that no country has identified an effective method to control syphilis in this population.

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Published online 15 January 2015
Over reporting of congenital syphilis in Guangzhou, China 
Xingdong Ye, Shao-Kai Tang, Xiangnong Dai, Wanping He, Huilan Zhu and Xibao Zhang

The present work described the congenital syphilis (CS) case reporting profile during 2012 in Guangzhou, the capital of Guangdong province, southern China. A total of 110 CS cases were reviewed, and the results suggested that 49.1% of the CS cases reviewed were identified as cases that should be reported; and 50.9% were identified as over reporting, although the CS incidence in Guangzhou is rising, it may be overestimated. It implied that, to decrease CS cases of over reporting, both antenatal care management and serum rapid plasma reagin titres follow up should be raised.

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   |        Open Access Article
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Published online 15 January 2015
Public health interventions to control syphilis 
Thomas A. Peterman and Bruce W. Furness

Syphilis control strategies are old, but interventions have changed and there is now a more scientific approach to evidence of effectiveness. A review of the literature found few papers used high-quality research methodology and fewer evaluated impact on prevalence or incidence; most assessed intermediate outcomes. Syphilis can often be controlled by a combination of case finding, treatment and education. However, outbreaks are unique and ongoing evaluation is needed to see if interventions are producing intended intermediate outcomes at reasonable costs.

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Published online 22 December 2014
Paying the price in an era of HIV treatment as prevention: a retrospective study of the cost burden of HIV treatment for people living with HIV in Victoria, Australia 
Anna L. Wilkinson, James McMahon, Yik-Siang Cheah, Catriona S. Bradshaw, Carol El-Hayek and Mark Stoové

The cost of antiretroviral treatment (ART) for people living with HIV (PLWH) is potentially a barrier to the commencement and adherence to HIV treatment. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study of pharmacy data dispensed between January 2012 and November 2013 from a large hospital network in Victoria, Australia. The estimated costs ranged from $433.20 for patients with a concession card, collecting two medications, to $866.40 for a patient without a concession card, collecting four medications. Consideration needs to be given to the costs associated with ART for PLWH in the context of new treatment-based prevention strategies.

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Published online 22 December 2014
Feasibility and acceptability of point-of-care testing for sexually transmissible infections among men and women in mobile van settings 
Elizabeth A. Hesse, Lea E. Widdice, Sherine A. Patterson-Rose, Sarah St. Cyr, Laura Dize and Charlotte A. Gaydos

To demonstrate the feasibility and acceptability of mobile point-of-care and near-patient testing for sexually transmissible infections, we offered services during an annual community event and surveyed event-goers; 42 men and women were tested. When provided with options, the majority of participants chose point-of-care and near-patient testing. Participants responding to a written questionnaire reported sample self-collection and testing in a van as acceptable, although men reported self-collection in a van as less acceptable than a doctor’s office. Providing mobile point-of-care and near-patient sexually transmitted infection testing to the general population is feasible and acceptable.

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Published online 22 December 2014
Taming the great: enhanced syphilis screening in HIV-positive men who have sex with men in a hospital clinic setting 
Jason A. Trubiano and Jennifer F. Hoy

Syphilis incidence in HIV-Positive men who have sex with men (MSM) continues to rise, however there remains barriers to enhanced testing schedules. We demonstrate an increase in syphilis testing of HIV-positive patients and a three-fold increase in new syphilis diagnoses following a period of enhanced syphilis testing in HIV-positive MSM.

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Published online 17 December 2014
Impact of HIV-1 infection on the clinical presentation of syphilis in men who have sex with men 
Craig Tipple

HIV-1 infected men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately affected by syphilis in many higher income countries. Anal and oral intercourse may lead to transmission and primary ulcers at non-genital sites which go unrecognised. Moreover, the manifestations of symptomatic disease, especially neurosyphilis, may be altered by HIV-1. This review provides a summary of the clinical features of early syphilis (primary, secondary and early neurological involvement) and the ways in which these may be modified by HIV-1 infection in MSM.

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Published online 17 December 2014
Evolution of the syphilis epidemic among men who have sex with men 
Marc M. Solomon and Kenneth H. Mayer

This manuscript provides an overview of the evolution of the global syphilis epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM). It chronicles the changes in syphilis epidemiology among MSM including its interface with the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Finally, it seeks to describe the recent resurgence of syphilis incidence in the 2000s among MSM after a prior sharp drop in cases in the 1990s and calls for innovative strategies to address the evolving epidemic.

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Published online 15 December 2014
Sexual behaviour, drug use and health service use by young Noongar people in Western Australia: a snapshot 
Robyn Williams, Chris Lawrence, Edward Wilkes, Maurice Shipp, Barbara Henry, Sandra Eades, Bradley Mathers, John Kaldor, Lisa Maher and Dennis Gray

A cross sectional survey of 244 Noongar people aged 16–30 years was conducted. The survey aimed to describe sexual health behaviour, alcohol and other drug use and health service utilisation. Although some respondents engaged in risky sexual behaviour, alcohol and other drug use or both, most did not. Particularly encouraging was the engagement of respondents with the health care system, especially among those engaging in risky behaviours.

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Published online 15 December 2014
Sexual risk and healthcare seeking behaviour in young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in North Queensland 
Robert Scott, Regina Foster, Lisa N. Oliver, Anna Olsen, Julie Mooney-Somers, Bradley Mathers, Joanne M. Micallef, John Kaldor and Lisa Maher

Sexually transmissible infections (STIs) are diagnosed in young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders at higher rates compared to other young people in Australia. This study reports on the findings of a cross-sectional survey that explored the sexual behaviours and health service utilisation for young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people living in north Queensland. Key findings included early age at first sex, variable condom use and low uptake of STI testing.

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Published online 11 December 2014
A novel response to an outbreak of infectious syphilis in Christchurch, New Zealand 
Edward Coughlan, Heather Young, Catherine Parkes, Maureen Coshall, Nigel Dickson, Rebecca Psutka, Peter Saxton, Ramon Pink and Katharine Adams

During 2012, Christchurch, New Zealand experienced a dramatic increase in cases of infectious syphilis among men who have sex with men. In 2012, 26 males and no females were diagnosed and of these 26, 22 reported only sex with men. The use of social media is discussed.

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Published online 04 December 2014
Effect of improving the knowledge, attitude and practice of reproductive health among female migrant workers: a worksite-based intervention in Guangzhou, China 
Xue Gao, Longchang Xu, Ciyong Lu, Jie Wu, Zhijin Wang, Peter Decat, Wei-Hong Zhang, Yimin Chen, Eileen Moyer, Shizhong Wu, Meile Minkauskiene, Dirk Van Braeckel and Marleen Temmerman

A worksite-based cluster-randomised intervention study on women’s sexual and reproductive health (SRH) was conducted in eight factories in Guangzhou, China, 2008. Factories were randomly allocated to accept the standard package of interventions (SPIs) or the intensive package of interventions (IPIs). We found that both interventions had positive influences on SRH knowledge, attitudes and behaviours, and IPIs were more effective than SPIs, indicating that comprehensive interventions may be better approaches of improving SRH status for female migrant workers.

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Published online 27 November 2014
Insulin-like growth factor II mRNA binding protein 3 (IMP3) expression in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and its relationship with HIV-infection status 
Alessandro Del Gobbo, Emanuela Bonoldi, Fulvia Milena Cribiù, Ilaria Franceschetti, Caterina Matinato, Stefano Fiori, Umberto Gianelli and Silvano Bosari

Cervical cancer is highly preventable through screening; early detection and treatment of pre-invasive cervical lesions can prevent their progression to invasive cervical cancer. The prevalence of infection with human papillomavirus (HPV), some genotypes of which cause cervical cancer, is higher among HIV infected women than among HIV-negative ones. The oncofetal protein IMP3 is associated with decreased survival and increased risk of progression and metastases in human malignancies, and it is a potential marker of pre-invasive lesions. The aim of our study was to evaluate the clinical significance of IMP3 immunohistochemical expression in histological samples of squamous intraepithelial lesions of HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients and to correlate the results with the immunohistochemical expression of p16 and with the presence of HPV DNA.

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Published online 27 November 2014
Barriers and facilitators of sexually transmissible infection testing in remote Australian Aboriginal communities: results from the Sexually Transmitted Infections in Remote Communities, Improved and Enhanced Primary Health Care (STRIVE) Study 
Belinda Hengel, Rebecca Guy, Linda Garton, James Ward, Alice Rumbold, Debbie Taylor-Thomson, Bronwyn Silver, Skye McGregor, Amalie Dyda, Janet Knox, John Kaldor, Lisa Maher and

Remote Australian Aboriginal communities experience high rates of bacterial sexually transmissible infections (STIs). A key strategy to reduce STIs is to increase testing in primary health care centres. As part of the STI in Remote communities, Improved and Enhanced Primary Health Care (STRIVE) project; a large cluster randomised controlled trial of a sexual health quality improvement program, qualitative research was conducted to investigate health centre staff’s perceived barriers to STI testing. Participants identified cultural, structural and health system issues as barriers to offering STI testing in remote communities, some of which were overcome through the creativity and enthusiasm of individuals rather than formal systems.

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Published online 27 November 2014
A field evaluation of a new molecular-based point-of-care test for chlamydia and gonorrhoea in remote Aboriginal health services in Australia 
Louise M. Causer, Belinda Hengel, Lisa Natoli, Annie Tangey, Steven G. Badman, Sepehr N. Tabrizi, David Whiley, James Ward, John M. Kaldor, Rebecca J. Guy and

Point-of-care tests could be important public health tools in settings with treatment delays and high rates of sexually transmissible infections. We assessed a new molecular-based test for simultaneous detection of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) alongside traditional ICTs in remote Aboriginal health services in Australia. The accuracy and operational benefits of GeneXpert CT/NG make it very suitable in settings where delays to treatment are encountered.

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blank image Sexual Health
Volume 11 Number 6 2014

 
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Table of Contents 
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Vaccination against oncogenic human papillomavirus infection in HIV-infected populations: review of current status and future perspectives 
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Lars Toft , Martin Tolstrup , Merete Storgaard , Lars Østergaard and Ole S. Søgaard
pp. 511-523

This paper reviews the current knowledge about with human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in HIV-infected populations. Current knowledge is limited; however, vaccination against HPV infection may be appropriate in certain HIV-infected populations.

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Who‘s cheating? Agreements about sexual exclusivity and subsequent concurrent partnering in Australian heterosexual couples 
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Juliet Richters , Wendy Heywood , Marian K. Pitts , Julia M. Shelley , Judy M. Simpson , Kent Patrick and Anthony M. A. Smith
pp. 524-531

An Australian national representative sample of people aged 16–64 years in regular relationships completed telephone interviews, including questions about sexual exclusivity (i.e. whether they would have sex with anyone else). The vast majority (96%) expected their relationship to be exclusive (monogamous). However, only 48% of men and 64% of women had discussed the matter and explicitly agreed. Only 1% reported open relationships. A year later, most respondents (93%) were still in the same relationship, among whom 4% of men and 2% of women had had sex with someone else; most of them were in relationships that were expected to be monogamous.

 
  
 

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Tuberculosis (TB)-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in TB-HIV co-infected patients in Malaysia: prevalence, risk factors, and treatment outcomes 
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Hong Yien Tan , Yean Kong Yong , Sin How Lim , Sasheela Ponnampalavanar , Sharifah F. S. Omar , Yong Kek Pang , Adeeba Kamarulzaman , Patricia Price , Suzanne M. Crowe and Martyn A. French
pp. 532-539

This is the first reported study to examine the incidence of, risk factors for, and consequences of tuberculosis (TB)-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) in HIV patients from Malaysia. Approximately 9% of HIV-TB patients who commenced antiretroviral therapy developed TB-IRIS. Disseminated TB was the major risk factor. Patient survival and recovery of CD4 T cell counts were similar in TB-IRIS patients and HIV/TB patients who did not develop TB-IRIS.

 
  
 

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Influence of sexual sensation-seeking on factors associated with risky sexual behaviour among African-American female adolescents 
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Tiarney D. Ritchwood , Dolly C. Penn , Ralph J. DiClemente , Eve S. Rose and Jessica M. Sales
pp. 540-546

The following study sought to explicate the influence of sexual sensation-seeking, partner age and communication, and sexual attitudes on African-American adolescent females’ reports of sexual risk behaviours. Our results demonstrated the significance of antecedents of sexual risk to subsequent sexual risk behaviours. Future research is needed to further understand how contextual factors, such as relationship status, dynamics, and sexual decision-making influence the identified relations.

 
  
 

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‘Living a life less ordinary’: exploring the experiences of Australian men who have acquired HIV overseas 
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Graham Brown , Jeanne Ellard , Julie Mooney-Somers , Garrett Prestage , Gemma Crawford and Trish Langdon
pp. 547-555

In Australia, increasing rates of HIV infections acquired overseas have been reported, particularly among men. This qualitative study explored experiences and risk perceptions of 14 Australian men who acquired HIV while living or travelling overseas. Four domains of experience were identified: (1) a fantasy realised, (2) escaping and finding a new self or life, (3) living a life less ordinary, and (4) living local but still an outsider. Appealing to desired experiences, such as connection to local culture or sustaining a new or adventurous life, may provide important implications for health promotion programs and policy.

 
  
 

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Income inequality and Neisseria gonorrhoeae notifications in females: a country-level analysis 
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Amie L. Bingham , Anne M. Kavanagh , Christopher Kit Fairley , Louise A. Keogh , Rebecca J. Bentley and Jane S. Hocking
pp. 556-560

Social determinants may influence population susceptibility to sexually transmissible infections. Income inequality is one such determinant that has been found to be associated with various health outcomes. This analysis examines income inequality and notifications of Neisseria gonorrhoeae among women in 11 countries, finding that income inequality measured at the country level is associated with national STI notifications, Higher income inequality is associated with higher gonorrhoea notification rates among women.

 
  
 

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Body mass index, self-esteem and weight contentment from adolescence to young adulthood and women’s risk for sexually transmitted disease 
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Michael J. Merten and Amanda L. Williams
pp. 561-567

The purpose of this study was to examine the association between body mass index (BMI) continuity and change and young adult sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Decreasing BMI was linked with greater sexual risk; however, it was not just women’s weight status, but also self-perception, that increased their risk for STDs. While a negative change in weight contentment from adolescence to young adulthood was related to incidence of STD, low self-esteem posed enduring harm by increasing women’s risk for STDs.

 
  
 

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Risk and vulnerability of key populations to HIV infection in Iran; knowledge, attitude and practises of female sex workers, prison inmates and people who inject drugs 
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Razieh Khajehkazemi , AliAkbar Haghdoost , Soodabeh Navadeh , Hamidreza Setayesh , Leily Sajadi , Mehdi Osooli and Ehsan Mostafavi
pp. 568-574

In this study data of three national surveys conducted in 2009 and 2010 and included 2546 people who inject drugs (PWID), 872 female sex workers (FSW) and 5530 prison inmates were compared in relation to knowledge, attitude, and practises towards HIV. Approximately 20% of prisoners and FSW had a history of injecting drugs. Among all participants who have injected drugs, prisoners had the highest unsafe injecting behaviour at the last injection (61%), followed by FSW (11%) and PWID (3%). Despite major efforts to control the HIV epidemic in Iran, the level of risk and vulnerability among prisoners, FSW and PWID is still high.

 
  
 

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Comparative performance of the Kalon and HerpeSelect enzyme-linked immunosorbant assays to determine the prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 in Papua New Guinea 
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Claire E. Ryan , Cassey S. Simbiken , Paul A. Agius , Joyce Allen , Joyce Sauk , Petronia Kaima , Zure Kombati , Peter Siba , John M. Kaldor and Andrew Vallely on behalf of the Male Circumcision Acceptability and Impact Study MCAIS Team
pp. 575-579

In this investigation we compared the performance of two commercially available kits, the Kalon and HerpeSelect glycoprotein G2 assays, to detect antibodies to HSV-2 in patients attending sexual health clinics in Papua New Guinea. A high HSV-2 prevalence was observed in this population. Our longitudinal data indicate the higher prevalence of HSV-2 detected with the HerpeSelect ELISA was likely due to false positives rather than a higher sensitivity in the early stages of infection.

 
  
 

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C-reactive protein as a predictor of cardiovascular risk in HIV-infected individuals 
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Clare L. V. Westhorpe , Hans G. Schneider , Mandy Dunne , Tracey Middleton , Vijaya Sundararajan , Tim Spelman , Vanessa Carter , Suzanne M. Crowe , Anthony Dart , Anne Mijch , Despina Kotsanas and Ian Woolley
pp. 580-582

The aim of this study was to determine the predictive value of C-reactive protein (CRP) for cardiac events in HIV-infected individuals. We retrospectively analysed CRP levels in stored plasma samples from HIV-infected patients who did or did not experience a coronary event in a case-controlled manner. All CRP measurements were performed using a high-sensitivity assay. Of the study participants with samples available, we found slightly elevated hs-CRP levels in the cardiac cases (median 3.5, IQR 1.6–14.4, n = 23) compared with controls (median 2.6, IQR1.2 8.3, n = 49) which were shown to not be statistically significant P = 0.20.

 
  
 

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Association between known recent HIV infections and methamphetamine use (ASK HIM study) in Melbourne between 2011 and 2013: a case-control study 
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Beng Eu and Norman Roth
pp. 583-584

There has been an increase in new HIV infections in Australia over the past 3 years mainly in men who have sex with men. The ASK HIM study looks at the association between HIV cases diagnosed in Victoria between 2011 and 2013 in men who have sex with men (MSM) and methamphetamine use by comparing usage rates in this group with usage rates in a control group.

 
  
 

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Lessons learnt from the first Australian ‘pop-up' HIV testing site 
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Marianne Gale , Jo Holden , Samara Kitchener , Vickie Knight , Anna McNulty , Karen Price , Craig Leeman , Philip Cunningham , Andrew Hayen and C. Raina MacInytre
pp. 585-586

Lessons learnt from the first ‘pop-up’ HIV testing site in Australia suggest that highly visible testing activity was acceptable in the context of inner Sydney and that pop-up sites may be a useful adjunct to clinic-based models. Further evaluation of alternative testing models is needed to inform the scale up of HIV testing in Australia.

 
  
 

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Mycoplasma genitalium and its resistance to azithromycin in incarcerated men from Far North Queensland 
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Gemma Maree Daley , Darren B. Russell , Sepehr N. Tabrizi , Jimmy Twin and William J. H. McBride
pp. 587-589

This study examined the prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium in incarcerated men from Far North Queensland. Of 140 participants, eight tested positive (5.7%) and of these positive samples two carried a gene associated with macrolide resistance. Seven of these eight positive participants were treated while in the correctional facility

 
  
 

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Short message service broadcasting to improve the uptake of influenza vaccination in HIV-positive patients at a metropolitan sexual health clinic 
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Chanelle Stowers , Loretta Healey and Catherine C. O’Connor
pp. 590-591

In 2013 a public metropolitan sexual health service alerted HIV- positive patients to the availability of free influenza vaccination using Short Message Service broadcasting This resulted in a significant increase in uptake of the vaccination when compared with the previous year when individual telephone calls were made.

 
  
 

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Lower sexually transmissible infection prevalence among lifetime exclusive women who have sex with women compared with women who have sex with women and men 
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Christina A. Muzny , Richa Kapil , Erika L. Austin , Edward W. Hook and William M. Geisler
pp. 592-593

Sexually transmissible infection (STI) history, prevalence, and seroprevalence among lifetime exclusive women who have sex with women (WSW) (n = 21) and an age-matched group of women who have sex with women and men (WSWM) (n = 42) was evaluated. WSWM were more likely to report a history of prior STIs and be seropositive for chlamydia and HSV-2; prevalent STIs were less common among WSW. While lifetime exclusive WSW are at risk for STIs, WSWM are disproportionally affected. Healthcare providers should consider routine STI screening among WSW.

 
  
 

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These articles have been peer reviewed and accepted for publication. They are still in production and have not been edited, so may differ from the final published form.

    SH15025  Accepted 02 March 2015
    Syphilis: a fresh look at an old foe
    Marcus Chen, Jeffrey Klausner, Christopher Fairley, Rebecca Guy, David Wilson, Basil Donovan
    Abstract


    SH14215  Accepted 02 March 2015
    Sexual health, alcohol and the university environment: is there a need for sexual health promotion intervention?
    Sharyn Burns
    Abstract


    SH14200  Accepted 27 February 2015
    Depression and sexual risk behaviors among injection drug users: a gender-based analysis
    Tyler Pettes, Thomas Kerr, Pauline Voon, Paul Nguyen, Evan Wood, Kanna Hayashi
    Abstract


    SH14189  Accepted 25 February 2015
    Determinants of the low uptake of HIV-related intervention services by female sex workers in Shenzhen, China: an observational study (2009-2012)
    Rui Cai, Jingguang Tan, Lin Chen, Caspar Looman, Jan Hendrik Richardus, Sake De Vlas
    Abstract


    SH14225  Accepted 23 February 2015
    “It’s always just there in your face”: Australian young people’s views on porn
    Shelley Walker, Meredith Temple-Smith, Peter Higgs, Lena Sanci
    Abstract


    SH14223  Accepted 23 February 2015
    The sexual health literacy of the student population of the University of Tasmania: results of the RUSSL Study
    Steve Simpson, Jr., Christine Clifford, Kaz Ross, Neil Sefton, Louise Owen, Leigh Blizzard, Richard Turner
    Abstract


    SH15008  Accepted 15 February 2015
    Syphilis Among Adolescents and Young Adults in Cincinnati, Ohio: Testing, Infection, and Characteristics of Youth with Syphilis Infection
    Sherine Patterson-Rose, Tanya Mullins, Elizabeth Hesse, Corinne Lehmann, Lea Widdice
    Abstract


    SH14211  Accepted 10 February 2015
    A Comparison of Self-Reported Sexual Risk Behaviors between U.S. Civilian and Active Duty Military Women
    Shauna Stahlman, Marjan Javanbakht, Susan Cochran, Steven Shoptaw, Alison Hamilton, Pamina Gorbach
    Abstract


    SH14183  Accepted 06 February 2015
    Internet sex-seeking is inconsistently linked with sexual risk in men who have sex with men: systematic review of within-subjects comparisons
    G.J. Melendez-Torres, Elizabeth Nye, Chris Bonell
    Abstract


    SH14210  Accepted 02 February 2015
    Pap smear rates among Australian community-attached lesbian and bisexual women: some good news but disparities persist
    Catriona Douglas, Rachel Deacon, Julie Mooney-Somers
    Abstract


    SH14045  Accepted 29 January 2015
    Sexual behaviors, sex toy, and sexual safety methods reported by women who have sex with women and men
    Vanessa Schick, Brian Dodge, Barbara Van Der Pol, Aleta Baldwin, J. Fortenberry
    Abstract


    SH14197  Accepted 18 January 2015
    The molecular epidemiology of Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum
    Daphne Ma, Lorenzo Giacani, Glaber Centurion-Lara
    Abstract


    SH14195  Accepted 18 January 2015
    Neurosyphilis and the Impact of HIV Infection
    Emily Ho, Serena Spudich
    Abstract


    SH13131  Accepted 03 January 2015
    Young people’s perceptions of sexual and reproductive health in regional and rural Queensland: capturing the views of adolescents through reference groups and a user friendly electronic survey
    Paula Matich, Caroline Harvey, Priscilla Page, Karen Johnston, Clare Jukka, Jane Hollins, Sarah Larkins
    Abstract


    SH14229  Accepted 21 December 2014
    Online Sex-Seeking: Social and Sexual Risk Factors among Adolescent and Young Gay and Bisexual Men
    Guy Shilo, Zohar Mor
    Abstract


    SH14084  Accepted 05 December 2014
    The Change in Prevalence of Lipodystrophy, Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in HIV- infected Men
    Julia Price, Jennifer Hoy, Emma Ridley, Ibolya Nyulasi, Eldho Paul, Ian Woolley
    Abstract


16


The Most Read ranking is based on the number of downloads from the CSIRO PUBLISHING website of articles published in the previous 12 months. Usage statistics are updated daily.

Rank Paper Details
1. Published 9 September 2014
Prevalence, correlates and attitudes towards sexting among young people in Melbourne, Australia

Timothy H. Yeung, Danielle R. Horyniak, Alyce M. Vella, Margaret E. Hellard and Megan S. C. Lim

2. Published 14 July 2014
Predicting the population impact of increased HIV testing and treatment in Australia

James Jansson, Cliff C. Kerr and David P. Wilson

3. Published 26 March 2014
Management rates of sexually transmissible infections by Australian general practitioners, 2000–2012

Anthony J. Santella, Allan Pollack, Christopher Harrison, Shailendra N. Sawleshwarkar, Helena C. Britt and Richard J. Hillman

4. Published 28 July 2014
'I demand to be treated as the person I am': experiences of accessing primary health care for Australian adults who identify as gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender or queer

Chee S. Koh, Melissa Kang and Tim Usherwood

5. Published 14 July 2014
Transforming Australia’s HIV prevention and treatment efforts to achieve an AIDS-free generation: the United Nations Political Declaration on HIV/AIDS and the Melbourne Declaration ‘Action on HIV’

Bill Whittaker

6. Published 7 November 2014
Heterosexual experience and recent heterosexual encounters among Australian adults: the Second Australian Study of Health and Relationships

Chris Rissel, Paul B. Badcock, Anthony M. A. Smith, Juliet Richters, Richard O. de Visser, Andrew E. Grulich and Judy M. Simpson

7. Published 28 July 2014
Australian sexually transmissible infection and HIV testing guidelines for asymptomatic men who have sex with men 2014: a review of the evidence

David J. Templeton, Phillip Read, Rajesh Varma and Christopher Bourne

8. Published 7 November 2014
Attitudes toward sex and relationships: the Second Australian Study of Health and Relationships

Richard O. de Visser, Paul B. Badcock, Judy M. Simpson, Andrew E. Grulich, Anthony M. A. Smith, Juliet Richters and Chris Rissel

9. Published 9 September 2014
High rates of sexually transmissible infections in HIV-positive patients in the Australian HIV Observational Database: a prospective cohort study

Brian P. Mulhall, Stephen Wright, Debbie Allen, Katherine Brown, Bridget Dickson, Miriam Grotowski, Eva Jackson, Kathy Petoumenos, Phillip Read, Timothy Read, Darren Russell, David J. Smith, David J. Templeton, Christopher K. Fairley and Matthew G. Law

10. Published 7 November 2014
Sexual identity, sexual attraction and sexual experience: the Second Australian Study of Health and Relationships

Juliet Richters, Dennis Altman, Paul B. Badcock, Anthony M. A. Smith, Richard O. de Visser, Andrew E. Grulich, Chris Rissel and Judy M. Simpson

11. Published 7 November 2014
Masturbation, paying for sex, and other sexual activities: the Second Australian Study of Health and Relationships

Juliet Richters, Richard O. de Visser, Paul B. Badcock, Anthony M. A. Smith, Chris Rissel, Judy M. Simpson and Andrew E. Grulich

12. Published 7 November 2014
First vaginal intercourse and oral sex among a representative sample of Australian adults: the Second Australian Study of Health and Relationships

Chris Rissel, Wendy Heywood, Richard O. de Visser, Judy M. Simpson, Andrew E. Grulich, Paul B. Badcock, Anthony M. A. Smith and Juliet Richters

13. Published 9 September 2014
Epidemiology of gonorrhoea notifications in Australia, 2007–12

April Roberts-Witteveen, Kate Pennington, Nasra Higgins, Carolyn Lang, Monica Lahra, Russell Waddell and John Kaldor

14. Published 7 November 2014
Design and methods of the Second Australian Study of Health and Relationships

Juliet Richters, Paul B. Badcock, Judy M. Simpson, David Shellard, Chris Rissel, Richard O. de Visser, Andrew E. Grulich and Anthony M. A. Smith

15. Published 26 March 2014
Rapid HIV testing increases the rate of HIV detection in men who have sex with men: using rapid HIV testing in a primary care clinic

Beng Eu, Norman Roth, Mark Stoové, Mark O'Reilly and Edward Clarke

16. Published 7 November 2014
Homosexual experience and recent homosexual encounters: the Second Australian Study of Health and Relationships

Andrew E. Grulich, Richard O. de Visser, Paul B. Badcock, Anthony M. A. Smith, Wendy Heywood, Juliet Richters, Chris Rissel and Judy M. Simpson

17. Published 7 November 2014
Safer sex and condom use: findings from the Second Australian Study of Health and Relationships

Richard O. de Visser, Paul B. Badcock, Chris Rissel, Juliet Richters, Anthony M. A. Smith, Andrew E. Grulich and Judy M. Simpson

18. Published 7 November 2014
Characteristics of heterosexual regular relationships among a representative sample of adults: the Second Australian Study of Health and Relationships

Paul B. Badcock, Anthony M. A. Smith, Juliet Richters, Chris Rissel, Richard O. de Visser, Judy M. Simpson and Andrew E. Grulich

19. Published 14 July 2014
Recently diagnosed gay men talk about HIV treatment decisions

Ian Down, Garrett Prestage, Kathy Triffitt, Graham Brown, Jack Bradley and Jeanne Ellard

20. Published 14 July 2014
Can treatment-based HIV prevention curb the epidemic among gay and other men who have sex with men? A narrative synthesis of increasing evidence for moderating and countervailing effects

John B. F. de Wit and Philippe C. G. Adam


      
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