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Australian Journal of Botany
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Protocols in ecological and environmental plant physiology


Australian Journal of Botany is an international journal for the publication of original research and reviews in plant science with relevance to Southern Hemisphere ecosystems including ecology and ecophysiology, conservation biology and biodiversity, forest biology and management, cell and molecular biology, palaeobotany, reproductive biology and genetics, mycology and pathology and structure and development. More...

Editor-in-Chief: Dr Dick Williams


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Published online 28 August 2014
Do fire-related cues, including smoke-water, karrikinolide, glyceronitrile and nitrate, stimulate the germination of 17 Anigozanthos taxa and Blancoa canescens (Haemodoraceae)? 
Katherine S. Downes, Marnie E. Light, Martin Pošta, Ladislav Kohout and Johannes van Staden

Kangaroo paws and catspaws are iconic Australian plants with substantial horticultural potential although they have seed that is often difficult to germinate. Many of these are known to germinate after fire, so the influence of a range of fire-related chemicals on germination was investigated. Once dormancy was alleviated, many kangaroo paw and catspaw taxa germinated in response to glyceronitrile rather than the more widely known smoke-derived chemical, karrikinolide.

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Published online 27 August 2014
Development and evolution of the gynoecium in Myrteae (Myrtaceae) 
Rafael R. Pimentel, Natália P. Barreira, Diego P. Spala, Nathane B. Cardim, Marcelo C. Souza, Bárbara Sá-Haiad, Silvia R. Machado, Joecildo F. Rocha and Lygia D. R. Santiago-Fernandes

Myrtaceae, a huge group of flowering plants to which ‘Eucalyptus’ and ‘guava’ belong, forms a major component of tropical rainforests, playing important role in the food chain due to the fleshy fruits eaten by many animals. Myrteae is a subgroup with species difficult to recognise due to the similar flower morphology. The structure of the female part of the flower (gynoecium) revealed great diversity giving new insight on Myrteae evolution, assuring ovule protection and efficient seed dispersal.

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Published online 26 August 2014
Where they are, why they are there, and where they are going: using niche models to assess impacts of disturbance on the distribution of three endemic rare subtropical rainforest trees of Macadamia (Proteaceae) species 
M. Powell, A. Accad and A. Shapcott

Macadamias are native to Australia and are grown worldwide for their edible nuts. However, persistence of their wild relatives is uncertain because of its limited ability to respond to the multiple challenges it faces. Our results provide insight into the patterns and processes that are key to conservation of Macadamia and have wider applicability in conservation of its rainforest habitat.

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Published online 22 August 2014
Population structure, seed loads and flowering phenology in three common (Melaleuca styphelioides, M. thymifolia, M. nodosa) and one rare (M. deanei) Melaleuca (Myrtaceae) species of the Sydney region 
Alison Hewitt, Paul Holford, Adrian Renshaw, Anthony Haigh and E. Charles Morris

The paper reports reproductive and structural attributes at the population level for three common species of Melaleuca and from large and small populations of the rare congener Melaeuca deanei. Within relatively smaller populations, M. deanei exhibitted a lower plant density, a lower incidence of flowering, significantly lower proportions of fruiting plants, fewer viable seeds per square metre and limited recruitment.

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Published online 21 August 2014
Monodominance at the rainforest edge: case study of Codia mackeeana (Cunoniaceae) in New Caledonia 
Thomas Ibanez and Philippe Birnbaum

Monodominance is unexpected in tropical forests, which usually exhibit rich and diverse flora. Hence, monodominant forests raise many questions, and one of the basic issues for managers is to know whether monodominance is a non-persistent step towards mixed forest or a persistent step, which prevents the recovery of a more diverse flora. Here, we present a novel case of monodominance in New Caledonia, with Codia mackeeana (Cunoniaceae) being involved in the secondary succession from anthropogenic savannas toward mixed forest.

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Published online 20 August 2014
Seed storage behaviour of 101 woody species from the tropical rainforest of southern China: a test of the seed-coat ratio–seed mass (SCR–SM) model for determination of desiccation sensitivity 
Qin-ying Lan, Ke Xia, Xiao-feng Wang, Jun-wei Liu, Jin Zhao and Yun-hong Tan

Information for seed desiccation-sensitivity is crucial for seed conservation of species from the Xishuangbanna tropical rainforest, the greatest biodiversity hotspot in China. Seed-desiccation sensitivity of 101 woody species from the Xishuangbanna tropical forest were analysed using the SCR–SM model. The model successfully predicted seed desiccation-sensitivity of 88% species whose storage behaviour was certain and indicated that ~50% of the species in Xishuangbanna are likely to have desiccation-sensitive seeds.

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Published online 20 August 2014
Plant-level fecundity and andromonoecy in three common (Melaleuca styphelioides, M. thymifolia, M. nodosa) and one rare (M. deanei) Melaleuca (Myrtaceae) species of the Sydney region 
Alison Hewitt, Paul Holford, Adrian Renshaw, Anthony Haigh and E. Charles Morris

This paper reports fecundity and floral morphs from four Australian eastern-coast Melaleuca species, including the vulnerable species M. deanei. Measures reported include fruit and seed loads per plant, fruit set, ovule numbers and seed : ovule ratios under natural conditions. Andromonoecy at low rates is reported for M. deanei and M. thymifolia. Results suggest that significantly lower seed loads per population within the smaller populations of M. deanei reflect a lower seasonal incidence of flowering and lower proportions of flowering plants per population, rather than any limitations in pollination, fruit/seed set or predation.

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Published online 20 August 2014
Sustained impacts of a hiking trail on changing Windswept Feldmark vegetation in the Australian Alps 
Mark Ballantyne, Catherine M. Pickering, Keith L. McDougall and Genevieve T. Wright

Trampling from recreational trail use can be a threat to plants especially in sensitive alpine communities where effects may persist over time. We re-assessed the impacts of trampling on a rare Windswept Feldmark community following initial sampling 10 years prior and found that trampling continues to cause alterations in species abundance and disrupt shrub succession in addition to broader compositional changes occurring as a result of local climatic trends. It is important to understand that trampling impacts do not often occur independently and management should seek to minimise trampling damage in favour of increasing resilience to larger-scale impacts such as climate change.

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Volume 62 Number 3 2014

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Molecular genetic diversity and population structure in Eucalyptus pauciflora subsp. pauciflora (Myrtaceae) on the island of Tasmania 
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Archana Gauli , Dorothy A. Steane , René E. Vaillancourt and Brad M. Potts
pp. 175-188

As climates change, forests must move, adapt or die. During ice ages, drought- and frost-resistant trees, such as Eucalyptus pauciflora, could have toughed it out on freezing highland savannas, but we show that they are more likely to have taken refuge in warmer lowland areas, expanding their range back into highland areas as the climate warmed, with pollen dispersal promoting a diverse gene pool in the new colonies. This is the first study to provide evidence to inform the debate about whether E. pauciflora survived glacial periods in highland areas.


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Acacia holosericea (Fabaceae) litter has allelopathic and physical effects on mission grass (Cenchrus pedicellatus and C. polystachios) (Poaceae) seedling establishment 
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Muhammad S. Quddus , Sean M. Bellairs and Penelope A. S. Wurm
pp. 189-195

We investigated ecological control of invasive mission grasses by a native acacia. The allelopathic and physical effects of leaf litter on germination, emergence and growth of mission grass seedlings were studied. We found a physical impact of dense A. holosericea leaf litter on emergence, and a mild allelopathic effect on seedling root growth. These findings will assist in rehabilitation of disturbed sites.


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Designing food and habitat trees for urban koalas: graft compatibility, survival and height of tall eucalypt species grafted onto shorter rootstocks 
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Stephen J. Trueman , Tracey V. McMahon , Elektra L. Grant , David A. Walton and Helen M. Wallace
pp. 196-204

The eucalypt species eaten by koalas are often unpopular with urban landowners and councils because of perceived dangers from falling limbs. We aimed to develop shorter eucalypt trees for urban areas by grafting tall species onto short species. Grafting success was greatest between closely related species but grafting rarely provided a suitable combination of high tree survival and low tree height. However, grafted Eucalyptus moluccana/E. behriana trees showed potential for urban amenity and fauna habitat plantings.


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Shifts in biomass and nitrogen allocation of tree seedlings in response to root-zone temperature 
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Suzy Y. Rogiers , Jason P. Smith , Bruno P. Holzapfel and Gurli L. Nielsen
pp. 205-216

Understanding environmental factors such as soil temperature on the growth of Acacias and Eucalypts is crucial to predicting how these Australian plants may adapt to a changing climate. We exposed the golden wreath wattle and the bushy sugar gum to warm soil during spring and development was compared to two North American deciduous species. We found that the Australian evergreens had unique patterns of carbon and nutrient partitioning between the below- and aboveground portions and therefore they are likely to have distinct growth responses to a changing climate.


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Comparative floral ontogeny of single-flowered and double-flowered phenotypes of Alcea rosea (Malvaceae) 
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Somayeh Naghiloo , Zahra Esmaillou and Mohammad Reza Dadpour
pp. 217-228

Given the horticultural significance of double flowers, they have been the subject of many developmental studies. We aim to address the question about the developmental process underlying the formation of extra petals in polyandrous flowers of Alcea rosea. The double-flowered phenotypes of Alcea appear to fit the criteria for homoheterotopy as well as for neoheterotopy.


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Ultrastructure of symbiotic germination of the orchid Dendrobium officinale with its mycobiont, Sebacina sp. 
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J. Chen , H. Wang , S. S. Liu , Y. Y. Li and S. X. Guo
pp. 229-234

Dendrobium officinale (Orchidaceae) is an endangered Chinese traditional medicinal plant. We examined the cell structural change of D. officinale seed inoculated with mycobiont Sebacina sp. and found that the colonisation by fungal hyphae, and peloton formation and digestion are associated with protocorm development. The result indicated symbiotic germination technique is a potential effective way for conservation and application of endangered orchid Dendrobium medicinal plant.


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Molecular phylogenetics of the Onobrychis genus (Fabaceae: Papilionoideae) using ITS and trnL–trnF DNA sequence data 
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S. Safaei Chaei Kar , F. Ghanavati , M. R. Naghavi , H. Amirabadi-zade and R. Rabiee
pp. 235-250

Due to the disagreement and inconsistencies which have existed among taxonomic classification of Onobrychis genus, we used morphological and molecular phylogenies to analyse ITS and trnL–trnF sequences of 76 species, so as to investigate and obtain a deeper intuition of the general structure of the interspecies relationships in Onobrychis.


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First karyological report in Larnax and Deprea (Solanaceae) 
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Rocío Deanna , Gloria E. Barboza and Marisel A. Scaldaferro
pp. 251-261

The study of chromosomes can help to understand the relationships among related species or clusters of species. Deprea and Larnax have been controversial about their position and classification within the nightshade plants family; besides, their chromosomes have still not been studied. We described for the first time several chromosome features and discussed them with leaf, flower and fruit traits, proposing possible changes in the current classification and evolutive considerations.


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These articles have been peer reviewed and accepted for publication. They are still in production and have not been edited, so may differ from the final published form.

    BT14138  Accepted 24 August 2014
    Synchronous monoecy in Ecdeiocoleaceae (Poales) in Western Australia.
    Barbara Briggs, Allan Tinker

    BT14032  Accepted 08 August 2014
    Diversity of exotic vascular plant species on Moreton Island in sub-tropical Australia: increase over 100 years
    Jian Wang

    BT14117  Accepted 30 July 2014
    Reproductive trajectories over decadal time-spans after fire for eight obligate-seeder shrub species in south-eastern Australia
    Annette Muir, Peter Vesk, Graham Hepworth

    BT13189  Accepted 29 July 2014
    Do fire-related cues, including smoke-water, karrikinolide, glyceronitrile and nitrate, stimulate the germination of 17 Anigozanthos taxa and Blancoa canescens (Haemodoraceae)?
    Katherine Downes, Marnie Light, Martin PoÅ¡ta, Ladislav Kohout, Johannes van Staden

    BT14102  Accepted 21 June 2014
    Salt stress differently affects growth, water status and antioxidant enzyme activities in Solanum lycopersicum L. and its wild-relative Solanum chilense Dun.
    Juan Pablo Martinez, Alejandro Antúnez, Hector Araya, Ricardo Pertuze, Lida Fuentes, X. Carolina Lizana, Stanley Lutts

    BT12210  Accepted 14 October 2012
    Relative humidity has dramatic impacts on leaf morphology but little effect on stomatal index or density in Nothofagus cunninghamii (Nothofagaceae).
    Mark Hovenden, Jacqueline Vander Schoor, Yui Osanai

The Most Read ranking is based on the number of downloads from the CSIRO PUBLISHING website of articles published in the previous 12 months. Usage statistics are updated daily.

Rank Paper Details
1. Published 8 August 2013
Buds, bushfires and resprouting in the eucalypts

G. E. Burrows

2. Published 23 May 2014
Review of the phytogeography of Cape York Peninsula: a flora that illustrates the development of the Australian sclerophyll biota

Bruce Wannan

3. Published 1 November 2013
Variation in leaf morphology of the invasive cat's claw creeper Dolichandra unguis-cati (Bignoniaceae)

Richard L. Boyne, Susan P. Harvey, Kunjithapatham Dhileepan and Tanya Scharaschkin

4. Published 1 November 2013
Comparative dating of Acacia: combining fossils and multiple phylogenies to infer ages of clades with poor fossil records

Joseph T. Miller, Daniel J. Murphy, Simon Y. W. Ho, David J. Cantrill and David Seigler

5. Published 8 August 2013
Specific leaf area: a predictive model using dried samples

Vania Torrez, Peter M. Jørgensen and Amy E. Zanne

6. Published 1 November 2013
Serotiny in southern hemisphere conifers

P. G. Ladd, J. J. Midgley and A. P. Nield

7. Published 11 February 2014
Guttation: path, principles and functions

Sanjay Singh

8. Published 1 November 2013
Natural and cultural histories of fire differ between Tasmanian and mainland Australian alpine vegetation

Jamie B. Kirkpatrick and Kerry L. Bridle

9. Published 1 November 2013
Different responses in leaf pigments and leaf mass per area to altitude between evergreen and deciduous woody species

Yan Li, Dongmei Yang, Shuang Xiang and Guoyong Li

10. Published 8 August 2013
Leaf traits of Eucalyptus arenacea (Myrtaceae) as indicators of edge effects in temperate woodlands of south-eastern Australia

Thomas E. Wright, Sabine Kasel, Michael Tausz and Lauren T. Bennett

11. Published 1 May 2014
Do habitat fragmentation and fire influence variation of plant species composition, structure and diversity within three regional ecosystems on the Sunshine Coast, Queensland, Australia?

Rohan Etherington and Alison Shapcott

12. Published 23 May 2014
Genetic diversity and biogeography of the boab Adansonia gregorii (Malvaceae: Bombacoideae)

Karen L. Bell, Haripriya Rangan, Rachael Fowler, Christian A. Kull, J. D. Pettigrew, Claudia E. Vickers and Daniel J. Murphy

13. Published 8 August 2013
Germination strategies of 20 alpine species with varying seed mass and light availability

Gao-Lin Wu, Guo-Zhen Du and Zhi-Hua Shi

14. Published 1 May 2014
Low-phosphorus conditions affect the nitrogen nutrition and associated carbon costs of two legume tree species from a Mediterranean-type ecosystem

Anathi Magadlela, Aleysia Kleinert, Léanne L. Dreyer and Alex J. Valentine

15. Published 8 August 2013
Seed dormancy and germination of the subalpine geophyte Crocus alatavicus (Iridaceae)

Ziyan Fu, Dunyan Tan, Jerry M. Baskin and Carol C. Baskin

16. Published 8 July 2014
Molecular genetic diversity and population structure in Eucalyptus pauciflora subsp. pauciflora (Myrtaceae) on the island of Tasmania

Archana Gauli, Dorothy A. Steane, René E. Vaillancourt and Brad M. Potts

17. Published 8 August 2013
Variation in leaf structure of the invasive Madeira vine (Anredera cordifolia, Basellaceae) at different light levels

Richard L. Boyne, Olusegun O. Osunkoya and Tanya Scharaschkin

18. Published 21 March 2014
Foliar physiognomic climate estimates for the Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian–Turonian) Lark Quarry fossil flora, central-western Queensland, Australia

Tamara L. Fletcher, Patrick T. Moss and Steven W. Salisbury

19. Published 21 March 2014
Effect of forest fragmentation and altitude on the mating system of Eucalyptus pauciflora (Myrtaceae)

Archana Gauli, René E. Vaillancourt, Dorothy A. Steane, Tanya G. Bailey and Brad M. Potts

20. Published 11 February 2014
Correlated morphological and genetic patterns in Embothrium coccineum (Proteaceae) across climate and geography: can Embothrium survive patagonian climate change?

Cintia P. Souto and Peter E. Smouse

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