CSIRO Publishing blank image blank image blank image blank imageBooksblank image blank image blank image blank imageJournalsblank image blank image blank image blank imageAbout Usblank image blank image blank image blank imageShopping Cartblank image blank image blank image You are here: Journals > Australian Journal of Botany   
Australian Journal of Botany
Journal Banner
  Southern Hemisphere Botanical Ecosystems
 
blank image Search
 
blank image blank image
blank image
 
  Advanced Search
   

Journal Home
About the Journal
Editorial Board
Contacts
Content
Online Early
Current Issue
Just Accepted
All Issues
Special Issues
Turner Review Series
Sample Issue
For Authors
General Information
Notice to Authors
Submit Article
Open Access
For Referees
Referee Guidelines
Review an Article
Annual Referee Index
For Subscribers
Subscription Prices
Customer Service
Print Publication Dates

blue arrow e-Alerts
blank image
Subscribe to our Email Alert or RSS feeds for the latest journal papers.

red arrow Connect with us
blank image
facebook twitter youtube

red arrow PrometheusWiki
blank image
PrometheusWiki
Protocols in ecological and environmental plant physiology

 

Article     |     Next >>   Contents Vol 62(2)

Review of the phytogeography of Cape York Peninsula: a flora that illustrates the development of the Australian sclerophyll biota

Bruce Wannan

Australian Tropical Herbarium, James Cook University, PO Box 6811, Cairns, Qld 4870, Australia. Email: bruce.wannan@ehp.qld.gov.au

Australian Journal of Botany 62(2) 85-113 http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/BT13295
Submitted: 27 November 2012  Accepted: 3 April 2014   Published: 22 May 2014


 
PDF (2.6 MB) $25
 Export Citation
 Print
  
Abstract

Paleontological records from north-eastern Australia suggest that Cape York Peninsula is likely to have retained a warm and humid environment throughout the Cenozoic. The cooling and drying trend of the last 15 million years has been moderated on Cape York Peninsula by its position on the northern leading edge of the continent, its maritime or aquatic influences and partly montane topography. Cape York Peninsula shares a close geographic relationship with New Guinea, with 40% of its species shared, but has a distinctively separate flora that includes 330 bioregionally endemic plant species and five bioregionally endemic plant genera. Comparison with the monsoon savanna areas of Western Australia (Kimberley) and Northern Territory (Top End) suggests that Cape York Peninsula has a much richer rainforest flora. The non-rainforest flora of all three areas contains a significant regional element. The Peninsula has a mix of plant communities that are similar to those identified from Australia’s vegetation in the Cenozoic including rainforest, woodlands and grasslands. Cape York Peninsula demonstrates the mosaic of these environments, which were typical of much of Australia during the Cenozoic but which were lost in most areas during the cooling and drying of the Pliocene and Quaternary. The fossil record and dated phylogenies suggest that some of the taxa first evident in Australia during the Cenozoic are still growing on Cape York Peninsula. In the Myrtaceae and Poaceae, Cape York Peninsula demonstrates nationally and internationally significant taxonomic diversity. Its taxa are related to many that emerged in the forests of the Paleocene and to taxa which became dominant following the drying of the Miocene. The Peninsula contains elements which represent both older and modern lineages of many families in Australia. The phytogeographic significance of Cape York Peninsula is that it has a highly diverse flora, which contains plant communities and taxa that demonstrate the development of the sclerophyll biota in Australia during the Cenozoic.

Additional keywords: biogeography, monsoon, rainforest, savanna, vegetation.


References

Abrahams H, Mulvaney M, Glasco D, Bugg A (1995) ‘An assessment of the conservation and natural heritage significance of Cape York Peninsula.’ (Cape York Peninsula Land Use Strategy, Department of the Premier, Economic and Trade Development: Brisbane; and Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories: Canberra)

Accad A, Low Choy S, Pullar D, Rochester W (2005) Bioregion classification using model-based clustering: a case study in North Eastern Queensland. In ‘Proceedings of the international congress on modelling and simulation’. (Eds A Zerger, R Argent) pp. 1326–1332. (Modelling and Simulation Society of Australia and New Zealand: Melbourne)

Archer M, Hand SJ, Godthelp H (1994) Patterns in the history of Australia’s mammals and inferences about palaeohabitats. In ‘History of the Australian vegetation – Cretaceous to Recent’. (Ed. RS Hill) pp. 80–103. (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK)

Audley-Charles MG (1987) Dispersal of Gondwanaland: relevance to evolution of the angiosperms. In ‘Biogeographical evolution of the Malay Archipelago’. (Ed. TC Whitmore) pp. 5–25. (Clarendon Press: Oxford, UK)

Australian Heritage Commission (1994) ‘Sites of geological and landform conservation significance on Cape York Peninsula.’ (Cape York Peninsula Land Use Strategy, Department of the Premier, Economic and Trade Development: Brisbane, and Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories: Canberra)

Axelrod DI, Raven PH (1982) Paleobiogeography and origin of the New Guinea flora. In ‘Biogeography and ecology of New Guinea’. (Ed. JL Gressit) pp. 919–941. (W. Junk: The Hague, The Netherlands)

Balgooy MMJ van (1976) Phytogeography. In ‘New Guinea vegetation’. (Ed. K Paijmans) pp. 1–22. (Australian National University Press: Canberra)

Balgooy MMJ van, Hovenkamp PH, Welzen van PC (1996) Phytogeography of the Pacific – floristic and historical distribution patterns in plants. In ‘The origin and evolution of Pacific Island biotas, New Guinea to eastern Polynesia: patterns and processes’. (Eds A Keast, SE Miller) pp. 191–213. (SPB Academic Publishing: Amsterdam)

Baker ML, Duretto MF (2011) ‘A census of the vascular plants of Tasmania.’ (Tasmanian Herbarium, Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery Department of Economic Development, Tourism and the Arts: Hobart)

Barker W, Barker R, Jessop J, Vonow H (2005) ‘Census of South Australian vascular plants.’ (State Herbarium of South Australia Botanic Gardens of Adelaide and State Herbarium: Adelaide)

Barlow BA (1990) Biogeographical relationships of Australia and Malesia: Loranthaceae as a model. In ‘The plant diversity of Malesia’. (Eds P Baas, K Kalkman, R Geesink) pp. 273–292. (Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht, The Netherlands)

Barlow BA, Hyland BPM (1988) The origins of the flora of Australia’s wet tropics. In ‘The ecology of Australia’s wet tropics’. (Ed. RL Kitching) Proceedings of the Ecological Society of Australia 15, 1–17.

Beadle NCW (1981) Origins of the Australian angiosperm flora. In ‘Ecological biogeography of Australia’. (Ed. A Keast) pp. 407–426. (W. Junk: The Hague, The Netherlands)

Benson JS, Dick R, Zubovic A (1996) Semi-evergreen vine thicket vegetation at Derra Derra Ridge, Bingara, New South Wales. Cunninghamia 4, 497–510.

Bickel DJ (2009) The first species described from Cape York amber, Australia: Chaetogonopteron bethnorrisae n. sp. (Diptera: Dolichopodidae). In ‘Amber: archive of deep time’. (Eds B Berning, S Podenas). Denisia 26, 35–39.

Biffin E, Lucas EJ, Craven LA, da-Costa IR, Harrington MG, Crisp MD (2010) Evolution of exceptional species richness among lineages of fleshy-fruited Myrtaceae. Annals of Botany 106, 79–93.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Bijl PK, Schouten S, Sluijs A, Reichart G, Zachos JC, Brinkhuis H (2009) Early Palaeogene temperature evolution of the southwest Pacific Ocean. Nature 461, 776–779.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Bird MI, Chivas AR, Andrew AS (1989) A stable-isotope study of lateritic bauxites. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 53, 1411–1420.

Bird MI, Taylor D, Hunt C (2005) Palaeoenvironments of insular Southeast Asia during the Last Glacial Period: a savanna corridor in Sundaland? Quaternary Science Reviews 24, 2228–2242.
CrossRef |

Black KH, Archer M, Hand SJ, Godthelp H (2012) The rise of Australian marsupials: a synopsis of biostratigraphic, phylogenetic, palaeobiogeographic understanding. In ‘Earth and life, international year of planet earth 2012’. (Ed. JA Talent) pp. 983–1079. (Springer Science: Dordrecht, The Netherlands)

Bostock PD, Holland AE (2010) ‘Census of the Queensland flora 2010.’ (Queensland Herbarium, Department of Environment and Resource Management: Brisbane)

Bouchenak-Khelladi Y, Verboom GA, Savolainen V, Hodkinson TR (2010) Biogeography of the grasses (Poaceae): a phylogenetic approach to reveal evolutionary history in geographical space and geological time. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 162, 543–557.
CrossRef |

Bowler JM, Wyrwoll K, Lu Y (2001) Variations of the northwest Australian summer monsoon over the last 300,000 years: the paleohydrological record of the Gregory (Mulan) Lakes System. Quaternary International 83–85, 63–80.
CrossRef |

Bowman DM, Brown GK, Braby MF, Brown JR, Cook LG, Crisp MD, Ford F, Haberle S, Hughes J, Isagi Y, Joseph L, McBride J, Nelson G, Ladiges PY (2010) Biogeography of the Australian monsoon tropics. Journal of Biogeography 37, 201–216.
CrossRef |

Brown GK, Murphy DJ, Miller JT, Ladiges PY (2008) Acacia s.s. and its relationship among tropical legumes, tribe Ingeae (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae). Systematic Botany 33, 739–751.
CrossRef |

Brown GK, Murphy DJ, Ladiges PY (2011) Relationships of the Australo-Malesian genus Paraserianthes (Mimosoideae: Leguminosae) identifies the sister group of Acacia sensu stricto and two biogeographical tracks. Cladistics 27, 380–390.
CrossRef |

Bureau of Meteorology (2013) ‘Climate data.’ (Bureau of Meteorology: Canberra) Available at http://www.bom.gov.au[Verified 20 March 2013]

Carpenter RJ, Jordan GJ, Macphail MK, Hill RS (2012) Near-tropical Early Eocene terrestrial temperatures at the Australo–Antarctic margin, western Tasmania. Geology 40, 267–270.
CrossRef |

Chapman AD (2009) ‘Numbers of living species in Australia and the world.’ 2nd edn. (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts: Canberra)

Chapman AD (2010) ‘Census of the plants of Western Australia.’ (Department of Environment and Conservation: Perth). Available at http://florabasedecwagovau/statistics [Verified 16 April 2012]

Chivas AR, Garcıa A, van der Kaars S, Couapel MJJ, Holt S, Reeves JM, Wheeler DJ, Switzera AD, Murray-Wallace CV, Banerjee D, Price DM, Wang SX, Pearson G, Edgar NT, Beaufort L, De Deckker P, Lawson E, Cecil CB (2001) Sea-level and environmental changes since the last interglacial in the Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia: an overview. Quaternary International 83–85, 19–46.
CrossRef |

Christophel DC (1994) The early Tertiary macrofloras of continental Australia. In ‘Australian vegetation history: Cretaceous to Recent’. (Ed. RS Hill) pp. 262–275. (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK)

Christophel DC, Harris WK, Syber AK (1987) The Eocene flora of the Anglesea locality, Victoria. Alcheringa 11, 303–323.
CrossRef |

Clarkson JR (2002) Cape York Plants – a checklist of the vascular plants of the Cape York Peninsula Bioregion. Queensland Herbarium, Brisbane.

Clarkson JR, Kenneally KF (1988) The floras of Cape York and the Kimberley: a preliminary comparative analysis. In ‘The ecology of Australia’s wet tropics’. (Ed. RL Kitching). Proceedings of the Ecological Society of Australia 15, 259–266.

Clayton WD, Renvoize SA (1986) ‘Genera Gramineum: grasses of the world. Kew Bulletin Additional Series XIII.’ (Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew: London)

Clifford HT, Simon BK (1981) The biogeography of Australian grasses. In ‘Ecological biogeography of Australia’. (Ed. A Keast) pp. 537–554. (DW Junk: The Hague, The Netherlands)

Crayn DM, Costion CC, Harrington MG (2012) Plant dispersal across Wallace’s line: dated molecular phylogenies reveal the dynamics of the Sahul–Sunda floristic exchange and assembly of the Australian tropical rainforest flora. In ‘Australasian Systematic Botany Society conference 2012’. (Ed. K Thiele) pp. 25. (Western Australian Herbarium: Perth)

Crisp MD, Linder HP, Weston PH (1995) Cladistic biogeography of plants in Australia and New Guinea: congruent pattern reveals two endemic tropical tracks. Systematic Biology 44, 457–473.
CrossRef |

Crisp M, West JG, Lindner HP (1999) Biogeography of the Australian flora. In ‘Flora of Australia. Vol 1’. 2nd edn. (Ed. AE Orchard) pp. 321–367. (CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne)

Crisp MD, Laffan S, Linder HP, Monro A (2001) Endemism in the Australian flora. Journal of Biogeography 28, 183–198.
CrossRef |

Crisp M, Cook L, Steane D (2004) Radiation of the Australian flora: what can comparisons of molecular phylogenies across multiple taxa tell us about the evolution of diversity in present-day communities? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences 359, 1551–1571.
CrossRef | PubMed |

Crisp MD, Isagi Y, Kato Y, Cook L, Bowman DM (2010) Livistona palms in Australia: ancient relics or opportunistic immigrants? Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 54, 512–523.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Crisp M, Burrows GE, Cook LG, Thornhill AH, Bowman D (2011) Flammable biomes dominated by eucalypts originated at the Cretaceous–Palaeogene boundary. Nature Communications 2, 193–200.
CrossRef | PubMed |

Danaher KF (1995) ‘Marine vegetation of Cape York Peninsula.’ (Cape York Peninsula Land Use Strategy, Department of the Premier, Economic and Trade Development: Brisbane, and Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories: Canberra)

Department of Environment and Natural Resources (2012) ‘eFloraSA – electronic flora of South Australia.’ (Government of South Australia: Adelaide). Available at http://wwwflorasagovau/censusshtml [Verified 16 April 2012]

Department of Environment and Water Resources (2007) ‘Australia’s native vegetation.’ (Department of Environment and Water Resources: Canberra). Available at http://wwwenvironmentgovau/erin/nvis/publications/pubs/major-veg-summarypdf [Verified 29 March 2012]

Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (2011) ‘Biodiversity summary for NRM regions – species list for South West Western Australia.’ (SEWPAC: Canberra). Available at http://www.environmentgovau/heritage/anhat/summaries/wa/pubs/species-wa-south-westpdf. [Verified 24 September 2012]

Dettmann ME, Clifford HT (2000) Monocotyledon fruits and seeds, and an associated palynoflora from Eocene–Oligocene sediments of coastal central Queensland, Australia. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 110, 141–173.
CrossRef | PubMed |

Dettmann ME, Clifford HT (2002) Spondylostrobos F.Mueller: operculate fruits of and extinct dicotyledon from the mid-Tertiary of Australia. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 122, 219–237.
CrossRef |

Dettmann ME, Clifford HT (2003) Miocene palynofloras from subsurface sediments in the Bundaberg District. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 49, 261–267.

Doutch HF (1972) The paleogeography of northern Australia and New Guinea and its relevance to the Torres Strait area. In ‘Bridge and barrier: the natural and cultural history of Torres Strait’. (Ed. D Walker) pp. 1–10. (Australian National University: Canberra)

Edwards KJ, Gadek PA (2001) Evolution and biogeography of Alectryon (Sapindaceae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 20, 14–26.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Ellison AM, Farnsworth EJ, Merkt RE (1999) Origins of mangrove ecosystems and the mangrove biodiversity anomaly. Global Ecology and Biogeography 8, 95–115.
CrossRef |

Environment and Heritage Protection (2012) A biodiversity planning assessment for the Cape York Heritage Area – flora, fauna and landscape expert panel report. Department of Environment and Heritage Protection, Queensland Government: Brisbane.

Environment Science and Services NQ (1995) ‘Stage 1 Overview Reports: overview of current resources, land uses and issues.’ Cape York Peninsula land use strategy. (Department of the Premier, Economic and Trade Development: Brisbane, and Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories: Canberra)

Feary DA, Davies PJ, Pigram CJ, Symonds PA (1991) Climatic evolution and control on carbonate deposition in northeastern Australia Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology [Global and Planetary Change Section] 89, 341–361.
CrossRef |

Fensham RJ (1995) Floristics and environmental relations of inland dry rainforest in north Queensland, Australia. Journal of Biogeography 22, 1047–1063.
CrossRef |

Fitzsimmons KE, Cohen TJ, Hesse PP, Jansen J, Nanson GC, May J, Barrows TT, Haberlah D, Hilgers A, Kelly T, Larsen J, Lomax J, Treble P (2013) Late Quaternary palaeoenvironmental change in the Australian drylands. Quaternary Science Reviews 74, 78–96.
CrossRef |

Fox ID, Neldner VJ, Wilson GW, Bannink PJ (2001) ‘Vegetation of the Australian tropical savannas.’ (Environmental Protection Agency: Brisbane)

Frakes LA (1999) Evolution of Australian environments. In ‘Flora of Australia. Vol. 1’. 2nd edn. (Ed. AE Orchard) pp. 163–203. (ABRS/CSIRO Australia: Melbourne)

Galloway RW, Loffler E (1972) Aspects of the geomorphology and soils in the Torres Strait Region. In ‘Bridge and barrier: the natural and cultural history of Torres Strait’. (Ed. D Walker) pp. 11–28. (Australian National University: Canberra)

Genever M, Grindrod J, Barker B (2003) Holocene palynology of Whitehaven Swamp, Whitsunday Island, Queensland, and implications for the regional archaeological record. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 201, 141–156.
CrossRef |

Greenwood DR (1994) Palaeobotanical evidence for Australian tertiary climates. In ‘History of the Australian vegetation. Cretaceous to Recent’. (Ed. RS Hill) pp. 44–59. (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK)

Greenwood DR (1996) Eocene monsoon forests in central Australia? Australian Systematic Botany 9, 95–112.
CrossRef |

Greenwood DR, Christophel DC (2005) The origins and Tertiary history of Australian ‘tropical’ rainforests. In ‘Tropical rainforests: past, present and future’. (Eds E Bermingham, CW Dick, C Moritz) pp. 336–373. (University of Chicago Press: Chicago, IL)

Grindrod J (1985) The palynology of mangroves on a prograded shore, Princess Charlotte Bay, north Queensland, Australia. Journal of Biogeography 12, 323–348.
CrossRef |

Grindrod G (1988) The palynology of Holocene mangrove and saltmarsh sediments, particularly in northern Australia. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 55, 229–245.
CrossRef |

Groombridge B, Jenkins MD (2002) ‘World atlas of biodiversity Earth’s living resources in the 21st Century.’ (UNEP/ WCMC: London)

Haberle SG (2005) A 23 000-yr pollen record from Lake Euramoo, wet tropics of NE Queensland, Australia. Quaternary Research 64, 343–356.
CrossRef |

Hand S, Archer M, Bickel D, Creaser P, Dettman M, Godthelp H, Jones A, Norris B, Wicks D (2010) Australian Cape York amber. In ‘Biodiversity of fossils in amber from the major world deposits’. (Ed. D Penney) pp. 69–79. (Siri Scientific Press: Manchester, UK)

Hartley TG (1986) Floristic relationships of the rainforest flora of New Guinea. Telopea 2, 619–630.

Heads M (2006) Panbiogeography of Nothofagus (Nothofagaceae): analysis of the main species massings. Journal of Biogeography 33, 1066–1075.
CrossRef |

Hekel H (1972) Pollen and spore assemblages from Queensland Tertiary sediments. Geological Survey of Queensland, Palaeontological Papers 30, 1–34.

Hill KD (1998) Gymnosperms – the paraphyletic stem of seed plants. In ‘Flora of Australia, Vol. 48’. (Ed. PM McCarthy) pp. 505–526. (ABRS: Canberra/CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne)

Hill RS (1990) Evolution of the modern high latitude Southern Hemisphere flora: evidence from the Australian macrofossil record. In ‘Proceedings of the 3rd international organisation of palaeobotany conference’. (Eds JG Douglas, DC Christophel) pp. 31–42. (A–Z Printers: Melbourne)

Hill RS, Truswell EM, McLoughlin S, Dettman ME (1999) Evolution of the Australian flora: fossil evidence. In ‘Flora of Australia. Vol. 1’. 2nd edn. (Ed. AE Orchard) pp. 251–320. (ABRS/CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne)

Hitchcock P, Kennard M, Leaver B, Mackey B, Stanton P, Valentine P, Vanderduys E, Wannan B, Willmott W, Woinarski J (2013) The natural attributes for World Heritage nomination of Cape York Peninsula, Australia. Report for Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities, Canberra. Available at http://www.sciencemedia.com.au/downloads/2013-5-13-1.pdf. [Verified 10 August 2013]

Hooker JD (1860) ‘On the flora of Australia, being part of an introductory essay to Flora Tasmaniae. The botany of the Antarctic voyage of H. M. discovery ships Erebus and Terror, in the years 1839–1843, part III, 1: XXVII–CXXVIII.’ (Lovell Reeve: London)

Hsiao C, Jacobs SWL, Chatterton NJ, Asay KH (1999) A molecular phylogeny of the grass family (Poaceae) based on the sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS). Australian Systematic Botany 11, 667–688.
CrossRef |

Isern AR, McKenzie JA, Feary DA (1996) The role of sea-surface temperature as a control on carbonate platform development in the western Coral Sea. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 124, 247–272.
CrossRef |

Jacobs BF, Kabuye CHS (1987) A middle Miocene (12.2 my old) forest in the East African Rift Valley, Kenya. Journal of Human Evolution 16, 147–155.
CrossRef |

Johnson LAS, Briggs BB (1981) Three old southern families – Myrtaceae, Proteaceae and Restionaceae. In ‘Ecological biogeography of Australia’. (Ed. A Keast) pp. 427–469. (W. Junk: The Hague, The Netherlands)

Jones DL, Hopley T, Duffy SM (2010) ‘Australian tropical rainforest orchids.’ (ABRS and Centre for Australian National Biodiversity Research: Canberra). Available at http://www.anbg.gov.au/cpbr/cd-keys/orfk/ [Verified 20 November 2012]

Keast A (1981) Origins and relationships of the Australian biota. In ‘Ecological biogeography of Australia’. (Ed. A Keast) pp. 2001–2043. (W. Junk: The Hague, The Netherlands)

Kellogg EA (2002) Classification of the grass family. In ‘Flora of Australia. Vol. 43’. (Eds K Mallett, AE Orchard) pp. 19–36. (CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne)

Kershaw AP (1994) Pleistocene vegetation of the humid tropics of northeastern Queensland, Australia. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 109, 399–412.
CrossRef |

Kershaw AP, Sluiter IR (1982) Late Cainozoic pollen spectra from the Atherton Tableland, northeastern Australia. Australian Journal of Botany 30, 279–295.
CrossRef |

Kershaw P, Wagstaff B (2001) The southern conifer family Araucariaceae: history, status, and value for paleoenvironmental reconstruction. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 32, 397–414.
CrossRef |

Kershaw AP, Sluiter IR, McEwen Mason JC, Wagstaff BE, Whitelaw M (1991) The history of rainforest in Australia – evidence from pollen. In ‘The rainforest legacy’. Special Australian Heritage Publication Series Number 7 (3). (Eds G Werren, P Kershaw) pp. 1–16. (Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra)

Kershaw AP, Martin HA, McEwen Mason JC (1994) The Neogene: a time of transition. In ‘History of the Australian vegetation: Cretaceous to Recent’. (Ed. RS Hill) pp. 299–327. (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK)

Kershaw AP, Moss PT, Wild R (2005) Patterns and causes of vegetation change in the Australian Wet Tropics region over the last 10 million years. In ‘Tropical rainforests: past, present and future’. (Eds E Bermingham, CW Dick, C Moritz) pp. 374–400. (University of Chicago Press: Chicago, IL)

Kershaw AP, Bretherton SC, van der Kaars S (2007) A complete pollen record of the last 230 ka from Lynch’s Crater, north-eastern Australia. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 251, 23–45.
CrossRef |

Kikkawa J, Monteith GB, Ingram G (1981) Cape York Peninsula: major region of faunal interchange. In ‘Ecological biogeography of Australia’. (Ed. A Keast) pp. 1697–1736. (W. Junk: The Hague, The Netherlands)

Kimber P, Forster J, Behn G (1991) Mapping Western Australian rainforests – an overview. In ‘Kimberley rainforest’. (Eds NL McKenzie, RB Johnston, PG Kendrick) pp. 37–40. (Surrey Beatty: Sydney)

Kottek M, Grieser J, Beck C, Rudolf B, Rubel F (2006) World map of Koppen–Geiger climate classification updated. Meteorologische Zeitschrift 15, 259–263.
CrossRef |

Lavarack PS, Godwin M (1987) Rainforests of Northern Cape York Peninsula. In ‘The rainforest legacy. Australian national rainforest study. Vol. 1 – the nature, distribution and status of rainforest types’. Australian Heritage Publication Series 7(1). (Eds GL Werren, AP Kershaw) pp. 201–222. (Australian Heritage Publication Series: Canberra)

Lavarack PS, Puniard DJ, Fell DG (1995) ‘The vegetation of the McIlwraith Range’. (Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage, Brisbane).

Lavarack PS, Stanton JP (1977) Vegetation of the Jardine River catchment and adjacent coastal areas. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland 88, 39–48.

Lees BG (1992) Geomorphological evidence for late Holocene climate change in northern Australia. The Australian Geographer 23, 1–10.
CrossRef |

Lees BG (2006) Timing and formation of coastal dunes in northern and eastern Australia. Journal of Coastal Research 22, 78–89.
CrossRef |

Lees BG, Yu YC, Head J (1990) Reconnaissance thermoluminescence dating of northern Australian coastal dune systems. Quaternary Research 34, 169–185.
CrossRef |

Lees BG, Yu YC, Price DM (1992) Thermoluminescence dating of dunes at Cape St Lambert, east Kimberleys, northwestern Australia. Marine Geology 106, 131–139.
CrossRef | CAS |

Lees BG, Hayne M, Price D (1993) Marine transgression and dune initiation on western Cape York, northern Australia. Marine Geology 114, 81–89.
CrossRef |

Lees BG, Stanner J, Price D, Lu YC (1995) Thermoluminescence dating of dune podzols at Cape Arnhem, northern Australia. Marine Geology 129, 63–75.
CrossRef |

Lindner HP, Simon BK, Weiller CM (2002) The biogeography of Australian grasses. In ‘Flora of Australia. Vol. 43’. (Eds K Mallett, AE Orchard) pp. 183–212. (CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne)

Liu Z, Harrison SP, Kutzbach J, Otto-Bliesner B (2004) Global monsoons in the mid-Holocene and oceanic feedback. Climate Dynamics 22, 157–182.
CrossRef |

Luly J, Grindrod J, Penny D (2006) Holocene palaeoenvironments and change at Three-Quarter Mile Lake, Silver Plains Station, Cape York Peninsula, Australia. The Holocene 16, 1085–1094.

Mackey B, Nix H, Hitchcock P (2001) ‘The natural heritage significance of Cape York Peninsula.’ Consultancy report for Queensland Environmental Protection Agency. (ANUTECH: Canberra)

Macphail MK (1997) Late Neogene climates in Australia: fossil pollen- and spore-based estimates in retrospect and prospect. Australian Journal of Botany 45, 425–464.
CrossRef |

Macphail MK (2007) ‘Australian palaeoclimates: Cretaceous to Tertiary. A review of palaeobotanical and related evidence to the year 2000.’ Special Volume Open File Report 151. 266 pp. (CRC LEME: Bentley, WA)

Macphail MK, Hill RS (2001) Fossil record of Acacia in Australia: Eocene to Recent. In ‘Flora of Australia. Vol. 11a’. (Eds AE Orchard, AJG Wilson) pp. 13–29. (CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne)

Macphail MK, Hill RS (2002) Palaeobotany of the Poaceae. In ‘Flora of Australia. Vol. 43’. (Eds K Mallett, AE Orchard) pp. 37–70. (CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne)

Macphail MK, Alley N, Truswell EM, Sluiter IR (1994) Early Tertiary vegetation: evidence from spores and pollen. In ‘Australian vegetation history: Cretaceous to Recent’. (Ed. RS Hill) pp. 189–261. (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK)

Magee JW, Miller GH, Spooner NA, Questiaux D (2004) Continuous 150 ky monsoon record from Lake Eyre, Australia: insolation-forcing implications and unexpected Holocene failure. Geology 32, 885–888.
CrossRef |

Martin HA (1990) Tertiary climate and phytogeography in southeastern Australia. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 65, 47–55.
CrossRef |

Martin HA (1994) Australian Tertiary phytogeography: evidence from palynology. In ‘Australian vegetation history, Cretaceous to Recent’. (Ed. RS Hill) pp. 104–142. (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK)

Martin HA (2006) Cenozoic climatic change and the development of the arid vegetation in Australia. Journal of Arid Environments 66, 533–563.
CrossRef |

Martin HA, McMinn A (1993) Palynology of sites 815 and 823: the Neogene vegetation history of coastal northeastern Australia. In ‘Proceedings of the ocean drilling program, scientific results. Vol. 133’. (Eds JA McKenzie, PJ Davies, A Palmer-Julson) pp. 115–125.

McCusker A (2002) Poaceae. In ‘Flora of Australia. Vol. 43’. (Eds K Mallett, AE Orchard) pp. 1–2. (CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne)

McKenzie NL, Belbin L, Keighery GJ, Kenneally KF (1991) Kimberley rainforest communities: patterns of species composition and Holocene biogeography. In ‘Kimberley rainforest’. (Eds NL McKenzie, RB Johnston, PG Kendrick) pp. 423–451. (Surrey Beatty: Sydney)

McMinn A, Martin HA (1992) Late Cenozoic pollen history from Site 765, eastern Indian Ocean. In ‘Proceedings of the ocean drilling program, scientific results. Vol. 123’. (Eds FM Gradstein, JN Ludden) pp. 421–427.

Metcalf I (1998) Palaeozoic and Mesozoic geological evolution of the SE Asian region: multidisciplinary constraints and implications for biogeography. In ‘Biogeography and geological evolution of SE Asia’. (Eds R Hall, JD Holloway) pp. 25–41. (Backhuys Publishers: Leiden, The Netherlands)

Metcalf I (2008) Gondwana dispersion and Asian accretion: an update. In ‘Proceedings of the international symposia on geoscience resources and environments of Asian Terranes (GREAT 2008), 4th IGCP 516, and 5th APSEG, Bangkok’.

Miller JT, Murphy DJ, Simon YW, Cantrill DJ, Seigler D (2013) Comparative dating of Acacia: combining fossils and multiple phylogenies to infer ages of clades with poor fossil records. Australian Journal of Botany 61, 436–445.
CrossRef |

Monteith GB (1987) History of biological collecting at Cape York Queensland 1770–1970. Queensland Naturalist 28, 42–51.

Morley RJ (1998) Palynological evidence for Tertiary plant dispersals in the SE Asian region in relation to plate tectonics and climate. In ‘Biogeography and geological evolution of SE Asia’. (Eds R Hall, JD Holloway) pp. 211–34. (Backhuys Publishers: Leiden, The Netherlands)

Moss PT, Kershaw AP (2000) The last glacial cycle from the humid tropics of northeastern Australia: comparison of a terrestrial and a marine record. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 155, 155–176.
CrossRef |

Moss PT, Kershaw AP (2007) A late Quaternary marine palynological record (oxygen isotope stages 1 to 7) for the humid tropics of northeastern Australia based on ODP Site 820. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 251, 4–22.
CrossRef |

Moss PT, Cosgrove R, Haberle SG, Ferrier Å (2012) Holocene environments of the sclerophyll woodlands of the Wet Tropics of northeastern Australia. In ‘Peopled landscapes: archaeological and biogeographic approaches to landscapes’. Terra Australis 34. (Eds SG Haberele, B David) pp. 329–341. (Australian National University Press: Canberra)

Natural History Museum (2012) ‘Biodiversity and world map.’ (The Natural History Museum: London) Available at http://www.nhm.ac.uk/research-curation/research/projects/worldmap/siteplan.htm [Verified 22 October 2012]

Neldner VJ, Clarkson JR (1995) ‘Vegetation survey and mapping of Cape York Peninsula.’ (Cape York Peninsula Land Use Strategy, Department of the Premier, Economic and Trade Development: Brisbane, Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories: Canberra)

Neldner VJ, Fensham RJ, Clarkson JR, Stanton JP (1997) The natural grasslands of Cape York Peninsula, Australia. Description, distribution and conservation status. Biological Conservation 81, 121–136.
CrossRef |

Neldner VJ, Wilson BA, Thompson EJ, Dilleward HA (2005) ‘Methodology for survey and mapping of regional ecosystems and vegetation communities in Queensland.’ (Queensland Herbarium: Brisbane). Available at http://www.ehp.qld.gov.au/ecosystems/biodiversity/regional-ecosystems/regional_ecosystem_framework.html. [Verified 24 September 2012]

Nix HA (1982) Environmental determinants of biogeography and evolution. In ‘Evolution of the flora and fauna of arid Australia’. (Eds WR Barker, PJM Greenslade) pp. 47–66. (Peacock Publications: Adelaide)

Nix HA (1991) An environmental analysis of Australian rainforests. In ‘The rainforest legacy, Australian national rainforest study. Vol. 2’. (Eds G Werren, P Kershaw) pp. 1–26. (Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra)

Nix HA, Kalma JD (1972) Climate as a dominant control in the biogeography of northern Australia and New Guinea. In ‘Bridge and barrier: the natural and cultural history of Torres Strait’. (Ed. D Walker) pp. 61–92. (ANU Press: Canberra)

Nott J (2005) The origin and evolution of Australia’s eastern highlands. In ‘Tropical rainforests: past, present and future’. (Eds E Bermingham, CW Dick, C Moritz) pp. 322–335. (University of Chicago Press: Chicago, IL)

Nott J, Price D (1994) Plunge pools and paleoprecipitation. Geology 22, 1047–1050.
CrossRef |

Orchard AE (1999) Introduction. In ‘Flora of Australia. Vol 1’. 2nd edn. (Ed AE Orchard) pp. 163–203. (CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne)

Pedley L, Isbell RF (1971) Plant communities of Cape York Peninsula. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland 82, 51–74.

Peel MC, Finlayson BL, McMahon TA (2007) Updated world map of the Koppen–Geiger climate classification. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 11, 1633–1644.
CrossRef |

Pell S, Mitchell J, Singer H (2013) Phylogeny and two new taxa of Euroschinus, a Pacific Anacardiaceae lineage. Poster presentation at ‘Botany 2013 Conference’, New Orleans, 27–31 July. Available at http://2013.botanyconference.org/engine/search/index.php?func=detail&aid=943 [Verified 6 December 2013]

Pfeil BE, Crisp MD (2008) The age and biogeography of Citrus and the orange subfamily (Rutaceae: Aurantioideae) in Australasia and New Caledonia. American Journal of Botany 95, 1621–1631.
CrossRef | PubMed |

Pole MS, Bowman DM (1996) Tertiary plant fossils from Australia’s ‘Top End’. Australian Systematic Botany 9, 113–126.
CrossRef |

Pole MS, Hill RS, Green N, Macphail MK (1993) The Oligocene Berwick Quarry flora – rainforest in a drying environment. Australian Systematic Botany 6, 399–427.
CrossRef |

Queensland Herbarium (2012) ‘Regional ecosystem mapping for Cape York Peninsula. Version 7.0.’ (Department of Science, Information Technology, Innovation and the Arts: Brisbane)

Read J, Hope GS, Hill RS (2005) Phytogeography and climate analysis of Nothofagus subgenus Brassospora in New Guinea and New Caledonia. Australian Journal of Botany 53, 297–312.
CrossRef |

Reeves JM, Chivas AR, Garcia A, De Deckker P (2007) Palaeoenvironmental change in the Gulf of Carpentaria (Australia) since the last interglacial based on Ostracoda. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 246, 163–187.
CrossRef |

Reeves JM, Bostock HC, Ayliffe LK, Barrows TT, De Deckker P, Devriendt LS, Dunbar GB, Drysdale RN, Fitzsimmons KE, Gagan MK, Griffiths ML, Haberle SG, Jansen JD, Krause CE, Lewis S, McGregor HV, Mooney SD, Moss P, Nanson G, Purcell A, van der Kaars S (2013) Palaeoenvironmental change in tropical Australasia over the last 30 000 years – a synthesis by the OZ-INTIMATE group. Quaternary Science Reviews 74, 21–34.
CrossRef |

Robbrecht E, Manen J-F (2006) The major evolutionary lineages of the coffee family (Rubiaceae, angiosperms). Combined analysis (nDNA and cpDNA) to infer the position of Coptosapelta and Luculia, and supertree construction based on rbcL, rps16, trnL–trnF and atpB–rbcL data. A new classification in two subfamilies, Cinchonoideae and Rubioideae. Systematics and Geography of Plants 76, 85–145.

Roberts T (2007) An investigation into the molecular phylogenetics of Jedda multicaulis (Thymelaeaceae). Australian Systematic Botany Society Newsletter 130, 6–8.

Rowe C (2007) A palynological investigation of Holocene vegetation change in Torres Strait, seasonal tropics of northern Australia. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 251, 83–103.
CrossRef |

Rowe C (2008) Holocene vegetation change on Mua. Memoirs of the Qld Museum, Cultural Heritage Series 4, 593–604.

Rowe C (2012) Modern surface pollen from the Torres Strait islands: exploring north Australian vegetation heterogeneity. In ‘Peopled landscapes: archaeological and biogeographic approaches to landscape’. (Eds SG Haberle, B David) pp. 413–432. (ANU Press: Canberra)

Rozefelds AC (1990) A mid-Tertiary rainforest flora from Capella, Central Queensland. In ‘Proceedings, 3rd IOP conference, 1988’. (Eds JG Douglas, DC Christophel) pp. 123–136. (A–Z Press: Melbourne)

Saenger P (1998) Mangrove vegetation: an evolutionary perspective. Marine and Freshwater Research 49, 277–286.
CrossRef | CAS |

Schulmeister J (1992) A Holocene pollen record from lowland tropical Australia. The Holocene 2, 107–116.

Shoo LP, Anderseen A, Williams S (2009) On the isolated population of Lewin’s honeyeater (Meliphaga lewinii amphochlora) from the McIlwraith Range uplands, Cape York Peninsula, Australia: estimates of population size and distribution. Emu 109, 288–293.
CrossRef |

Short PS, Albrecht DE, Cowie ID, Lewis DL, Stuckey BM (2011) ‘Checklist of the vascular plants of the Northern Territory.’ (Northern Territory Herbarium: Darwin)

Simon BK (1988) The biogeography of tropical Australian grasses. In ‘The ecology of Australia’s wet tropics’. (Ed. RL Kitching) Proceedings of the Ecological Society of Australia 15, 267–269.

Simon BK, Yucely A (2012) ‘AusGrass 2.’ (Queensland Herbarium: Brisbane). Available at http://ausgrass2myspeciesinfo/ [Verified 16 March 2012]

Simpson DA, Furness CA, Hodkinson TR, Muasya AM, Chase MW (2003) Phylogenetic relationships in Cyperaceae subfamily Mapanioideae inferred from pollen and plastid DNA sequence data. American Journal of Botany 90, 1071–1086.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Simpson DA, Muasya AM, Alves MV, Bruhl JJ, Dhooge S, Chase MW, Furness CA, Ghamkhar K, Goetghebeur P, Hodkinson TR, Marchant AD, Reznicek AA, Nieuwborg R, Roalson EH, Smets E, Starr JR, Thomas WW, Wilson KL, Zhang X (2007) Phylogeny of Cyperaceae based on DNA sequence data – a new rbcL analysis. Aliso 23, 72–83.

Sluiter IR, Kershaw AP (1982) The nature of Late Tertiary vegetation in Australia. Alcheringa 6, 211–222.
CrossRef |

Sniderman JMK, Jordan GJ (2011) Extent and timing of floristic exchange between Australian and Asian rain forests. Journal of Biogeography 38, 1445–1455.
CrossRef |

Specht RL (1979) Heathlands and related shrublands of the world. In ‘Heathlands and related shrublands’. (Ed. RL Specht) pp. 1–18. (Lange and Springer: Berlin)

Specht RL (1981) Ecophysica1 principles determining the biogeography of major vegetation formations in Australia. In ‘Ecological biogeography of Australia’. (Ed. A Keast) pp. 299–333. (W. Junk: The Hague, The Netherlands)

Specht RL (1988) Origin and evolution of terrestrial plant communities in the wet–dry tropics of Australia. In ‘The ecology of Australia’s wet tropics’. (Ed. RL Kitching) Proceedings of the Ecological Society of Australia 15, 19–30.

Specht RL (2012) Biodiversity of terrestrial ecosystems in tropical to temperate Australia. International Journal of Ecology 2012, 359892

Specht RL, Salt RB, Reynolds ST (1977) Vegetation in the vicinity of Weipa, North Queensland. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland 88, 17–38.

Stanton P, Fell D (2005) ‘The rainforests of Cape York Peninsula.’ Cooperative Research Centre for Tropical Rainforest Ecology and Management. (Rainforest Cooperative Research Centre: Cairns, Qld)

Steenis CGGJ van (1950) The delimitation of Malaysia and its main plant geographical divisions. In ‘Flora Malesiana. Series 1’. (Ed. CGGJ van Steenis) pp. 52–75. (Noordhoff-Kolff n.v.: Djakarta, Indonesia)

Steenis CGGJ (1979) Plant-geography of east Malesia. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 79, 97–178.
CrossRef |

Steenis CGGJ (1985) The Australasian generic element in Malesia. Brunonia 8, 349–372.
CrossRef |

Stephens K, Head L (1995) Palaeoecology of archaeological and swamp sites in SE Cape York Peninsula. In ‘Quinkan prehistory’. (Eds MJ Morwood, DR Hobbs). Tempus 3, 18–32.

Stern H, de Hoedt G, Ernst J (2007) ‘Objective classification of Australian climates.’ (Bureau of Meteorology: Canberra). Available at http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/environ/other/koppen_explain.shtml [Verified 20 November 2012]

Stevens PF (2013) ‘Angiosperm phylogeny website. Version 12 July 2012.’ (Missouri Botanic Gardens: St Louis, MO). Available at http://wwwmobotorg/MOBOT/research/APweb/[Verified 8 November 2013]

Tardy Y, Kobilsek B, Paquet H (1991) Mineralogical composition and geographical distribution of African and Brazilian periatlantic laterites. The influence of continental drift and tropical paleoclimates during the past 150 million years and implications for India and Australia. Journal of African Earth Sciences 12, 283–295.
CrossRef | CAS |

Taylor G, Eggleton R (2004) Little Balls – the origin of the Weipa deposit. In ‘Regolith 2004’. Regolith 2004 CRC LEME. (Ed. IC Roach) pp. 350–354 (CRC LEME: Bentley, WA)

Taylor G, Eggleton R (2008) Genesis of pisoliths and of the Weipa Bauxite deposit, northern Australia. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences 55, S87–S103.
CrossRef | CAS |

Thackway R, Cresswell ID (1995) ‘An Interim Biogeographic Regionalisation for Australia – a framework for establishing the national system of reserves, Version 4.’ (Australian Nature Conservation Agency: Canberra)

The Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust (2013) PlantNET – the plant information network system of the Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust, Sydney (version 2). Available at http://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au [Verified 20 November 2013]

Thiele KR, Adams LG (2002) ‘The Families of flowering plants of Australia. An interactive identification guide.’ Revised edn. (ABRS/CSIRO: Canberra)

Thornhill AH, Popple LW, Carter RJ, Ho SY, Crisp MD (2012) Are pollen fossils useful for calibrating relaxed molecular clock dating of phylogenies? A comparative study using Myrtaceae Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 63, 15–27.
CrossRef | PubMed |

Tibby J, Haberle SG (2007) A late glacial to present diatom record from Lake Euramoo, wet tropics of Queensland, Australia. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 251, 46–56.
CrossRef |

Tindale M (1998) Introduction to the ferns and fern allies. In ‘Flora of Australia. Vol. 48’. (Ed. PM McCarthy) pp. 1–18. (CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne)

Torgersen T, Luly J, De Decker P, Jones MR, Searle DE, Chivas AR, Ullman WJ (1988) Late Quaternary environments of the Carpentaria Basin, Australia. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 67, 245–261.

Travouillon KJ, Legendre S, Archer M, Hand SJ (2009) Palaeoecological analyses of Riversleigh’s Oligo–Miocene sites: implications for Oligo–Miocene climate change in Australia. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 276, 24–37.
CrossRef |

Truswell EM (1993) Vegetation changes in the Australian Tertiary in response to climatic and phytogeographic forcing factors. Australian Systematic Botany 6, 533–557.
CrossRef |

Truswell EM, Kershaw AP, Sluiter IR (1987) The Australian–south-east Asian connection: evidence from the palaeobotanical record. In ‘Biogeographical evolution of the Malay Archipelago’. (Ed. TC Whitmore) pp. 32–49. (Clarendon Press: Oxford, UK)

Turner H (1996) Sapindaceae and the biogeography of eastern Australia. Australian Systematic Botany 8, 133–167.

Walker D (2007) Holocene sediments of Lake Barrine, north-east Australia, and their implications for the history of lake and catchment environments. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 251, 57–82.
CrossRef |

Walsh NG, Stajsic V (2012) ‘A census of the vascular plants of Victoria.’ 8th edn. (Royal Botanic Gardens: Melbourne). Available at http://www.rbg.vic.gov.au/viclist/index.htm [Verified 3 May 2014]

Wannan B (2010) ‘The story of plants on Cape York Peninsula.’ Report to Cape York Peninsula Scientific and Cultural Advisory Committee. (Queensland Department of Environment and Resource Management: Brisbane). Available at http://www.ehp.qld.gov.au/cape-york/pdf/cyp-plants.pdf [Verified 21 November 2013]

Webb LJ, Tracey JG (1972) An ecological comparison of vegetation communities on each side of Torres Strait. In ‘Bridge and barrier: the natural and cultural history of Torres Strait’. (Ed. D Walker) pp. 61–92. (ANU Press: Canberra)

Webb LJ, Tracey JG (1981) Australian rainforests: patterns and change. In ‘Ecological biogeography of Australia’. (Ed. A Keast) pp. 605–716. (Junk Press: The Hague, The Netherlands)

Webb LJ, Tracey JG, Jessup LW (1986) Recent evidence for autochthony of Australian tropical and subtropical rainforest floristic elements. Telopea 2, 575–589.

Webster PJ, Streten NA (1972) Aspects of later quaternary climate in tropical Australia. In ‘Bridge and barrier: the natural and cultural history of Torres Strait’. (Ed. D Walker) pp. 39–60. (ANU Press: Canberra)

Welzen PC Welzen PC (2011) The floristic position of Java. Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore 63, 329–339.

Welzen PC Welzen PC (2003) Historical biogeography of Southeast Asia and the West Pacific, or the generality of unrooted area networks as historical biogeographic hypotheses. Journal of Biogeography 30, 181–192.
CrossRef |

Welzen PC Welzen PC (2005) Plant distribution patterns and plate tectonics in Malesia. Biologiske Skrifter 55, 199–217.

Welzen PC Welzen PC (2011) Wallace’s Line and plant distributions: two or three phytogeographical areas and where to group Java? Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. Linnean Society of London 103, 531–545.
CrossRef |

Western Australian Herbarium (2010) Census of the plants of Western Australia. In ‘Western Australian flora statistics’. (Western Australian Herbarium: Perth). Available at http://florabase.dpaw.wa.gov.au/statistics/[Verified 3 May 2014]

Westman WE (1978) Evidence for the distinct evolutionary histories of canopy and understorey in the Eucalyptus forest-heath alliance of Australia. Journal of Biogeography 5, 365–376.
CrossRef |

White ME (2006) Environments of the geological past. In ‘Evolution and biogeography of Australian vertebrates’. (Eds JR Merrick, M Archer, GM Hickey, MSY Lee) pp. 17–50. (Auscipub: Sydney)

Whitmore TC (1984) ‘Tropical rain forests of the Far East.’ 2nd edn. (Oxford University Press: Oxford, UK)

Wildnet (2009) Online database of Queensland plant and animal records. Maintained by Queensland Environment and Heritage Protection.Qld EPA, Brisbane.

Williams PH, Humphries CJ, Gaston KJ (1994) Centres of seed-plant diversity: the family way. Proceedings. Biological Sciences 256, 67–70.
CrossRef |

Willmott W (2009) The geological story of Cape York Peninsula. Consultancy report for Queensland Department of Environment and Resource Management, Brisbane. Available athttp://www.ehp.qld.gov.au/cape-york/pdf/cyp-geology.pdf [Verified 19 November 2013]

Wilson PG, O’Brien MM, Heslewood MM, Quinn CJ (2005) Relationships within Myrtaceae sensu lato based on a matK phylogeny Plant Systematics and Evolution 251, 3–19.
CrossRef |

Woinarski J, Mackey B, Nix H, Traill B (2007) ‘The nature of Northern Australia – its natural values, ecological processes and future prospects.’ (ANU E Press: Canberra)

Woodroffe CD, Thom BG, Chappell J (1985) Development of widespread mangrove swamps in mid-Holocene times in northern Australia. Nature 317, 711–713.
CrossRef |

Wyrwoll K, Miller GH (2001) Initiation of the Australian summer monsoon 14 000 years ago. Quaternary International 83–85, 119–128.
CrossRef |

Yokoyama Y, Purcell A, Lambeck K, Johnston P (2001) Shore-line reconstruction around Australia during the Last Glacial Maximum and Late Glacial Stage. Quaternary International 83–85, 9–18.
CrossRef |


   
Subscriber Login
Username:
Password:  

 
    
Legal & Privacy | Contact Us | Help

CSIRO

© CSIRO 1996-2014