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Protocols in ecological and environmental plant physiology


Australian Journal of Botany is an international journal for the publication of original research and reviews in plant science with relevance to Southern Hemisphere ecosystems including ecology and ecophysiology, conservation biology and biodiversity, forest biology and management, cell and molecular biology, palaeobotany, reproductive biology and genetics, mycology and pathology and structure and development. More...

Editor-in-Chief: Dick Williams


blank image Australian Journal of Botany
Volume 63 Number 7 2015

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Chromium and nickel accumulation in the macrophytes of the Kawasi wetland on Obi Island, North Maluku Province, Indonesia 
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R. Amin , M. Edraki , D. R. Mulligan and T. H. Gultom
pp. 549-553

Nickel laterite deposits in tropical areas can disperse chromium into surrounding natural wetlands. This study investigates the species of macrophytes in such environment and the concentration of chromium in them. We identified five macrophytes with 37.1 to 180.8 mg kg–1 d.w. concentrations of Cr in the roots, and 10.5 to 23.7 mg kg–1 d.w. in the shoots. That information can be used to select macrophytes species for a constructed wetland.


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Causes of infertility in the endangered Australian endemic plant Borya mirabilis (Boryaceae) 
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Noushka H. Reiter , Neville G. Walsh and Ann C. Lawrie
pp. 554-565

The Grampians Pincushion Lily (Borya mirabilis) is close to extinction - only four colonies exist, all at one site. The species is 93-97% genetically uniform, polyploid and produces almost non-functional pollen. Although plants flower abundantly, they do not set seed naturally, and 450 artificial crosses resulted in only one (first known) seed for the species. Management plans should target cloning of all plants as the ex-situ collection does not currently capture the species’ full genetic diversity.


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Grevillea (Proteaceae) seed coats contain inhibitors for seed germination 
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Xuanli Ma , Jingnan Guo , Xinyan Han and Guijun Yan
pp. 566-571

In this research we investigated seed dormancy of Grevillea species and the effects of Grevillea seed coat extracts on seed germination and seedling growth of several other plant species. Results showed that the seed coat was a major factor determining Grevillea seed dormancy, and removal of seed coat dramatically increased seed germination. Grevillea seed coat extracts reduced seed germination and seedling growth of other plants. We conclude that there is exogenous seed dormancy in Grevillea species and the chemical(s) in the seed coat is a major factor inhibiting seed germination.


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Post-fire succession during the long-term absence of fire in coastal heathland and a test of the chronosequence survey method 
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Marc Freestone , Timothy J. Wills and Jennifer Read
pp. 572-580

Despite the widespread use of controlled ecological burning to manage heathland ecosystems in south-east Australia, we know little about how heathland vegetation changes in the long-term absence of fire. This study shows that the rate at which plant species drop out of heathlands in the absence of fire is probably slower than previously thought, and that different techniques used to study this rate can give different results. This has implications for how often land managers should burn heathlands and how post-fire recovery of heathland vegetation is measured.


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Phenology of two co-occurring Piper (Piperaceae) species in Brazil 
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Adriano Valentin-Silva and Milene F. Vieira
pp. 581-589

The co-occurrence of species can be associated with phenological factors. The phenological behaviour of the co-occurring species Piper gaudichaudianum and Piper vicosanum were influenced by environmental variables and occurred mainly in the rainy season, but the sequential flowering and fruiting isolated them temporally from each other. Further, they were seen to display distinct reproductive strategies that seem to favour the maintenance of local populations.


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Population structure of the invasive species Leucaena leucocephala (Fabaceae) in a seasonal semi-deciduous forest, southern Brazil 
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Janete T. Costa , Inês C. B. Fonseca and Edmilson Bianchini
pp. 590-596

Biological invasion is a major problem because it affects biodiversity on the planet, especially in fragmented landscapes such as occurs in South Brazil. An established population of the invasive Leucaena leucocephala in a seasonal forest in Brazil was shown to be invading other areas of the forest where disturbance had occurred. Here we propose management actions to eradicate this species before other areas of this forest fragment are invaded.


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Recovery of treeless subalpine vegetation in Kosciuszko National Park after the landscape-scale fire of 2003 
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K. L. McDougall , N. G. Walsh and G. T. Wright
pp. 597-607

Most subalpine plant species in south-eastern Australia are resprouters, but several plant communities are dominated by seeders, potentially making them sensitive to the expected increase in fire frequency as global temperatures rise. Some seeder- and resprouter-dominated communities had not recovered 10 years after a fire in Kosciuszko National Park. Recovery is possibly a function of both the vegetation and external influences. We conclude that future fire management should be adaptive rather than prescriptive.


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Elucidating the determination of the rosette galls induced by Pisphondylia brasiliensis Couri and Maia 1992 (Cecidomyiidae) on Guapira opposita (Nyctaginaceae) 
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Graziela Fleury , Bruno G. Ferreira , Geraldo L. G. Soares , Denis C. Oliveira and Rosy M. S. Isaias
pp. 608-617

Insect galls are elegant models for the comprehension of plant developmental processes. Rosette galls induced by Pisphondylia brasiliensis on Guapira opposita buds are determined by different patterns of primary meristematic activity, with overproduction of neoformed buds and leafy projections. Also, the typical secondary growth in Nyctaginaceae occurs in multichambered galls, configuring the positive correlation between the number of larvae and the gall size.


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Water relations of wallum species in contrasting groundwater habitats of Pleistocene beach ridge barriers on the lower north coast of New South Wales, Australia 
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Stephen J. Griffith , Susan Rutherford , Kerri L. Clarke and Nigel W. M. Warwick
pp. 618-630

In this study we examined the groundwater-dependency of sclerophyllous evergreen vegetation (wallum) on sand barriers in eastern Australia. The species displayed a range of physiological strategies in response to water relations, and these strategies overlapped among contrasting growth forms and habitats. Wetland vegetation in the lowest part of the landscape appeared to tolerate extreme fluctuations in water availability linked to a prevailing climatic pattern of variable and unreliable seasonal rainfall.

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Published online 16 November 2015
Effects of sulfur on arsenic accumulation in seedlings of the mangrove Aegiceras conrniculatum 
Guirong Wu, Haoliang Lu, Jingchun Liu and Chongling Yan

Arsenic (As) contamination of sediments in mangrove forests is a growing environmental problem. This experiment evaluated the influence of sulfur (S) on As accumulation in mangrove seedlings. A 4 × 4 design of S × As treatments suggested that S can mitigate the toxicity of As to mangroves; As accumulation was inversely related to S concentration. Supplying S also altered the relative concentration of As forms in seedlings, namely As (V) and As (III), and significantly decreased their concentrations in roots.

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Published online 16 November 2015
The marked flooding tolerance of seedlings of a threatened swamp gum: implications for the restoration of critical wetland forests 
Joe Greet

Wetland forests at Yellingbo are home to the last remaining wild populations of the helmeted honeyeater and lowland Leadbeater’s possum and under threat from tree dieback and a lack of natural regeneration, putatively the result of prolonged waterlogging. I conducted flooding experiments to determine the flooding tolerance of E. camphora seedlings to inform hydrological works aimed at reducing waterlogging and restoring these critical wetland forests. While the ability of E. camphora seedlings to tolerate flooding is considerable (>12 months), conditions for E. camphora seedling establishment and growth are likely to improve as levels of flooding decrease.

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Published online 02 November 2015
Differences in seedling water-stress response of two co-occurring Banksia species 
M. M. Holloway-Phillips, H. Huai, A. Cochrane and A. B. Nicotra

In the South-west Australian Floristic Region, surviving the first-year summer drought is critical for successful seedling establishment in Banksia (Proteaceae). Predictions of a warmer, drier future, therefore, threaten population persistence. Here, we investigated the drought tolerance of two co-occurring Banksia species using seed collected from two different rainfall habitats and found both species and population differentiation in water-use strategies affecting plant mortality with soil drying. Considering differential sensitivity to water stress will, therefore, be important in conservation efforts.

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These articles have been peer reviewed and accepted for publication. They are still in production and have not been edited, so may differ from the final published form.

    BT15087  Accepted 26 November 2015
    Using vital statistics and core habitat maps to manage critically endangered orchids in the West Australian wheatbelt
    Mark Brundrett

    BT15198  Accepted 16 November 2015
    Relative importance of transpiration rate and leaf morphological traits for the regulation of leaf temperature
    Madalena Vaz Monteiro, Tijana Blanusa, Anne Verhoef, Paul Hadley, Ross Cameron

    BT15162  Accepted 16 November 2015
    Grazing and the absence of fire promote the dominance of an unpalatable shrub in a patch mosaic cyclic successional system
    James Kirkpatrick, Kerry Bridle

    BT15130  Accepted 16 November 2015
    Seed development following reciprocal crossing among autotetraploid and diploid Acacia mangium Willd. and diploid A. auriculiformis A. Cunn. ex Benth
    Chi Nghiem, Rod Griffin, Chris Harwood, Jane Harbard, Thinh Ha, Anthony Koutoulis

    BT15111  Accepted 16 November 2015
    New evidence for mammal pollination of Protea species (Proteaceae) based on remote camera analysis
    Kim Zoeller, Sandy-Lynn Steenhuisen, Steven Johnson, Jeremy Midgley

    BT14343  Accepted 16 November 2015
    The Christmas Tree Project: Comparing the effects of five treatments on the health of cut Christmas trees (Pinus radiata, Pinaceae).
    Olyvea Akres, Isabella Cavallaro, Cynthia Cheng, Madison Dixon, Darcy Goddard, Tamara Hoffbauer, Sidney Mahr, Taylor Mason, Lulu Miskin, Chloe Morgan, Eleanor Nettleton, Amelia Purseglove, Isabella Rosenberg, Lucia Salgado, Jasmin Sardi, Emily Scarlis, Sophie Synman, Isabella Spagnardi, Oona Swinsondulhunty, Lilla Szentmariay, Nikki Zimmerman, Angela Moles, Julia Cooke

    BT15142  Accepted 20 October 2015
    Influence of seed dimorphism and provenance on seed morphology, dispersal, germination and seedling growth of Brachyscome ciliaris (Asteraceae)
    Rina Aleman, Manfred Jusaitis, Joan Gibbs, Phillip Ainsley, Fleur Tiver, Sophie Petit

    BT15016  Accepted 10 October 2015
    Pollination unpredictability and ovule number in a South-Andean Proteaceae along a rainfall gradient
    Vanina Chalcoff, Marcelo Aizen

    BT15169  Accepted 18 September 2015
    Moss and vascular epiphyte distributions over host tree and elevation gradients in Australian subtropical rainforest
    Jennifer Sanger, James Kirkpatrick

    BT15092  Accepted 14 September 2015
    Temperature affects the dormancy and germination of sympatric annual (Oryza meridionalis) and perennial (O. rufipogon) native Australian rices (Poaceae) and influences their emergence in introduced para grass (Urochloa mutica) swards.
    Sean Bellairs, Penelope Wurm, Beckie Kernich

    BT15097  Accepted 13 September 2015
    Phytotoxic effects of phenolic compounds on Calopogonium mucunoides (Fabaceae) roots
    Roberta Ribeiro, Rodrigo Feitoza, Helena Lima, Mário Carvalho

    BT15133  Accepted 02 September 2015
    Problems with using mean germination time (MGT) to calculate rate of seed germination
    Elias Soltani, Farshid Ghaderi-Far, Carol Baskin, Jerry Baskin

    BT15041  Accepted 02 September 2015
    The effect of burnt soils on growth of Xanthorrhoea glauca subsp. angustifolia (Xanthorrhoeaceae) seedlings in box-ironbark ecosystems, North Central Victoria
    Marc Bellette, Ruth Lawrence, Neal Enright

    BT15028  Accepted 02 September 2015
    The mistletoe flora of southern Western Australia with particular reference to host relationships and fire.
    Antony Start


The Most Read ranking is based on the number of downloads from the CSIRO PUBLISHING website of articles published in the previous 12 months. Usage statistics are updated daily.

Rank Paper Details
1. Published 19 February 2015
Restoration of eucalypt grassy woodland: effects of experimental interventions on ground-layer vegetation

S. McIntyre, R. B. Cunningham, C. F. Donnelly and A. D. Manning

2. Published 19 February 2015
Dormancy-breaking and germination requirements for seeds of Acacia papyrocarpa, Acacia oswaldii and Senna artemisioides ssp.×coriacea, three Australian arid-zone Fabaceae species

Leanne M. Pound, Phillip J. Ainsley and José M. Facelli

3. Published 19 February 2015
Are shrubs really a sign of declining ecosystem function? Disentangling the myths and truths of woody encroachment in Australia

David J. Eldridge and Santiago Soliveres

4. Published 6 October 2015
Post-fire succession during the long-term absence of fire in coastal heathland and a test of the chronosequence survey method

Marc Freestone, Timothy J. Wills and Jennifer Read

5. Published 19 February 2015
Time since fire and average fire interval are the best predictors of Phytophthora cinnamomi activity in heathlands of south-western Australia

Nicole Moore, Sarah Barrett, Kay Howard, Michael D. Craig, Barbara Bowen, Bryan Shearer and Giles Hardy

6. Published 19 February 2015
Comparative developmental anatomy of the taproot of the cucurbitaceous vines Citrullus colocynthis (perennial), Citrullus lanatus (annual) and Cucumis myriocarpus (annual)

Geoffrey E. Burrows and Razia S. Shaik

7. Published 26 March 2015
Lost in time and space: re-assessment of conservation status in an arid-zone flora through targeted field survey

J. L. Silcock, A. J. Healy and R. J. Fensham

8. Published 26 March 2015
Temperature influences stomatal density and maximum potential water loss through stomata of Dodonaea viscosa subsp. angustissima along a latitude gradient in southern Australia

Kathryn E. Hill, Greg R. Guerin, Robert S. Hill and Jennifer R. Watling

9. Published 25 June 2015
The flora of ultramafic soils in the Australia–Pacific Region: state of knowledge and research priorities

Antony van der Ent, Tanguy Jaffré, Laurent L'Huillier, Neil Gibson and Roger D. Reeves

10. Published 23 December 2014
Contrasting breeding systems revealed in the rainforest genus Davidsonia (Cunoniaceae): can polyembryony turn the tables on rarity?

F. G. Eliott, M. Shepherd, M. Rossetto, P. Bundock, N. Rice and R. J. Henry

11. Published 23 December 2014
What makes a swamp swampy? Water regime and the botany of endangered wetlands in western Victoria

Michelle T. Casanova and I. Joan Powling

12. Published 6 October 2015
Recovery of treeless subalpine vegetation in Kosciuszko National Park after the landscape-scale fire of 2003

K. L. McDougall, N. G. Walsh and G. T. Wright

13. Published 26 March 2015
Do CO2, temperature, rainfall and elevation influence stomatal traits and leaf width in Melaleuca lanceolata across southern Australia?

Kathryn E. Hill, Robert S. Hill and Jennifer R. Watling

14. Published 6 October 2015
Grevillea (Proteaceae) seed coats contain inhibitors for seed germination

Xuanli Ma, Jingnan Guo, Xinyan Han and Guijun Yan

15. Published 23 December 2014
Evidence of population variation in drought tolerance during seed germination in four Banksia (Proteaceae) species from Western Australia

J. Anne Cochrane, Gemma L. Hoyle, Colin J. Yates, Jeff Wood and Adrienne B. Nicotra

16. Published 23 December 2014
The persistence and germination of fern spores in fire-prone, semi-arid environments

Sarah K. Paul, Kingsley W. Dixon and Ben P. Miller

17. Published 6 October 2015
Chromium and nickel accumulation in the macrophytes of the Kawasi wetland on Obi Island, North Maluku Province, Indonesia

R. Amin, M. Edraki, D. R. Mulligan and T. H. Gultom

18. Published 23 December 2014
Algae and prey associated with traps of the Australian carnivorous plant Utricularia volubilis (Lentibulariaceae : Utricularia subgenus Polypompholyx) in natural habitat and in cultivation

Bartosz J. Płachno, Konrad Wołowski, Andreas Fleischmann, Allen Lowrie and Magdalena Łukaszek

19. Published 23 December 2014
Vegetation and environmental relations of ephemeral subtropical wetlands in central Queensland, Australia

J. J. Halford and R. J. Fensham

20. Published 6 October 2015
Causes of infertility in the endangered Australian endemic plant Borya mirabilis (Boryaceae)

Noushka H. Reiter, Neville G. Walsh and Ann C. Lawrie

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Volume 63 (7)

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Australian Journal of Botany vol. 63 no. 1 & 2 and no. 3 & 4 form special editions containing Part 1 & Part 2, respectively, of the proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Serpentine Ecology.


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