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Protocols in ecological and environmental plant physiology

 
 

Australian Journal of Botany is an international journal for the publication of original research and reviews in plant science with relevance to Southern Hemisphere ecosystems including ecology and ecophysiology, conservation biology and biodiversity, forest biology and management, cell and molecular biology, palaeobotany, reproductive biology and genetics, mycology and pathology and structure and development. More...

Editor-in-Chief: Dick Williams

 
 
 

blank image Australian Journal of Botany
Volume 63 Number 8 2015

 
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Problems with using mean germination time to calculate rate of seed germination 
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Elias Soltani , Farshid Ghaderi-Far , Carol C. Baskin and Jerry M. Baskin
pp. 631-635

Mean time to germination (MGT) is a measure of the rate and time-spread of germination; however, there is a problem with using this method to calculate germination rate. Using MGT is not correct for ANOVA, post-ANOVA or the other comparison tests, because it does not show time to a specific germination percentage. Thus, we recommend that t50 be used instead of MGT. The t50 has all benefits of MGT, but it does not have the problems of MGT in treatment comparisons.

 
  
 

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The mistletoe flora of southern Western Australia, with a particular reference to host relationships and fire 
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A. N. Start
pp. 636-646

The mistletoe flora of southern Western Australia (~26–35°S, ~113–129°E) was studied over a 30-year period, with a particular emphasis on distributions, host relationships and fire. The flora comprised 21 taxa in two families, Loranthaceae and Santalaceae. Species diversity was higher in more arid, inland areas than mesic coastal areas. Fire is prevalent through most of the area and is the most pervasive, but not the only threat.

 
  
 

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Differences in seedling water-stress response of two co-occurring Banksia species 
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M. M. Holloway-Phillips , H. Huai , A. Cochrane and A. B. Nicotra
pp. 647-656

In the South-west Australian Floristic Region, surviving the first-year summer drought is critical for successful seedling establishment in Banksia (Proteaceae). Predictions of a warmer, drier future, therefore, threaten population persistence. Here, we investigated the drought tolerance of two co-occurring Banksia species using seed collected from two different rainfall habitats and found both species and population differentiation in water-use strategies affecting plant mortality with soil drying. Considering differential sensitivity to water stress will, therefore, be important in conservation efforts.

 
    | Supplementary Material (369 KB)
 

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The effect of burnt soils on growth of Xanthorrhoea glauca subsp. angustifolia (Xanthorrhoeaceae) seedlings in box-ironbark ecosystems, northern central Victoria 
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Marc P. Bellette , Ruth E. Lawrence and Neal J. Enright
pp. 657-663

Grasstrees are an endangered, iconic and important biodiversity value of central Victoria. The reintroduction of fire threatens remaining adult populations of the species, whereas fire enhances the likely success of seedlings. An understanding of recruitment along with strategic fire management is likely to define the survival of the species in Victoria.

 
  
 

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Effects of sulfur on arsenic accumulation in seedlings of the mangrove Aegiceras conrniculatum 
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Guirong Wu , Haoliang Lu , Jingchun Liu and Chongling Yan
pp. 664-668

Arsenic (As) contamination of sediments in mangrove forests is a growing environmental problem. This experiment evaluated the influence of sulfur (S) on As accumulation in mangrove seedlings. A 4 × 4 design of S × As treatments suggested that S can mitigate the toxicity of As to mangroves; As accumulation was inversely related to S concentration. Supplying S also altered the relative concentration of As forms in seedlings, namely As (V) and As (III), and significantly decreased their concentrations in roots.

 
  
 

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The marked flooding tolerance of seedlings of a threatened swamp gum: implications for the restoration of critical wetland forests 
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Joe Greet
pp. 669-678

Wetland forests at Yellingbo are home to the last remaining wild populations of the helmeted honeyeater and lowland Leadbeater’s possum and under threat from tree dieback and a lack of natural regeneration, putatively the result of prolonged waterlogging. I conducted flooding experiments to determine the flooding tolerance of E. camphora seedlings to inform hydrological works aimed at reducing waterlogging and restoring these critical wetland forests. While the ability of E. camphora seedlings to tolerate flooding is considerable (>12 months), conditions for E. camphora seedling establishment and growth are likely to improve as levels of flooding decrease.

 
  
 

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Phytotoxic effects of phenolic compounds on Calopogonium mucunoides (Fabaceae) roots 
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Roberta Cristiane Ribeiro , Rodrigo Barbosa Braga Feitoza , Helena Regina Pinto Lima and Mário Geraldo de Carvalho
pp. 679-686

Phenols from forage grasses may exert phytotoxicity on legume crops in intercropping systems. This study evaluated that phenolic compounds negatively affect the development and the root structure of Calopogonium mucunoides Desv. The roots of non-control individuals showed smaller lengths and greater diameter, as well as cell division in endodermis and pericycle, and premature differentiation of xylem and phloem fibres.

 
  
 

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Temperature affects the dormancy and germination of sympatric annual (Oryza meridionalis) and perennial (O. rufipogon) native Australian rices (Poaceae) and influences their emergence in introduced para grass (Urochloa mutica) swards 
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Sean M. Bellairs , Penelope A. S. Wurm and Beckie Kernich
pp. 687-695

Seed germination of the Australian native rices, Oryza rufipogon and O. meridionalis, may be limited if seed dormancy is not broken by heating. Through this mechanism native rice dormancy is maintained and emergence supressed by introduced para grass. Emergence of wild rice was affected by changes to the soil and aboveground biomass structure due to swards of para grass.

 
  
 

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Moss and vascular epiphyte distributions over host tree and elevation gradients in Australian subtropical rainforest 
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Jennifer C. Sanger and James B. Kirkpatrick
pp. 696-704

Epiphytes are a prominent feature in Australian rainforests, yet there is a lack of comprehensive studies in this area. We examined the distributions of vascular and non-vascular epiphytes and found that species richness and composition of epiphytes showed distinct patterns over the height of the host tree and across an elevation gradient. This suggests that factors such as moisture, light and humidity, which vary over these gradients, may be the main contributors to determining epiphyte diversity in Australia’s subtropical rainforest.

 
    | Supplementary Material (476 KB)
 

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Influence of seed dimorphism and provenance on seed morphology, dispersal, germination and seedling growth of Brachyscome ciliaris (Asteraceae) 
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Rina Aleman , Manfred Jusaitis , Joan Gibbs , Phillip Ainsley , Fleur Tiver and Sophie Petit
pp. 705-713

Brachyscome ciliaris is unique in the Brachyscome genus, in that seeds are distinctly dimorphic. Seed morph did not affect seed germination or seedling growth but did influence dispersal. Dormancy, germination and seed yield characteristics were influenced more by seed provenance than by seed morph.

 
  
 

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Published online 05 February 2016
The Christmas tree project: comparing the effects of five treatments on the health of cut Christmas trees (Pinus radiata, Pinaceae) 
Olyvea Akres, Isabella Cavallaro, Cynthia Cheng, Madison Dixon, Darcy Goddard, Tamara Hofbauer, Sidney Mahr, Taylor Mason, Lulu Miskin, Chloe Morgan, Eleanor Nettleton, Amelia Purseglove, Bella Rosenberg, Lucia Salgado, Jasmin Sardi, Emily Scarlis, Sophie Snyman, Isabella Spagnardi, Oona Swinson-Dulhunty, Lilla Szentmariay, Nikki Zimmerman, Angela T. Moles and Julia Cooke

We tested which of five different treatments would keep a cut Pinus radiata Christmas tree healthy for longest. Our results showed that branches sprayed with hairspray retained the greatest proportion (90%) of their photosynthetic health through 27 days. This study will help Australasian families keep their Christmas trees greener and healthier over the festive season.

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Published online 05 February 2016
Pollination unpredictability and ovule number in a South-Andean Proteaceae along a rainfall gradient 
Vanina Ruth Chalcoff and Marcelo Adrián Aizen

It has been hypothesized that ovule overproduction in plants could represent a ‘bet-hedging’ strategy against pollination inefficiency. We evaluated the relationship between pollination unpredictability and number of ovules per flower of the south-Andean Embothrium coccineum growing along a gradient of precipitation and pollination unpredictability. Our results showed no increase in ovule production with pollination unpredictability, but an increase in ovule production per flower with rainfall. Therefore, in this species, there was no support for the bet-hedging hypothesis. Instead, ovule number seems to be conditioned primarily by resource availability.

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    | Supplementary Material (119 KB)
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Published online 05 February 2016
Grazing and the absence of fire promote the dominance of an unpalatable shrub in a patch mosaic cyclic successional system 
Jamie B. Kirkpatrick and Kerry L. Bridle

We experimentally determined how an apparently unpalatable and fire-sensitive shrub, Richea acerosa , responded to the single and interactive effects of grazing and burning over 3–24 years at two subalpine sites in Tasmania. The persistence of R. acerosa appears to require an absence of frequent fire and the presence of sufficient grazing pressure from vertebrate herbivores to produce lawn between shrubs.

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These articles have been peer reviewed and accepted for publication. They are still in production and have not been edited, so may differ from the final published form.

    BT15208  Accepted 26 January 2016
    Estimating density-dependent impacts of European rabbits on Australian tree and shrub populations
    Greg Mutze, Brian Cooke, Scott Jennings
    Abstract


    BT15184  Accepted 02 January 2016
    Reproductive biology and breeding system in Casuarina equisetifolia-implication for genetic improvement
    Yong Zhang, Chonglu Zhong
    Abstract


    BT15134  Accepted 14 December 2015
    Hakea, the world's most sclerophyllous genus, arose in southwest Australian heathland and diversified throughout Australia over the past 12 million years
    Byron Lamont, Tianhua He, Sim Lim
    Abstract


    BT15004  Accepted 22 December 2015
    Living (and reproducing) on the edge: reproductive phenology is impacted by rainfall and canopy decline in a Mediterranean eucalypt
    Tracey Moore, Katinka Ruthrof, Michael Craig, Leonie Valentine, Giles Hardy, P Fleming
    Abstract


    BT15199  Accepted 17 December 2015
    Architecture of four tree species from different strata of a semi-deciduous forest in southern Brazil
    Thaís Haddad, Mariana Hertel, Edmilson Bianchini, José Pimenta
    Abstract


    BT14342  Accepted 17 December 2015
    Nutrient Distribution and Cycling in a Subtropical Rainforest in New South Wales
    Marcia Lambert, John Turner
    Abstract


    BT15182  Accepted 18 December 2015
    Patch mosaic cyclic succession associated with the growth and senescence of an alpine shrub
    Danielle McPhail, James Kirkpatrick
    Abstract


    BT15202  Accepted 14 December 2015
    Phosphorus utilisation efficiency and leaf morphology traits of Rytidosperma species (wallaby grasses) that differ in their growth response to phosphorus fertilisation
    Heidi Waddell, Richard Simpson, Hans Lambers, Brent Henderson, Megan Ryan, Denys Garden, Alan Richardson
    Abstract


    BT15087  Accepted 26 November 2015
    Using vital statistics and core habitat maps to manage critically endangered orchids in the West Australian wheatbelt
    Mark Brundrett
    Abstract


    BT15198  Accepted 16 November 2015
    Relative importance of transpiration rate and leaf morphological traits for the regulation of leaf temperature
    Madalena Vaz Monteiro, Tijana Blanusa, Anne Verhoef, Paul Hadley, Ross Cameron
    Abstract


    BT15130  Accepted 16 November 2015
    Seed development following reciprocal crossing among autotetraploid and diploid Acacia mangium Willd. and diploid A. auriculiformis A. Cunn. ex Benth
    Chi Nghiem, Rod Griffin, Chris Harwood, Jane Harbard, Thinh Ha, Anthony Koutoulis
    Abstract


    BT15111  Accepted 16 November 2015
    New evidence for mammal pollination of Protea species (Proteaceae) based on remote camera analysis
    Kim Zoeller, Sandy-Lynn Steenhuisen, Steven Johnson, Jeremy Midgley
    Abstract


12


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Rank Paper Details
1. Published 19 February 2015
Restoration of eucalypt grassy woodland: effects of experimental interventions on ground-layer vegetation

S. McIntyre, R. B. Cunningham, C. F. Donnelly and A. D. Manning

2. Published 19 February 2015
Dormancy-breaking and germination requirements for seeds of Acacia papyrocarpa, Acacia oswaldii and Senna artemisioides ssp.×coriacea, three Australian arid-zone Fabaceae species

Leanne M. Pound, Phillip J. Ainsley and José M. Facelli

3. Published 9 December 2015
Problems with using mean germination time to calculate rate of seed germination

Elias Soltani, Farshid Ghaderi-Far, Carol C. Baskin and Jerry M. Baskin

4. Published 6 October 2015
Post-fire succession during the long-term absence of fire in coastal heathland and a test of the chronosequence survey method

Marc Freestone, Timothy J. Wills and Jennifer Read

5. The Christmas tree project: comparing the effects of five treatments on the health of cut Christmas trees (Pinus radiata, Pinaceae)

Olyvea Akres, Isabella Cavallaro, Cynthia Cheng, Madison Dixon, Darcy Goddard, Tamara Hofbauer, Sidney Mahr, Taylor Mason, Lulu Miskin, Chloe Morgan, Eleanor Nettleton, Amelia Purseglove, Bella Rosenberg, Lucia Salgado, Jasmin Sardi, Emily Scarlis, Sophie Snyman, Isabella Spagnardi, Oona Swinson-Dulhunty, Lilla Szentmariay, Nikki Zimmerman, Angela T. Moles and Julia Cooke

6. Published 19 February 2015
Are shrubs really a sign of declining ecosystem function? Disentangling the myths and truths of woody encroachment in Australia

David J. Eldridge and Santiago Soliveres

7. Published 19 February 2015
Time since fire and average fire interval are the best predictors of Phytophthora cinnamomi activity in heathlands of south-western Australia

Nicole Moore, Sarah Barrett, Kay Howard, Michael D. Craig, Barbara Bowen, Bryan Shearer and Giles Hardy

8. Published 25 June 2015
The flora of ultramafic soils in the Australia–Pacific Region: state of knowledge and research priorities

Antony van der Ent, Tanguy Jaffré, Laurent L'Huillier, Neil Gibson and Roger D. Reeves

9. Published 26 March 2015
Lost in time and space: re-assessment of conservation status in an arid-zone flora through targeted field survey

J. L. Silcock, A. J. Healy and R. J. Fensham

10. Published 19 February 2015
Comparative developmental anatomy of the taproot of the cucurbitaceous vines Citrullus colocynthis (perennial), Citrullus lanatus (annual) and Cucumis myriocarpus (annual)

Geoffrey E. Burrows and Razia S. Shaik

11. Published 26 March 2015
Temperature influences stomatal density and maximum potential water loss through stomata of Dodonaea viscosa subsp. angustissima along a latitude gradient in southern Australia

Kathryn E. Hill, Greg R. Guerin, Robert S. Hill and Jennifer R. Watling

12. Published 6 October 2015
Recovery of treeless subalpine vegetation in Kosciuszko National Park after the landscape-scale fire of 2003

K. L. McDougall, N. G. Walsh and G. T. Wright

13. Published 9 December 2015
The mistletoe flora of southern Western Australia, with a particular reference to host relationships and fire

A. N. Start

14. Published 6 October 2015
Grevillea (Proteaceae) seed coats contain inhibitors for seed germination

Xuanli Ma, Jingnan Guo, Xinyan Han and Guijun Yan

15. Published 26 March 2015
Do CO2, temperature, rainfall and elevation influence stomatal traits and leaf width in Melaleuca lanceolata across southern Australia?

Kathryn E. Hill, Robert S. Hill and Jennifer R. Watling

16. Published 6 October 2015
Chromium and nickel accumulation in the macrophytes of the Kawasi wetland on Obi Island, North Maluku Province, Indonesia

R. Amin, M. Edraki, D. R. Mulligan and T. H. Gultom

17. Published 9 December 2015
Differences in seedling water-stress response of two co-occurring Banksia species

M. M. Holloway-Phillips, H. Huai, A. Cochrane and A. B. Nicotra

18. Published 6 October 2015
Causes of infertility in the endangered Australian endemic plant Borya mirabilis (Boryaceae)

Noushka H. Reiter, Neville G. Walsh and Ann C. Lawrie

19. Published 7 August 2015
An evaluation of the genetic structure of seed sources and the maintenance of genetic diversity during establishment of two yellow box (Eucalyptus melliodora) seed-production areas

Linda M. Broadhurst, Graham Fifield, Bindi Vanzella and Melinda Pickup

20. Published 7 August 2015
Reproductive success of Acacia longifolia (Fabaceae, Mimosoideae) in native and invasive populations

Marta Correia, Sílvia Castro and Susana Rodríguez-Echeverría


      
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