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Australian Journal of Botany
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Protocols in ecological and environmental plant physiology


Australian Journal of Botany is an international journal for the publication of original research and reviews in plant science with relevance to Southern Hemisphere ecosystems including ecology and ecophysiology, conservation biology and biodiversity, forest biology and management, cell and molecular biology, palaeobotany, reproductive biology and genetics, mycology and pathology and structure and development. More...

Editor-in-Chief: Dick Williams


blank image Australian Journal of Botany
Volume 62 Number 7 2014

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Comparative developmental anatomy of the taproot of the cucurbitaceous vines Citrullus colocynthis (perennial), Citrullus lanatus (annual) and Cucumis myriocarpus (annual) 
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Geoffrey E. Burrows and Razia S. Shaik
pp. 537-545

Australia has several species of invasive (weedy) cucurbit species that have similar growth habits (sprawling vines) but have different growth cycles (annuals and perennials). We examined the taproot of annuals (two species) and a perennial (one species) and found that the annuals had small diameter taproots with relatively large diameter vessels, while the perennial had a large diameter taproot with smaller diameter vessels and a large volume of parenchyma. The taproot of the annuals was primarily constructed to conduct water through a relative small diameter cylinder while the perennial taproot had dual functions of water conduction and storage of starch to fund resprouting.


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Dormancy-breaking and germination requirements for seeds of Acacia papyrocarpa, Acacia oswaldii and Senna artemisioides ssp.×coriacea, three Australian arid-zone Fabaceae species 
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Leanne M. Pound , Phillip J. Ainsley and José M. Facelli
pp. 546-557

Ecological restoration of land affected by mining is often required post-mining. This requires production of seedlings of local species, for which germination requirements are often unknown. Therefore, we investigated seed dormancy and methods to break seed dormancy in three Australian arid-zone plant species. Restoration practitioners can use these methods, including scarification and wet-heat application, to overcome seed dormancy before direct seeding, to ensure seeds are capable of germinating readily.


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Analysis of nutrient use efficiency (NUE) in Eucalyptus pilularis forests 
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John Turner and Marcia J. Lambert
pp. 558-569

The efficiency by which nutrients are used by forests (nutrient use efficiency, or NUE) is an important indicator of ecosystem functioning, particularly the hypothesis that where nutrients are less available, forests are more efficient in their nutrient use. This study evaluates the value of different NUE indices and surrogates for one species, Eucalyptus pilularis, and shows that the hypothesis is true but forest age has to be taken into account. Suitable indices have been identified for comparison of NUEs among forest types important in both the cycling of nutrients and as a factor in the delineation of species in the landscape.


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Restoration of eucalypt grassy woodland: effects of experimental interventions on ground-layer vegetation 
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S. McIntyre , R. B. Cunningham , C. F. Donnelly and A. D. Manning
pp. 570-579

The removal of livestock grazing can improve the condition of grassland vegetation by allowing native plant growth and plant litter to accumulate. Experiments over a 4-year period showed that growing conditions can be additionally improved by reducing kangaroo densities and providing additional fallen timber. However, in the short term, favourable seasonal conditions can be the most important factor driving plant growth and increasing apparent plant diversity, particularly after a period of drought.

    | Supplementary Material (63 KB)

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Genetic diversity within a population of Microlaena stipoides, as revealed by AFLP markers 
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M. L. Mitchell , B. J. Stodart and J. M. Virgona
pp. 580-586

Leaf samples of Microlaena stipoides were collected from a pasture in north-eastern Victoria. The genetic diversity among samples was analysed using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. These results indicated that the populations studied are likely to have undergone some degree of outcrossing (Fst = 0.0219). It is likely that recruitment is occurring from sexual reproduction as well as via clonal spread.


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Time since fire and average fire interval are the best predictors of Phytophthora cinnamomi activity in heathlands of south-western Australia 
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Nicole Moore , Sarah Barrett , Kay Howard , Michael D. Craig , Barbara Bowen , Bryan Shearer and Giles Hardy
pp. 587-593

Phytophthora cinnamomi is a Key Threatening Process to the Australian environment, yet its interaction with fire is poorly understood. In south-western Australian heathlands, the proportion of dead and dying individuals of plants susceptible to P. cinnamomi was best explained by latest fire interval and average fire interval. This suggests that fire increases P. cinnamomi activity, which further complicates conservation management’s development of fire regimes for the conservation of biodiversity and the reduction of damaging wildfires.


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Are shrubs really a sign of declining ecosystem function? Disentangling the myths and truths of woody encroachment in Australia 
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David J. Eldridge and Santiago Soliveres
pp. 594-608

Shrubs and shrublands provide important ecosystem services, such as habitat for plants and animals and the maintenance of healthy, productive soils. Dense patches of shrubs, however, are often regarded as a sign of a dysfunctional system. We question this paradigm by reviewing scientific evidence and conclude that the condition of shrublands relates more to how they are managed than to the presence of shrubs themselves. Well managed shrublands can support a sustainable grazing industry as well as capturing and retaining nutrients, water and C, and providing plant and animal habitat.


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Confirming the genetic affinity of the ‘Eyres Green’ saltbush cultivar as oldman saltbush (Atriplex nummularia Lindl.) 
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J. F. Sampson , M. Byrne , H. C. Norman and E. Barrett-Lennard
pp. 609-613

Until recently, ‘Eyres Green’ was the only commercial oldman saltbush cultivar available in Australia for use in rehabilitating salt-affected and arid agricultural lands and to provide feed for livestock. This study used genetic markers to identify the plant source of ‘Eyres Green’ for land managers, so they can evaluate effective use of the cultivar in farming systems.


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Proliferation and harvesting of secondary protocorms as a novel means for improving propagation of terrestrial orchids 
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Betty Mauliya Bustam , Kingsley Dixon and Eric Bunn
pp. 614-621

A novel mass-propagation method for Australian terrestrial orchids species is at hand. With seed of rare species in short supply the aim of this research was to develop a special tissue culture method enabling cloning of multiple copies of the early stages of germinated orchid seeds that maximises the number of plants produced from each seed. This more efficient method will significantly assist orchid conservation programs.


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These articles have been peer reviewed and accepted for publication. They are still in production and have not been edited, so may differ from the final published form.

    BT14287  Accepted 25 February 2015
    Rita Morero, Franco Chiarini, Juan Urdampilleta, Gloria Barboza, David Barrington

    BT14265  Accepted 25 February 2015
    Nickel accumulation by species of Alyssum and Noccaea (Brassicaceae) from ultramafic soils in the Urals, Russia
    Anzhelika Teptina, Alexander Paukov

    BT14261  Accepted 24 February 2015
    Biomass and metal yield of co-cropped Alyssum murale and Lupinus albus
    Cheng-ai JIANG, Qi-Tang WU, Guillaume Echevarria, Romain Goudon, Jean Louis MOREL

    BT14337  Accepted 19 February 2015
    Nickel Hyperaccumulation in Populations of Psychotria grandis (Rubiaceae) from Serpentine and Non-serpentine Soils of Puerto Rico
    Rachel McAlister, Duane Kolterman, Arthur Pollard

    BT14282  Accepted 16 February 2015
    Effects of Ni on superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase activities and thiol groups: a comparative study between Alyssum hyperaccumulator and non-accumulator species
    Seyed Majid Ghaderian, Rasoul Ghasemi, Hosniye Heidari, Saiede Vazirifar

    BT14270  Accepted 13 February 2015
    A preliminary study of the role of bacterial-fungal co-inoculation on heavy metal phytotoxicity in serpentine soil
    Mihiri Seneviratne, Gamini Seneviratne, H.M.S.P. Madawala, MOHOMED Iqbal, Nishanta Rajakaruna, D.M.T.U Bandara, Meththika Vithanage

    BT14256  Accepted 12 February 2015
    Metals and secondary metabolites in saxicolous lichen communities on ultramafic and non-ultramafic rocks of the Western Italian Alps
    Sergio Favero-Longo, Enrica Matteucci, Mariagrazia Morando, Franco Rolfo, Tanner Harris, Rosanna Piervittori

    BT14238  Accepted 13 February 2015
    Structure, floristics and diversity of tropical montane rain forests over ultramafic soils on Mount Kinabalu (Borneo) compared with those on non-ultramafic soils
    Shin-ichiro Aiba, Yoshimi Sawada, Masaaki Takyu, Tatsuyuki Seino, Kanehiro Kitayama, Rimi Repin

    BT14134  Accepted 12 February 2015
    The reproductive biology of the introduced root holoparasite, Orobanche ramosa subsp. mutelii (Orobanchaceae) in South Australia
    Jane Prider

    BT14267  Accepted 12 February 2015
    A geobotanical investigation of the Koedoesfontein Complex, Vredefort Dome, South Africa
    Ricart Boneschans, Marthie Coetzee, Stefan Siebert

    BT14204  Accepted 11 December 2014
    Temperature influences stomatal density and maximum potential water loss through stomata of Dodonaea viscosa subsp. angustissima along a latitude gradient in southern Australia
    Kathryn Hill, Greg Guerin, Bob Hill, Jennifer Watling

    BT14284  Accepted 08 February 2015
    Nickel Hyperaccumulating Species of Phyllanthus (Phyllanthaceae) from the Philippines
    Marilyn Quimado, Edwino Fernando, Lorele Trinidad, Augustine Doronila

    BT14207  Accepted 02 February 2015
    A preliminary survey of the diversity of soil algae and cyanoprokaryotes on mafic and ultramafic substrates in South Africa
    Arthurita Venter, Anatoliy Levanets, Stefan Siebert, Nishanta Rajakaruna

    BT14354  Accepted 28 January 2015
    Metal-accumulating plants from serpentine habitats of Kızıldağ, Konya Province, Turkey
    Ahmet Aksoy, Zeliha Leblebici, Majeti Prasad

    BT14214  Accepted 26 January 2015
    Plant diversity and ecology of ultramafic outcrops in Sabah (Malaysia)
    Antony van der Ent, Rimi Repin, John Sugau, Khoon Meng Wong

    BT14184  Accepted 24 January 2015
    An ecological study of the central Queensland ultramafic endemic shrub Neoroepera buxifolia Muell.Arg. & F.Muell. (Picrodendraceae), Australia
    Rebecca Hendry, Kevin Wormington, Kerry Walsh

    BT14273  Accepted 23 January 2015
    Seasonal changes in photosynthetic rate and pigment content in two populations of the monotypic Balkan serpentine endemic Halacsya sendtneri
    Dražen Vicić, Milovan Stoiljković, Marko Sabovljević, Branka Stevanović

    BT14095  Accepted 23 January 2015
    Morpho-anatomical and molecular characterization of ectomycorrhizae associated with Eucalyptus spp. growing in different areas of the Punjab Province, Pakistan
    Hira Bashir, Abdul Nasir Khalid

    BT14219  Accepted 16 January 2015
    Nickel stimulates copper uptake by nickel hyperaccumulator plants in the genus Alyssum
    Rasoul Ghasemi, Seyed Majid Ghaderian, Sahar Ebrazeh

    BT14258  Accepted 13 January 2015
    Determining maturity and population structure in Macrozamia parcifolia (Zamiaceae), a threatened Australian cycad
    Adrian Borsboom, Jian Wang, Paul Forster

    BT14210  Accepted 13 January 2015
    Interaction of nickel and manganese in uptake, translocation, and accumulation by the nickel hyperaccumulator plant, Alyssum bracteatum (Brassicaceae)
    Seyed Majid Ghaderian, Rasoul Ghasemi, Faeze Hajihashemi

    BT14249  Accepted 12 January 2015
    Phytoextraction of nickel and rhizosphere microbial communities under mono- or multispecies hyperaccumulator plant cover in a serpentine soil
    Marie RUE, Jessica Vallance, Guillaume Echevarria, Patrice Rey, Emile Benizri

    BT14242  Accepted 12 January 2015
    Metal accumulation by Arabidopsis halleri subsp. gemmifera at a limestone mining site
    Aki Kosugi, Jun Tamaru, Kazumi Gotou, Hazuka Furihata, Akifumi Shimizu, Akira Kawabe, Emiko Harada

    BT14285  Accepted 08 January 2015
    The effect of plant density in nickel phytomining field experiments with Alyssum murale in Albania
    Aida Bani, Guillaume Echevarria, Xin Zhang, Baptiste Laubie, Emile Benizri, Jean Louis MOREL, Marie-Odile Simonnot

    BT14251  Accepted 05 January 2015
    Molecular Cloning, Expression and Sequence Analysis of a Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase Gene from Poncirus trifoliata under iron deficiency
    Jianfu Li, Wenjun Zheng, Li Zeng, Jianfu Liu, Mingyuan Wang

    BT14283  Accepted 29 December 2014
    Extended vegetation histories from ultramafic karst depressions.
    Geoff Hope

    BT14240  Accepted 29 December 2014
    Stenocalcic properties in the serpentine endemic plant Alyssum inflatum NYÁRÁDY
    Rasoul Ghasemi, Zohreh Zare Chavoshi, Seyed Majid Ghaderian

    BT14232  Accepted 28 December 2014
    Growth and nickel uptake by serpentine and non-serpentine populations of Fimbristylis ovata (Cyperaceae) from Sri Lanka
    Dileepa Chathuranga, THAMARA DHARMASENA, Nishanta Rajakaruna, MOHOMED Iqbal

    BT14235  Accepted 22 December 2014
    Calcium: magnesium ratio affects environmental stress sensitivity in the serpentine endemic Alyssum inflatum Nyár. (Brassicaceae)
    Rasoul Ghasemi, Zohreh Zare Chavoshi, Robert Boyd, Nishanta Rajakaruna

    BT14281  Accepted 19 December 2014
    Intermediate morphophysiological dormancy allows for life cycle diversity in the annual weed, Turgenia latifolia (Apiaceae)
    Miregul Nurulla, Carol Baskin, Juan Lu, Dun Tan

    BT14279  Accepted 18 December 2014
    Lost in time and space: re-assessment of conservation status in an arid-zone flora through targeted field survey
    Jenny Silcock, Rod Fensham

    BT14300  Accepted 18 December 2014
    Do CO2, temperature, rainfall and elevation influence stomatal traits and leaf width in Melaleuca lanceolata across southern Australia?
    Kathryn Hill, Bob Hill, Jennifer Watling

    BT14166  Accepted 16 December 2014
    Pleopeltis pleopeltifolia (Polypodiopsida, Polypodiaceae), a poikilochorophyllous desiccation-tolerant fern: anatomical, biochemical, and physiological responses during water stress
    Ana Lorenzen Voytena, Bruno Minardi, josé Barufi, Marisa Santos, AUREA RANDI

    BT14241  Accepted 02 December 2014
    Vegetation Dynamics and Mesophication in Response to Conifer Encroachment within an Ultramafic System
    Jerry Burgess, Katalin Szlavecz, Nishanta Rajakaruna, Steven Lev, Christopher Swan

    BT14226  Accepted 02 December 2014
    Elemental composition of plants from serpentine soil of Sugashima Island, Japan
    Takafumi Mizuno, yoko Kirihata

    BT14159  Accepted 12 November 2014
    Monophyly of Verbascum (Scrophularieae; Scrophulariaceae): Evidence from nuclear and plastid phylogenetic analyses
    Farokh Ghahremaninejad, Mehrshid Riahi, Melina Babai, Faride Attar, Lutfi Behcet

    BT14135  Accepted 07 November 2014
    Cryptic invasion by Capsella rubella (Brassicaceae) in Chile detected by ARMS-PCR
    Sergio Castro, Roberto Ovalle

    BT14195  Accepted 17 October 2014
    Erratic hyperaccumulation of nickel, with particular reference to the Queensland serpentine endemic Pimelea leptospermoides F. Mueller
    Roger Reeves, W Laidlaw, Augustine Doronila, Alan Baker, George Batianoff


The Most Read ranking is based on the number of downloads from the CSIRO PUBLISHING website of articles published in the previous 12 months. Usage statistics are updated daily.

Rank Paper Details
1. Published 16 October 2014
Diversity of exotic vascular plant species on Moreton Island in subtropical Australia: increase over 100 years

Jian Wang

2. Published 23 May 2014
Review of the phytogeography of Cape York Peninsula: a flora that illustrates the development of the Australian sclerophyll biota

Bruce Wannan

3. Published 8 July 2014
Molecular genetic diversity and population structure in Eucalyptus pauciflora subsp. pauciflora (Myrtaceae) on the island of Tasmania

Archana Gauli, Dorothy A. Steane, René E. Vaillancourt and Brad M. Potts

4. Published 23 May 2014
Genetic diversity and biogeography of the boab Adansonia gregorii (Malvaceae: Bombacoideae)

Karen L. Bell, Haripriya Rangan, Rachael Fowler, Christian A. Kull, J. D. Pettigrew, Claudia E. Vickers and Daniel J. Murphy

5. Published 16 October 2014
Reproductive trajectories over decadal time-spans after fire for eight obligate-seeder shrub species in south-eastern Australia

Annette M. Muir, Peter A. Vesk and Graham Hepworth

6. Published 1 May 2014
Do habitat fragmentation and fire influence variation of plant species composition, structure and diversity within three regional ecosystems on the Sunshine Coast, Queensland, Australia?

Rohan Etherington and Alison Shapcott

7. Published 21 March 2014
Effect of forest fragmentation and altitude on the mating system of Eucalyptus pauciflora (Myrtaceae)

Archana Gauli, René E. Vaillancourt, Dorothy A. Steane, Tanya G. Bailey and Brad M. Potts

8. Published 29 August 2014
Sustained impacts of a hiking trail on changing Windswept Feldmark vegetation in the Australian Alps

Mark Ballantyne, Catherine M. Pickering, Keith L. McDougall and Genevieve T. Wright

9. Published 21 March 2014
Foliar physiognomic climate estimates for the Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian–Turonian) Lark Quarry fossil flora, central-western Queensland, Australia

Tamara L. Fletcher, Patrick T. Moss and Steven W. Salisbury

10. Published 1 May 2014
Low-phosphorus conditions affect the nitrogen nutrition and associated carbon costs of two legume tree species from a Mediterranean-type ecosystem

Anathi Magadlela, Aleysia Kleinert, Léanne L. Dreyer and Alex J. Valentine

11. Published 29 August 2014
Do fire-related cues, including smoke-water, karrikinolide, glyceronitrile and nitrate, stimulate the germination of 17 Anigozanthos taxa and Blancoa canescens (Haemodoraceae)?

Katherine S. Downes, Marnie E. Light, Martin Pošta, Ladislav Kohout and Johannes van Staden

12. Published 16 October 2014
Salt stress differently affects growth, water status and antioxidant enzyme activities in Solanum lycopersicum and its wild relative Solanum chilense

Juan Pablo Martínez, Alejandro Antúnez, Héctor Araya, Ricardo Pertuzé, Lida Fuentes, X. Carolina Lizana and Stanley Lutts

13. Published 21 March 2014
Managing nutrient regimes improves seedling root-growth potential of framework banksia-woodland species

Erin Griffiths and Jason C. Stevens

14. Published 16 October 2014
The influence of depth-to-groundwater on structure and productivity of Eucalyptus woodlands

Sepideh Zolfaghar, Randol Villalobos-Vega, James Cleverly, Melanie Zeppel, Rizwana Rumman and Derek Eamus

15. Published 21 March 2014
Impact of distance to mature forest on the recolonisation of bryophytes in a regenerating Tasmanian wet eucalypt forest

Thomas P. Baker, Gregory J. Jordan, Patrick J. Dalton and Susan C. Baker

16. Published 23 May 2014
Unravelling the evolutionary history of Eucalyptus cordata (Myrtaceae) using molecular markers

Peter A. Harrison, Rebecca C. Jones, René E. Vaillancourt, Robert J. E. Wiltshire and Brad M. Potts

17. Published 21 March 2014
Do leaf traits in two Dalbergia species present differential plasticity in relation to light according to their habitat of origin?

Ana Silvia Franco Pinheiro Moreira, Ana Clara Luppi Queiroz, Fernanda de Vasconcelos Barros, Maíra Figueiredo Goulart and José Pires de Lemos-Filho

18. Published 21 March 2014
Seed ecology of Lepidosperma scabrum (Cyperaceae), a dryland sedge from Western Australia with physiological seed dormancy

S. R. Turner

19. Published 1 May 2014
Spatial and temporal variation in damage and dieback in a threatened subantarctic cushion species

J. Whinam, J. A. Abdul-Rahman, M. Visoiu, M.-B. F. di Folco and J. B. Kirkpatrick

20. Published 29 August 2014
Where they are, why they are there, and where they are going: using niche models to assess impacts of disturbance on the distribution of three endemic rare subtropical rainforest trees of Macadamia (Proteaceae) species

M. Powell, A. Accad and A. Shapcott

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