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Animal Production Science is an international journal publishing original research and reviews on the production of food, fibre and pharmaceuticals from animals. More

Editor-in-Chief: Wayne Bryden

 
 
 

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Published online 22 January 2016
Effect of ghrelin and leptin receptors genes polymorphisms on production results and physicochemical characteristics of M. pectoralis superficialis in broiler chickens 
U. Kaczor, K. Poltowicz, M. Kucharski, A. M. Sitarz, J. Nowak, D. Wojtysiak and D. A. Zieba

The present manuscript concerns the estimation of the effect of GHSR/Csp6I and LEPR/Bsp1236I polymorphisms on the most important growth, slaughter and broiler chicken meat quality characteristics. The results obtained will be helpful in verifying potential use of GHSR and LEPR genes as a genetic marker in selection. The presented data could form a basis for further research in the field of the genetics of quantitative traits in broiler chicken.

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Published online 22 January 2016
Perspective: are animal scientists forgetting the scientific method and the essential role of statistics? 
J. L. Black, S. Diffey and S. G. Nielsen

A trend towards reduced scientific rigour in design and analysis of experiments leads to poorer scientific outcomes and reduced returns on investment. The scientific method is reviewed and examples given of greatly improved accuracy of measurements and logical allocation of resources with strict adherence to the methodology. Ensuring that scientific rigour is maintained is the joint responsibility of scientists, research organisations and fund providers.

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   |        Open Access Article
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Published online 22 January 2016
Effects of melatonin implantation on cashmere growth, hormone concentrations and cashmere yield in cashmere-perennial-type Liaoning cashmere goats 
Chunhui Duan, Jianhai Xu, Yu Zhang, Wei Zhang, Yabo Sun and Zhihai Jia

This work is the first research on melatonin treatment in cashmere-perennial goats. Implantation of melatonin could improve cashmere growth and production in cashmere-perennial goats. Moreover, plasma melatonin concentrations were correlated with plasma prolactin in the regulation of cashmere growth. This study enriches the theoretical knowledge on the elucidation of the mechanism by which melatonin regulates cashmere growth.

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Published online 22 January 2016
Intergenerational effects of omega-6 fatty acids. 1. The reproductive rate of Border Leicester × Merino ewes is influenced by the diet fed to their dams around conception 
E. H. Clayton, M. A. Friend and J. F. Wilkins

In a previous experiment, the proportion of female Border Leicester × Merino first-cross lambs was higher when their Merino dams were fed a diet high in omega-6 fatty acids around mating. In the present study, the effect of diet previously fed to dams around mating on the potential reproductive rate of these Border Leicester × Merino ewe offspring at their first mating was determined. The mean number of fetuses per Border Leicester × Merino ewe at pregnancy scanning was higher when their dams had previously been fed a diet high in omega-6 compared with low in omega-6 fatty acids around joining. This is the first study to show an intergenerational effect of diets differing in fatty acid content fed to dams in the peri-conceptional period.

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Published online 22 January 2016
Genetic evaluation of adult ewe bodyweight and condition: relationship with lamb growth, reproduction, carcass and wool production 
S. F. Walkom and D. J. Brown

This paper reports on the genetic relationship between growth, wool, carcass and reproduction traits and ewe bodyweight and body condition in the Information Nucleus Flock. The genetic variation in weight and body condition and their genetic relationships with production traits were highly consistent across ages and the production cycle. Selection on body condition has the potential to assist in improving maternal performance and the feed costs associated with maintaining ewe body condition.

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Published online 22 January 2016
Changes in growth performance and body and carcass composition of common pheasants following three generations of selection for higher 7-week bodyweight 
D. Zapletal, K. Karásková and E. Straková

Captive rearing of pheasants is currently a common practise in some European countries. Selection over three generations of common pheasants for a higher bodyweight at the age of 7 weeks in the present study resulted in higher weights of the carcass, legs, neck, heart and liver in selected pheasants. However, the selection resulted in lower proportions of some important carcass components. For further selection with regard to improvement in meat production it is additionally important to include feed consumption and morphometric characteristics.

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Published online 22 January 2016
Effect of varying the energy density on growth performance, meat quality, caecum fermentation and microbiota of growing Rex rabbits 
S. J. Wu, L. Liu, Y. L. Zhu, C. Y. Wang and F. C. Li

Dietary energy can affect the growth and health of rabbit. The present study investigates the effects of varying the digestible energy density on growth performance, meat quality, caecum fermentation and microbiota of rabbits. The results show that average daily gain and meat quality were improved with increasing digestible energy concentration, and the microbiota was also affected by dietary energy density.

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Published online 22 January 2016
Effects of whole raw soybean or whole cottonseed on milk yield and composition, digestibility, ruminal fermentation and blood metabolites of lactating dairy cows 
Gustavo Ferreira de Almeida, Tiago Antônio Del Valle, Pablo Gomes de Paiva, Elmeson Ferreira de Jesus, Rafael Vilella Barletta, Jefferson Rodrigues Gandra, Vitor Pereira Bettero, Caio Seiti Takiya and Francisco Palma Rennó

Oilseeds can be fed raw and replace ground corn and soybean meal in dairy cow diets. Whole oilseeds are less expensive than oilseed meal due to the necessity of industrial processing. However, the use of oilseeds has been avoided because of the possible presence of anti-nutritional factors, which may negatively influence fibre digestion, impairing animal performance. Whole raw soybean and whole cottonseed decrease feed intake without effects on milk yield and, thus, may reduce dairy cow feed costs.

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Published online 22 January 2016
Clinical picture of active bovine viral diarrhoea infection in commercial bovine productive systems 
Susana Astiz, Laura Cogollos, Juan Manuel Loste, Gorka Aduriz, Javier Heras and Manuel Cerviño

Bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD), one of the most important infectious diseases affecting cattle, is thought to show a subclinical course in most cases, yet few studies have assessed this rigorously under non-epidemic conditions. Here we used clinical characteristics to assess the prevalence of BVD in bovine production systems suspected of harbouring infection, and we found 33.7% of dairy farms, 30.6% of beef cow-calf farms and 40% of feedlots to contain at least one animal positive for BVD viral antigen. These results suggest that BVD could be associated to farms with clinical troubles, and that clinical diagnosis of active BVD infection can be helpful, particularly in dairy herds, where infection tends to be associated with higher rates of infertility, stillbirths and calf health problems.

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Published online 22 January 2016
Effects of supplement or fertiliser on forage quality, and performance of stocker cattle grazing warm-season pastures 
J. D. Rivera, M. L. Gipson, R. G. Gipson and R. W. Lemus

Increasing fertiliser costs and environmental concerns require more efficient use of inputs. We examined whether fertilisation of pastures or supplementation of cattle was more beneficial to animal performance, forage quality, and economics. Average daily gain was improved with either fertilisation or supplementation compared with controls, however, due to the high cost of fertilisation, it tended to result in the lowest return on a per-head basis. Due to similarities in final bodyweight, the most economically advantageous system would involve no inputs; however, it is unclear what long-term ramifications on pasture health such a system would have.

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Published online 22 January 2016
Variation in feed utilisation by sheep undergoing compensatory growth following underfeeding with and without additional dietary nitrogen in western China 
Joshua Philp, Adam M. Komarek, Sarah J. Pain and William Bellotti

Recurrent lack of access to feed nitrogen is a common challenge in farming systems with strongly seasonal climates, and it is understood that underfeeding reduces feed digestibility and may have ongoing impacts for animal performance. Accordingly we conducted an investigation to learn if sheep that are fed the same diet perform differently immediately following underfeeding with and without additional nitrogen. We found that the sheep that had initially been given additional nitrogen while underfed used feeds more efficiently after underfeeding ended.

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Published online 21 December 2015
Variation in physiological profiles may explain breed differences in neonatal lamb thermoregulation 
K. J. Plush, M. L. Hebart, F. D. Brien and P. I. Hynd

The ability to thermoregulate following birth is an important determinant of lamb survival. We have shown that glucose metabolism, in addition to birthweight, is a potential explanation as to why some lambs are better able to resist hypothermia than are others. This improved understanding of neonatal thermoregulation may lead to targeted options, such as nutritional manipulation of gluco-regulatory pathways, to increase lamb survival.

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Published online 21 December 2015
Neonatal lamb mortality: factors associated with the death of Australian lambs 
G. Refshauge, F. D. Brien, G. N. Hinch and R. van de Ven

For long-term reductions in neonatal lamb mortality to occur we first must understand the primary causes of death. In the present study, neonatal lambs dying within 5 days of birth were autopsied, revealing dystocia (9%), stillbirth (21%), brain injury (18%) and starvation-mismothering (25%). These findings are largely consistent for a wide range of environments using common sires and should be the attention of future research in the Australian sheep industry.

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Published online 23 October 2015
Supplementation with crushed rapeseed causes reduction of methane emissions from lactating dairy cows on pasture 
T. M. Storlien, E. Prestløkken, K. A. Beauchemin, T. A. McAllister, A. Iwaasa and O. M. Harstad

Methane represents an energetic loss for the ruminant host, and is at the same time a threat to the climate. Thus, strategies for reducing methane emissions are highly important. This paper shows that crushed rapeseed lowered enteric methane emissions from dairy cows on pasture.

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Published online 20 October 2015
The effects of barley replacement by dehydrated citrus pulp on feed intake, performance, feeding behaviour and serum metabolic indicators in lambs 
M. N. N. E. Gobindram, M. Bognanno, G. Luciano, M. Avondo, G. Piccione and L. Biondi

The use of no-cereals feeds represents a critical point in the livestock field for environmental and ethical reasons; however, these feeds can contain substances able to affect animal metabolism. High levels of dehydrated citrus pulp (up to 35%) have been successfully included in lamb diets, without consistently modifying animal welfare and performance. Animal feeding can reduce waste disposal needs for the citrus industry.

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Published online 15 October 2015
Minhota breed cattle: carcass characterisation and meat quality affected by sex and slaughter age 
J. P. Araujo, J. M. Lorenzo, J. Cerqueira, J. A. Vazquez, P. Pires, J. Cantalapiedra and D. Franco

The Minhota cattle breed is native cattle from Portugal. The objective of this research was to study the effect of slaughter age and sex on carcass characteristics and meat quality of the Minhota cattle breed. Both entire male and female calf meat were of a strong light colour, a pale pink tone and had a high yellow index, which is common for animals without weaning.

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Published online 14 October 2015
The effect of feeding maize silage 1 h or 9 h before the herbage meal on dry matter intake, milk production, nitrogen partitioning and rumen function of lactating dairy cows 
O. Al-Marashdeh, P. Gregorini, S. L. Greenwood and G. Edwards

Previous studies provide some evidence of an effect of timing of supplementation on dry matter intake and productivity. However, there is still a lack of information on the effect of timing of supplementation on the performance and nitrogen excretion of lactating dairy cows subjected to feed restriction strategy. This study examined the effect of feeding maize silage at 1 or 9 hours before the herbage meal on dry matter intake, milk production, nitrogen partitioning and rumen function of lactating dairy cows. The results indicate that under herbage feed restriction, altering the time of supplementation relative to the herbage meal can increase herbage DM intake and subsequent milk production.

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Published online 14 October 2015
Effect of late gestation bodyweight change and condition score on progeny feedlot performance 
J. T. Mulliniks, J. E. Sawyer, F. W. Harrelson, C. P. Mathis, S. H. Cox, C. A. Löest and M. K. Petersen

In the western United States, cows often graze low-quality forages during late gestation, which may have a negative impact on fetal growth and development. This study investigated cow bodyweight change during late gestation on cow and calf performance. Our results indicate that cows that have been adapted and managed to reproduce in harsh, limited nutrient environments may have the ability to maintain normal fetal growth and development during periods of maternal nutrient restriction.

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Published online 12 October 2015
Effects of dietary zinc supplementation on nutrient digestibility, haematological biochemical parameters and production performance in male sika deer (Cervus nippon) 
Bao Kun, Sun Weili, Li Chunyi, Wang Kaiying, Li Zhipeng, Bi Shidan and Li Guangyu

Trace minerals are essential in ruminant diets as they participate in biochemical processes required for normal growth and development. Zn requirement for deer have not been established. Our objective for this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary Zn on antler growth, blood biochemical parameters and nutrient digestibility for farmed male sika deer.

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Published online 12 October 2015
Selection for increased muscling is not detrimental to maternal productivity traits in Angus cows 
L. M. Cafe, W. A. McKiernan and D. L. Robinson

Sale value of cattle may improve with greater muscling, but it is important to establish whether maternal productivity is maintained. This research showed that selection for increased muscling in Angus cows was not detrimental to maternal productivity under average to good nutritional conditions. Beef producers can confidently increase muscling in British type cows to benefit from price premiums without reducing their maternal ability.

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Published online 12 October 2015
Enhancement of physicochemical, microbiological and sensory properties of dry-cured loin by using processed sulfur-fed pigs 
Ji-Han Kim, Go-Eun Hong, Chang-Won Pyun, Woojoon Park and Chi-Ho Lee

This paper is aimed at researching the effect of processed sulphur supplementation for dry-cured loin quality. During the manufacture of dry-cured loin, storage stability and meat quality was enhanced by processed sulfur supplementation. Therefore, the meat industry can take advantage of the utilisation of meat processed with sulphur fed to pigs to improve meat quality.

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Published online 09 October 2015
Effects of DL-methionine supplement on growth performance and amino acid digestion and plasma concentrations in sika deer calves (Cervus nippon) 
Jian Huang, Wei-Li Sun, Chun-Yi Li, Han-Lu Liu, Tie-Tao Zhang, Kun Bao, Yan- Yan Fan, Guang-Yu Li and Kai- Ying Wang

Amino acids are essential in ruminant diets as they participate in biochemical processes required for normal growth and development. Met requirement for deer has not been established. Our objective for the present study was to evaluate the effects of DL-methionine supplement on growth performance, amino acid digestion and plasma concentrationss in sika deer calves.

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Published online 09 October 2015
Season and reproductive status rather than genetic factors influence change in ewe weight and fat over time. 4. Genetic relationships of ewe weight and fat score with fleece, reproduction and milk traits 
S. F. Walkom, F. D. Brien, M. L. Hebart, N. M. Fogarty, S. Hatcher and W. S. Pitchford

The profitability of a sheep enterprise is greatly influenced by the ability of the ewe to produce a lamb annually. This paper examines the association between the liveweight and fat score of the adult ewe and key fleece, reproduction and milk traits. The genetic relationships between fat score and reproduction were generally low to negligible. The advantages of selecting for fat to improve the maternal performance of the ewe seem to be limited in enterprises where the production system can easily be adjusted to restrict the influence feed deficiencies.

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Published online 22 September 2015
Carcass cut-out value and eating quality of longisssimus muscle from serially harvested savannah-raised Brahman-influenced cattle and water buffaloes in Venezuela 
N. Huerta-Leidenz, A. Rodas-González, A. Vidal, J. Lopez-Nuñez and O. Colina

Edible meat yield and flavour and taste of meat were compared at four ages for buffaloes and cattle. Although, buffaloes had lower proportions of lean cuts, buffalo meat exhibits more tender and flavourful steaks than does Brahman beef. Buffaloes may offer clear advantages for the Latin American meat trade, and consumers will be able to appreciate their palatability quality.

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Published online 22 September 2015
Forage intake, digestibility and performance of cattle, horses, sheep and goats grazing together on an improved heathland 
K. Osoro, L. M. M. Ferreira, U. García, A. Martínez and R. Celaya

The suitability of different domestic herbivore species to utilise partially improved heathlands for meat production was studied. Horses proved to be less efficient than cattle, sheep and goats as they had greater forage intakes and lower digestibility compared with ruminants. In terms of offspring gains, sheep was the most productive species, whereas goats’ ability to utilise woody vegetation makes them a good complement for mixed systems with grazer species.

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Published online 16 September 2015
Hepatic lipidosis in high-yielding dairy cows during the transition period: haematochemical and histopathological findings 
Enrico Fiore, Giuseppe Piccione, Laura Perillo, Antonio Barberio, Elisabetta Manuali, Massimo Morgante and Matteo Gianesella

The aim of this study was to assess the severity and distribution of hepatic lipidosis in dairy cows during the transition period by the evaluation of body condition score, lipomobilisation indicators and histological liver lipid content. A contemporary increase of non-esterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate immediately after calving accompanied by a high lipomobilisation with a mild to moderate fat infiltration were found. Our results suggest that hepatic lipidosis is associated with long-term histological and metabolic changes in dairy cows.

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Published online 15 September 2015
Effect of dietary Lippia citriodora extract on reproductive and productive performance and plasma biochemical parameters in rabbit does 
D. Casamassima, M. Palazzo, F. Vizzarri, L. Ondruska, P. Massanyi and C. Corino

Animal exposure to inappropriate environmental conditions can disturb normal cellular functions and integrity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the Lippia extract dietary supplementation on selected biochemical metabolites, plasma oxidative status, and on some productive and reproductive parameters in rabbit does. The results of this research highlight the positive role played by dietary supplementation with Lippia extract on does during the pregnancy.

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Published online 15 September 2015
Reducing the carbon footprint of Australian milk production by mitigation of enteric methane emissions 
Peter J. Moate, Matthew H. Deighton, S. Richard O. Williams, Jennie E. Pryce, Ben J. Hayes, Joe L. Jacobs, Richard J. Eckard, Murray C. Hannah and William J. Wales

International markets increasingly demand dairy products with low carbon footprints, but accurate statistics on Australian milk have been lacking. Methane emissions account for 85% of the greenhouse gas emissions of Australian milk production; however, emissions have declined by 40% over the past 30 years to approximately 20 g per kg of milk. These findings indicate the Australian Dairy Industry is making substantial reductions in the carbon footprint of milk.

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Published online 15 September 2015
Influence of a short-term prepartum supplementation on beef cows and calves 
G. Quintans, A. Scarsi, G. Roig, M. Carriquiry and G. Banchero

Under pastoral conditions, the last trimester of gestation coincides with the lowest forage production of native pasture. Beef pregnant cows have high nutritional demands at that moment. A short-term supplementation (40 days) before calving, with a concentrate, would be an excellent and profitable tool to increase reproductive performance without change to the calve’s birthweight.

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Published online 15 September 2015
Determination of changes in bovine plasma and milk proteins during naturally occurring Escherichia coli mastitis by comparative proteomic analysis 
Yongxin Yang, Suizhong Cao, Xiaowei Zhao, Dongwei Huang, Huiling Zhao and Guanglong Cheng

Mammary gland infection with bacteria commonly results in changes in milk components and decreases in milk yield. In this study, protein composition of plasma and milk were investigated in healthy cows, and cows infected with mild and severe Escherichia coli mastitis. Several differential milk proteins associated with the degree of severity of E. coli mastitis were found that could serve as potential diagnostic markers for E. coli mastitis.

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    | Supplementary Material (2 MB)
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Published online 07 September 2015
Effect of protein level on growth performance, non-carcass components and carcass characteristics of young sheep from three breeds 
H. Hajji, S. Smeti, M. Ben Hamouda and N. Atti

This paper focuses on an important aspect of sheep production that has received little research, in this case the nitrogen requirements of young sheep. It shows that these needs are lower than the growth of young lambs. Therefore, a contribution of 11% of crude protein results in the same growth, carcass and composition importance of meat cut as a supply of 16%.

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Published online 07 September 2015
Effect of an energy supplementation, weaning and oestrous synchronisation on ovarian activity and ovulation in early postpartum primiparous Bos indicus cows raised in the tropics of Costa Rica 
J. Galindo, S. Estrada, C. S. Galina, R. Molina, D. A. Contreras and M. Maquivar

Lack of sexual activity in first calving animals is one of the main conditions affecting the efficiency of cattle in the tropics; this is important since they need to continue growing, support lactation and raise their calf. This study evaluated the effect of an energy diet on the onset of ovarian activity in these females. Energy diet supplementation did not influence the onset of ovarian activity and more research is needed to determine more efficient nutritional strategies.

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Published online 04 September 2015
Effect of fermentation of soybean meal with varying protein solubility on ileal digestibility of nutrients in growing pigs 
Santi D. Upadhaya, Je-hoon Ryu, Kyung-il Kang, Seong-Jun Cho and In Ho Kim

Over processed or under processed soybean meal has adverse effects in the digestibility of protein and bioavailability of its constituent amino acids. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of fermentation on the low quality soybean meal with varying protein solubility. The results suggest that the low quality soybean meal could be improved through fermentation with Bacillus.

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Published online 04 September 2015
Effect of feeding semi-moist diets and highly digestible carbohydrate and protein sources in the prestarter phase on performance of broiler chicks 
Sayed Ali Tabeidian, Ghorbanali Sadeghi, Majid Toghyani and Mahmood Habibian

We examined the effects of inclusion of alternative carbohydrate and protein sources in prestarter diets and the form of diet on subsequent performance broilers. Our results showed that the inclusion of casein in a prestarter diet adversely affected intestinal development, feed intake and bodyweight at slaughter. At the same time, using a corn–soybean–fish meal-based prestarter diet in semi-moist form improved chick development, optimised feed intake and utilisation and positively affected growth performance.

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Published online 04 September 2015
A traditional cattle trade network in Tak province, Thailand and its potential in the spread of infectious diseases 
Chamrat Khengwa, Papaspong Jongchansittoe, Poonyapat Sedwisai and Anuwat Wiratsudakul

The movements of cattle dealers along the trade chain in Thailand may allow the spread of infectious diseases. We then analysed the trade network and found that cattle dealers connected with many sources and destinations of animals travelled long distances. Our findings are useful for related authorities in designing appropriate infectious disease control measures in the trade chain.

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Published online 04 September 2015
Do price premiums for wool characteristics vary for different end products, processing routes and fibre diameter categories? 
David Cottle and Euan Fleming

Differences in price premiums for wool characteristics for end product-processing groups are unknown. Inclusion of this group information was better than broad FD categories in understanding wool price. Using price relative to market indicator improved price prediction. Price premiums can be used to estimate relative economic values for sheep breeding selection indexes and to determine more profitable wool clip preparation strategies.

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    | Supplementary Material (1.9 MB)
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Published online 04 September 2015
Fasciola gigantica infection in large ruminants in northern Laos: smallholder knowledge and practices 
L. Rast, S. Nampanya, J.-A. L. M. L. Toribio, S. Khounsy and P. A. Windsor

This study looked at the knowledge of smallholder cattle and buffalo farmers in northern Laos about liver fluke, a common, production-limiting parasite that can also infect humans. Smallholders had minimal knowledge about this parasite and its potential impact nor knew about or implemented any specific control measures. The identified knowledge gap confirm the need for investment in effective extension capacities that effect changed practices amongst smallholders to provide opportunities for them to increase large ruminant production for better food security and safety in the region.

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Published online 04 September 2015
Influence of dietary glutamine supplementation on performance, biochemical indices and enzyme activities in broilers with cold-induced ascites 
Mokhtar Fathi, Mohammad Heidari, Ali Asghar Ahmadisefat, Mahmood Habibian and Mohammad Mehdi Moeini

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary glutamine supplementation on performance and biochemical indices of broilers with cold-induced ascites. Dietary glutamine supplementation had no effect on broiler performance. However, mortality due to ascites was reduced by dietary glutamine supplementation. We indicated that the beneficial effect of glutamine is probably related to its ability to maintain near to normal free radical scavenging enzymes and the level of glutathione peroxidase bioactivity, thereby protecting cell membranes from oxidative damage.

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Published online 04 September 2015
Chilean consumers’ perception about animal welfare in dairy production systems: short communication 
Einar Vargas-Bello-Pérez, José Luis Riveros, Claus Köbrich, Pamela Alejandra Álvarez-Melo and Joop Lensink

Results from this study may be useful in order to include animal welfare as an extrinsic quality attribute of dairy products in Chile and to define a market-oriented strategy including animal welfare.

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Published online 04 September 2015
Sire breed and sex effects on the fatty acid composition and content of heart, kidney, liver, adipose and muscle tissues of purebred and first-cross prime lambs 
A. E. O. Malau-Aduli, B. W. B. Holman, A. Kashani and P. D. Nichols

This study compared purebred and crossbred prime lamb fatty acid composition (mg/100 g) of liver, heart, kidney, adipose and muscle tissues. Differences among tissue fatty acid compositions were evident, with lamb sire breed and sex influencing the profiles. These findings emphasise the potential for sire breed and sex flock-management approaches to achieve fatty acid-associated meat-quality goals and alternative lamb tissues as rich sources of beneficial fatty acids.

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Published online 02 September 2015
Effect of residual feed intake phenotype–nutritional treatment interaction on the growth performance, plasma metabolic variables and somatotropic axis gene expression of growing ewes 
H. T. Nie, Z. Y. Wang, S. Lan, H. Zhang, Y. J. Wan, Y. X. Fan, Y. L. Zhang and F. Wang

The mechanism responsible for the divergence in feed efficiency of animals selected for different residual feed intake (RFI) phenotypes is unclear, and no biological markers have been reported. The present study was warranted to find the biological marker and mechanism responsible for the divergence in feed efficiency between different RFI phenotypes. These results provide the theoretical basis applicability of feed ef?ciency in sheep as measured using RFI, and identify potential physiological biomarkers for predictors of RFI.

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Published online 26 August 2015
Behavioural characterisation of Holstein steers in three different production systems 
O. Blumetto, A. Ruggia, A. Dalmau, F. Estellés and A. Villagrá

When changes in the production systems are carried out in order to improve productivity, life conditions of the animals can change and consequences on normal behaviour be developed. This work characterised the behaviour of steers in different production systems and showed that these animals are motivated to graze, regardless of the system. Thus, the design of steer-production systems should consider and allow these types of behaviours.

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Published online 25 August 2015
Effects of diet on leather quality and longissimus muscle composition of three Ethiopian indigenous goat types 
Dereje Tadesse, Mengistu Urge, Getachew Animut and Yoseph Mekasha

Little is known about leather and skin quality, and meat composition of Ethiopian goats despite them being major sources for domestic and export purposes. The result of the present study indicate that all evaluated goat genotypes produced leather with quality parameters acceptable for industrial processing and meat that can meet the demand of diversified consumers. The result will help to stimulate the utilisation and marketing of skin and leather, and the consumption of meat by different stakeholders.

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Published online 25 August 2015
Meta-analysis of effect of a mono-component xylanase on the nutritional value of wheat supplemented with exogenous phytase for broiler chickens 
A. J. Cowieson, W. Schliffka, I. Knap, F. F. Roos, R. Schoop and J. W. Wilson

Xylanases are a family of enzymes that hydrolyse arabinoxylan, a fibrous component of plant cell walls. Arabinoxylans are found in both soluble and insoluble forms distributed throughout various grains, legumes and oilseed meals and as such constitute a significant part of the fibre fraction of animal diets. Arabinoxylans increase intestinal viscosity and can negatively interfere with various digestive processes. Exogenous xylanases, added to the feed, partially hydrolyse arabinoxylans, reducing their antinutritional effect. Data presented herein confirm the continued efficacy of exogenous xylanases in the diets of poultry and shed light on the underlying trends and mechanisms involved.

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Published online 25 August 2015
Nitrogen balance in Holstein steers grazing winter oats: effect of nitrogen fertilisation 
F. Sánchez Chopa, L. B. Nadin, L. Agnelli, J. K. Trindade and H. L. Gonda

A detailed understanding of nitrogen (N) balance in grazing steers is needed to improve N utilisation, reducing N losses and environmental pollution. N fertilisation leads to chemical modifications of the consumed diet, and hence in the animals. Steers grazing fertilised oats had greater N intake, N retention, average daily gain and N excretion than steers grazing non-fertilised oats. These findings are part of the onset of N cycle in grazing management situations. It is important to study the environmental impact of animal depositions grazing fertilised oats.

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Published online 21 August 2015
The impact of selecting for increased ewe fat level on reproduction and its potential to reduce supplementary feeding in a commercial composite flock 
S. F. Walkom, F. D. Brien, M. L. Hebart and W. S. Pitchford

Analysis of a maternal composite stud flock in Holbrook, New South Wales indicated that selection for scanned post-weaning fat and muscle depth in lambs should lead to increased fat muscle and body condition in the breeding ewe. The influence of body composition traits on reproduction was weak. However, it is hypothesised that by genetically increasing post-weaning fat depth producers can reduce the demands for supplementary feeding.

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Published online 20 August 2015
Effects of glycerin and essential oils (Anacardium occidentale and Ricinus communis) on the meat quality of crossbred bulls finished in a feedlot 
I. N. Prado, O. T. B. Cruz, M. V. Valero, F. Zawadzki, C. E. Eiras, D. C. Rivaroli, R. M. Prado and J. V. Visentainer

Crossbred bulls fed with glycerin and essential oils improve meat quality. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of glycerin and essential oils on meat quality of crossbred bulls finished in a feedlot. The glycerin addition in the diet did not alter meat quality and the essential oils improved the overall acceptability of the meat according to consumers.

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Published online 20 August 2015
Effect of previous reproductive performance on current reproductive rate in South Australian Merino ewes 
David O. Kleemann, Simon K. Walker, Raul W. Ponzoni, Dennis R. Gifford, James R. W. Walkley, Darryl H. Smith, Richard J. Grimson, Kaylene S. Jaensch, Samuel F. Walkom and Forbes D. Brien

Poor reproductive performance of the Australian Merino may be due, in part, to the inability of ewes to recover body reserves by the next breeding cycle. However, this study shows that low liveweight and poor reproductive performance in any 1 year is not necessarily associated with previous reproductive performance. Genetic variation indicates that flock fertility could be improved by selection on previous records whilst gains in fecundity and survival could come from improved management.

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Published online 20 August 2015
Dietary supplementation of a bacteriocinogenic and probiotic strain of Enterococcus faecium CCM7420 and its effect on the mineral content and quality of Musculus longissimus dorsi in rabbits 
M. Pogány Simonová, L'. Chrastinová and A. Lauková

There is an increasing interest of consumers in a healthy lifestyle, e.g. energy and nutritional values of food, rich in protein and low in cholesterol and lipid contents, like rabbit meat. During the bacteriocinogenic and probiotic strain Enterococcus faecium CCM7420 administration to rabbits the iron content in carcass samples significantly increased. A diet enriched with the CCM7420 strain is beneficial for the health status of rabbits, involving the nutritional quality of rabbit meat in connection with consumers.

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Published online 17 August 2015
Animal and human health is unlikely to be at risk when generations of sheep graze bauxite residue (Alkaloam®)-amended pastures 
M. Laurence, N. Stephens and G. Megirian

This research investigated concerns that bauxite residue (Alkaloam®), which is well recognised for increasing pasture production, could put animal and human health at risk. The aim was to show that when sheep graze pasture that has been improved with Alkaloam application, animal tissues do not accumulate dangerous heavy metals. There was no evidence that this occurred when two generations of sheep grazed improved pasture. This adds to the weight of evidence that suggests that Alkaloam may be a safe and highly effective way to increase productivity on Western Australia farms.

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Published online 17 August 2015
Validation of single photon absorptiometry for on-farm measurement of density and mineral content of tail bone in cattle 
D. B. Coates, R. M. Dixon, R. J. Mayer and R. M. Murray

Diagnosing phosphorus deficiency in cattle is important because the deficiency is serious and widespread across northern Australia and is a major limitation to productivity. This research investigated the accuracy of measuring mineral density in the tail bones of live cattle as a practical and non-invasive way of detecting phosphorus deficiency. Accuracy was found to be sufficient to warrant further development of the diagnostic technique for on property use and as a research tool.

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Published online 17 August 2015
Effect of dietary mannan-oligosaccharides on some blood biochemical, haematological parameters and carcass traits in purebred New Zealand White and crossbred rabbits 
Tamer M. Abdel-Hamid and Mahmoud H. Farahat

The use of safe additives such as prebiotics is very interesting to avoid a public health hazard. This study examined the effect of dietary mannan-oligosaccharides on some blood parameters and carcass traits of purebred and crossbred rabbits. We found that 1.0 g/kg of diet mannan-oligosaccharides improved immunity, health, liveweights and carcass weights. We can recommend the spreading of these results on the commercial scale.

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Published online 06 August 2015
A comparison of fatty acid profiles and lipolysis during ripening of dry-cured loins obtained from a native pig breed (ChatoMurciano) and from a modern crossbreed pig 
Luis Tejada, Eva Salazar, Adela Abellán, Begoña Peinado, Juana Mulero and Jose M. Cayuela

This study is a comparison of the fatty acid concentration in the different lipids fractions of dry-cured loin obtained from Chato Murciano and from a modern crossbreed pig throughout the ripening stage. The results provide evidence that Chato Murciano dry-cured loin is a significant source of monounsaturated fatty acids. This fact is significant to increase the attraction of using the breed to obtain derived products.

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Published online 03 August 2015
Changes in the nutritive value and aerobic stability of corn silages inoculated with Bacillus subtilis alone or combined with Lactobacillus plantarum 
Erika C. Lara, Fernanda C. Basso, Flávia B. de Assis, Fernando A. Souza, Telma T. Berchielli and Ricardo A. Reis

Corn silage is the most utilised conserved forage to animal feeding in the world due to all the desirable characteristics of an ensilable crop, but problems such as aerobic instability and fermentation losses are frequent. To minimise these effects, bacterial inoculants are used at ensilage. In this study, silages inoculated with B. subtilis and L. plantarum maintained appropriate fermentative characteristics, decreased the neutral detergent fibre content and increased the in vitro digestibility. In addition, silages inoculated with B. subtilis had lower populations of yeasts and moulds and increased aerobic stability.

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Published online 03 August 2015
Effect of dietary ALA on growth rate, feed conversion ratio, mortality rate and breast meat omega-3 LCPUFA content in broiler chickens 
John F. Carragher, Beverly S. Mühlhäusler, Mark S. Geier, James D. House, Robert J. Hughes and Robert A. Gibson

In a previous study we significantly increased the long-chain omega-3 content of chicken meat by feeding a diet containing short-chain omega-3 from flaxseed oil. The present study, using almost 4000 broiler birds housed under near-commercial conditions, demonstrated the same flaxseed oil diet improved growth rate and feed conversion efficiency from hatch to 6 weeks of age without negative effects on health or mortality. This supports the commercial viability of short-chain omega-3 diets for the chicken industry.

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Published online 29 July 2015
Estimation of bodyweight from body measurements and determination of body measurements on Limousin cattle using digital image analysis 
Serkan Ozkaya, Wojciech Neja, Sylwia Krezel-Czopek and Adam Oler

In recent years, computer-aided and image analysis has been used for livestock production. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determination of body measurements and estimation of bodyweight from body measurements by using digital image analysis. The results indicated that digital image analysis can be used for accurate prediction of body measurements and bodyweight. Body area can be used for estimation of bodyweight.

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Published online 27 July 2015
Sunflower meal and spring pea ruminal degradation protection using malic acid or orthophosphoric acid-heat treatments 
F. Díaz-Royón, J. M. Arroyo, M. D. Sánchez-Yélamo and J. González

Reducing ruminal degradation of high-quality proteins may decrease ammonia losses and increase the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis. The combined treatment of sunflower meal and spring pea with solutions of malic or orthophosphoric acids and heat reduced the ruminal degradation and improved the digestive availability of their proteins. These treatments may improve nitrogen retention by ruminants with associated benefits to the environment.

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Published online 27 July 2015
Storage stability of functional chicken meat bullets coated with composite antimicrobial biodegradable films under different packaging conditions 
Richa Rani, Manish Kumar Chatli, Mohan Jairath, Nitin Mehta and Pavan Kumar

Development of biodegradable films utilising dairy industry by-product, whey, and using it as carriers for antimicrobial agents can be an innovative approach. These bioactive biodegradable films were used to wrap ready-to-eat meat products inside a secondary synthetic package during storage and transportation, and helped in the extension of storage life of food product substantially. This technology has the potential to be utilised in the meat or food industry.

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Published online 27 July 2015
Immunisation against gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) reduces agonistic behaviours in male rangeland goats 
Catherine C. Bishop, Patricia A. Fleming, Anne L. Barnes, Teresa Collins and David W. Miller

Rangeland goats are a significant environmental problem for outback Australia, yet concurrently represent a valuable resource for meat production. To fully utilise this resource, animals must be caught and domesticated, and this paper examines a method of injectable castration to reduce agonistic behaviours, and hopefully lead to improved domestication protocols for male rangeland goats.

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Published online 27 July 2015
Effects of supplementing a milk replacer with sodium butyrate or tributyrin on performance and metabolism of Holstein calves 
G. Araujo, M. Terré, A. Mereu, I. R. Ipharraguerre and A. Bach

Transition from liquid to solid feed requires a fully developed and full-functioning rumen. The aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of different forms of butyrate (thought to stimulate development of rumen wall and alter glucose metabolism) on performance of calves. No advantages of supplementing milk replacer with sodium butyrate or tributyrin were found.

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Published online 27 July 2015
The effect of selection for residual feed intake on scale-activity and scale-exit scores in Yorkshire gilts 
L. J. Sadler, A. K. Johnson, D. Nettleton, C. R. G. Lewis, J. M. Young, S. M. Lonergan and J. C. M. Dekkers

Selection for lower residual feed intake in purebred Yorkshires has an effect on temperament, as measured by a scale-activity score, but this relationship is complex and warrants further research. The observation that gilts become habituated to the process of weighing supports the conclusion that the process is not aversive.

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Published online 27 July 2015
Differences in carcass traits, meat quality and chemical composition between the pigs of different CAST genotype 
I. Djurkin Kušec, G. Kušec, R. Vukovi?, E. Has-Schön and G. Kralik

The differences between the pigs grouped according to genotypes at three CAST loci (HinfI, MspI and RsaI) in meat quality, carcass traits, chemical composition and calpain activity of hybrid pigs were investigated. The differences among genotypes at CAST/HinfI locus in economically important carcass traits were significant. The relationship between shear force and calpain activity was noticed, since EE genotype at CAST/HinfI locus exhibited the highest calpain activity and the lowest shear force values.

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Published online 21 July 2015
Close contact with spontaneously cycling Saint Croix ewes triggers cyclic activity in seasonally anestrous Suffolk ewes 
Agustín Orihuela, Neftalí Clemente and Rodolfo Ungerfeld

Reproduction in tropical originated sheep breeds is not affected by the season of the year, whereas ewes from temperate climates such as the Suffolk breed cease cycling during long days. Close contact between these two breeds during the anestrous period induce Suffolk ewes to cycle. This phenomenon can be achieved at medium latitudes where both breeds coexist, allowing Suffolk ewes to conceive year round, making artificial light or hormonal treatments unnecessary to induce this same effect.

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Published online 21 July 2015
Growth, feed intake and carcass characteristics of indigenous goats fed local resources in Tunisian arid land 
N. Ayeb, M. Seddik, N. Atti, M. Atigui, I. Fguiri, A. Barmat, S. Arroum, M. Addis, M. Hammadi and T. Khorchani

In all countries, local resources feed is important in ruminant feeding. The valorisation of natural resources can reduce the feed cost by replacing market feed in diets. The use of local feed resources can produce good quality animal product, without a negative effect on animal performance.

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Published online 21 July 2015
Lactogenic hormones regulate mammary protein synthesis in bovine mammary epithelial cells via the mTOR and JAKSTAT signal pathways 
Q. Tian, H. R. Wang, M. Z. Wang, C. Wang and S. M. Liu

It is important to clarify the synthesis mechanism in improving milk protein yield. Inhibitors were used to study the influence of hormones on the milk protein synthesis pathway. The results showed that the positive regulatory genes in mTOR and JAK–STAT pathways were the key to regulating milk protein synthesis of hormones. It has provided an important theoretical basis in bovine milk protein synthesis by endocrine regulation.

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Published online 21 July 2015
The effect of the concentration and feeding duration of spray-dried plasma protein on growth performance, digestive enzyme activities, nutrient digestibility and intestinal mucosal development of broiler chickens 
S. S. M. Beski, R. A. Swick and P. A. Iji

Spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP) is a promising supplement for early feeding of broiler chickens. In the present study, different levels and feeding duration of SDPP were tested in the starter diet of broilers. The outcomes achieved showed that SDPP effectively enhances early growth and development of body functions. It would be more economic to use a low level (10 g/kg) of SDPP over a longer period (10 days post-hatch) to achieve the same benefits as using a higher (10 g/kg diet) of supplementation.

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Published online 10 July 2015
Steer performance on Panicum maximum (cv. Mombaça) pastures under two grazing intensities 
Valéria Pacheco Batista Euclides, Flávia da Conceição Lopes, Domicio do Nascimento Junior, Sila Carneiro da Silva, Gelson dos Santos Difante and Rodrigo Amorim Barbosa

Increasing the efficiency of beef production systems is one of the most important challenges faced by producers and scientists within the context of rapidly growing emphasis on minimising impacts of livestock production on the environment. Thus, this paper aimed to define grazing management to achieve this goal. The results indicated that the adoption of a sward target-based grazing-management approach may be a useful strategy for improving the efficiency of herbage utilisation and animal performance.

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Published online 10 July 2015
Management and meteorological factors affect fertility after artificial insemination in Murciano-Granadina goats 
Francisco Arrébola, Carlos Palacios, María-Jesús Gil and José-Alfonso Abecia

Artificial insemination is the most important reproductive technology that has improved the genetic quality of livestock, so that the effect of various management and meteorological factors on pregnancy rate of goats after artificial insemination was studied. All of the management factors had a significant effect on goat fertility; inseminations were significantly more successful when temperatures were higher and rainfall was lower than average. It remains to be determined whether scheduling the dates of insemination based on forecasted temperatures can improve the success of artificial insemination in goats.

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Published online 10 July 2015
The effects of essential oil and condensed tannin on fermentation and methane production under in vitro conditions 
Brittany Pinski, Mevlüt Günal and Amer A. AbuGhazaleh

Plant extracts in ruminant diets might have beneficial effects on nutrient degradation in the rumen while mitigating methane production. The potential of five different essential oils and quebracho condensed tannin extract as antimethanogenic additives in ruminant feeds were investigated. It was concluded that the use of cinnamon oil had a desirable effect on methane production without negative effects on rumen fermentation. Quebracho condensed tannin extract supplementation resulted in no significant changes in methane production and fermentation parameters except for ammonia-N concentration.

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Published online 09 July 2015
Comparison of B-splines and non-linear functions to describe growth patterns and predict mature weight of female beef cattle 
G. Gano, M. Blanco, I. Casasús, X. Cortés-Lacruz and D. Villalba

The knowledge of the growth curve of female beef cattle is useful to determine the degree of maturity at first calving and optimise the reproductive performance. The aim of this work is to find the best model to describe the growth of females from birth to adult age. B-spline function showed the best fit to the actual weight and the best prediction ability.

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Published online 09 July 2015
Starch utilisation in chicken-meat production: the foremost influential factors 
Ha H. Truong, Sonia Y. Liu and Peter H. Selle

Starch is the chief dietary energy source for chicken-meat production; however, the factors that impact most on its utilisation have not been investigated thoroughly. This paper reviews the literature relevant to starch digestion and glucose absorption from the perspective of chicken-meat production. The foremost factor influencing starch utilisation may be the interaction between starch and protein digestive dynamics.

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Published online 09 July 2015
Dietary supplementation of a novel phytogenic feed additive: effects on nutrient metabolism, antioxidant status and immune response of goats 
Mahipal Choubey, Ashok Kumar Pattanaik, Shalini Baliyan, Narayan Dutta, Sunil E. Jadhav and Kusumakar Sharma

Healthy food of animal origin can only come from animals which are healthy and fed diets free from undesirable chemical- and antibiotics-based feed additives. A phytochemical-based feed additive has been developed as a potential alternative to synthetic chemical feed additives for ruminants. This work was to determine if the additive would improve the health and welfare of target animals.

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Published online 08 July 2015
Production and physiological effects of perennial ryegrass alkaloids under thermoneutral conditions in Merinos 
M. L. E. Henry, S. Kemp, I. J. Clarke, F. R. Dunshea and B. J. Leury

Perennial ryegrass toxicity is a condition that can result in hundreds of thousands of sheep deaths in some years, while other years the effects are not severe. This study investigated the effects of different doses of perennial ryegrass alkaloids and found sheep were affected according to alkaloid dose, and animal production and efficiency were compromised. The results suggest that even over a short period of time animal health can be compromised and producer profitability may suffer as a consequence.

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Published online 08 July 2015
Effect of fermented seaweed by-product supplementation on reproduction of Hanwoo cows and growth and immunity of their calves 
Md. Manirul Islam, Sonia Tabasum Ahmed, Hong-Seok Mun, Young-Bae Kim and Chul-Ju Yang

Seaweed by-product is an important source of biologically active components for calf antibodies. Calf morbidity and mortality is the main problem in livestock industry, which might be prevented by utilising seaweed by-product due to its functional activity. The increased growth performance and immunity of suckling calves as well as elevated colostrum composition and immunoglobulin level of cows will ultimately reduce calf mortality.

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Published online 08 July 2015
Effects of divergent selection for growth on egg quality traits in Japanese quail 
Mohammed A. F. Nasr, Mahmoud S. El-Tarabany and Michael J. Toscano

Quails are used for meat and egg production, especially in developing countries. External egg quality is crucial for consumer acceptability, while interior quality is essential for the egg production industry. The present study aimed to clarify the role of genetic differences in egg quality traits. Quails selected for high body mass laid heavier egg weight with a greater external and internal egg quality score. Therefore, selection for greater body mass might result in heavier and superior egg quality.

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Published online 07 July 2015
Genetic importance of fat and eye muscle depth in Merino breeding programs 
D. J. Brown and A. A. Swan

Australian Merino breeders have to balance recording and selection across wool traits, meat attributes, worm resistance and reproduction rate. This study investigates the value of recording various trait combinations and the results clearly highlight that breeders should measure directly all important traits that contribute to farm profitability. Breeders should use multiple trait selection indexes that consider the value of, and relationships between, all these traits, rather than focusing on just one or two traits.

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Published online 07 July 2015
Methane emissions from young and mature dairy cattle 
C. A. Ramírez-Restrepo, H. Clark and S. Muetzel

This study compared methane emissions from young dairy heifers and adult cows in New Zealand using the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer gas and respiratory chamber techniques. Methane yield (g/kg dry matter intake) assessed over eight separate measurement periods did not differ between heifers (24.5 ± 0.42) and cows (23.8 ± 0.43), while methane yields between heifers and cows obtained by the SF6 (25.3 ± 0.52 vs 24.1 ± 0.55) and respiratory chamber (23.7 ± 0.66 vs 23.6 ± 0.66) methodologies were similar.

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Published online 06 July 2015
Proximate composition, cholesterol concentration and lipid oxidation of meat from chickens fed dietary spice addition (Allium sativum, Piper nigrum, Capsicum annuum) 
N. Puvača, Lj. Kostadinović, S. Popović, J. Lević, D. Ljubojević, V. Tufarelli, R. Jovanović, T. Tasić, P. Ikonić and D. Lukač

Spices and herbs are a new practical way in poultry nutrition for improving meat quality and stability. Application of spices including garlic, black pepper and hot red pepper in the poultry diet in the present study significantly improved chicken meat quality, meat stability and reduction of cholesterol. Spices and herbs are the new imperative for healthy food today and will be in the future.

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Published online 02 July 2015
Getting the most out of advanced farm management technologies: roles of technology suppliers and dairy industry organisations in supporting precision dairy farmers 
C. R. Eastwood, J. G. Jago, J. P. Edwards and J. K. Burke

The use of precision dairy technologies is increasing. A survey conducted with a group of New Zealand dairy farmers highlighted the potential benefits of the technologies and also the opportunities for greater use through better understanding of the technologies and training options. Dairy industry organisations have an important role to play in providing independent information on technology options for farmers, and in guiding training.

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Published online 02 July 2015
Fatty acid composition and mRNA expression levels of lipid-metabolic genes in the muscles of ovariectomised young goats 
Lei Zhang, Yan-yan Wang, Zhan-qin Zhou, Ming-zhe Fu, Guang Li, Fang Peng and Lu Wan

Ovariectomy would induce carcass weight gain and be beneficial for developing the meat flavour by improving the fatty acid (FA) composition of muscle tissues. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of ovariectomy on the FA composition and the mRNA expression levels of lipid metabolic genes. We found ovariectomy affects fatty acid composition potentially by altering the expression of LPL, HSL, FAS and ACC in the skeletal muscles of young female goats. These data provide a scientific theoretical basis for the application of ovariectomy in livestock production.

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Published online 02 July 2015
Effect of concentrate supplementation on performance and ingestive behaviour of lambs grazing tropical Aruana grass (Panicum maximum) 
N. M. Fajardo, C. H. E. C. Poli, C. Bremm, J. F. Tontini, Z. M. S. Castilhos, C. M. McManus, B. N. M. Sarout, J. M. Castro and A. L. G. Monteiro

There is a need to evaluate the ability of lamb production systems taking advantage of the high potential of tropical pastures. The objective of this study was to assess the performance of Panicum maximum cv. IZ-5 using different levels of concentrate supplementation. The supplementation provided a negative impact on pasture structure and animal behaviour. The change in pasture structure should be considered when using concentrate for finishing lambs.

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Published online 02 July 2015
Pregnancy scanning can be used as a source of data for genetic evaluation of reproductive traits of ewes 
Kim L. Bunter, Andrew A. Swan, Ian W. Purvis and Daniel Brown

Reproductive data for ewes consists of pregnancy scan and/or lambing results, and it is important that these alternative data sources provide similar and accurate information towards genetic evaluation. This study investigated the consistency of pregnancy scan data with lambing outcomes, and showed that pregnancy scan data could be used instead of lambing data for genetic evaluation. It is important that pregnancy scanning is performed accurately to maximise the accuracy of breeding values derived from pregnancy scan data.

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Published online 29 June 2015
The effect of feeding frequency and dose rate of nitrate supplements on blood haemoglobin fractions in Bos indicus cattle fed Flinders grass (Iseilemia spp.) hay 
I. Benu, M. J. Callaghan, N. Tomkins, G. Hepworth, L. A. Fitzpatrick and A. J. Parker

Nitrate-based supplements have been demonstrated to reduce methane production from beef cattle. However, nitrate can be toxic to cattle. Nitrate toxicity increased in a dose-dependent manner but was reduced when the same dose was divided equally and fed in two portions each day. Caution should be exercised when intentionally feeding nitrate salts as a urea substitute and/or a methane abatement strategy.

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Published online 25 June 2015
Treating Bos indicus bulls with rumen transfaunation after 24 hours of transportation does not replete muscle glycogen 
C. L. O. Leo-Penu, L. A. Fitzpatrick, H. N. Zerby and A. J. Parker

The transportation of cattle can lead to fatigue and subsequently reduce meat quality from the carcass. Transferring rumen digesta to bulls post-transport resulted in an increase in feed intake; however, there was no effect on muscle glycogen concentrations. Repopulating the rumen with microflora from a healthy donor will assist in the recovery of feed intake in bulls that have been transported.

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Published online 23 June 2015
Interactive effects of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) seed extract supplementation and dietary metabolisable energy levels on the growth performance, total tract digestibility, blood profiles, and excreta gas emission in broiler chickens 
J. H. Park and I. H. Kim

Fenugreek has a significant positive effect on the physiological aspects in the body. The objective of our study was to collect information on fenugreek seed extract as a feed ingredient by measuring growth performance, total tract digestibility, haematological and biochemical blood properties, and excreta gas emission in broilers fed with diets containing two dietary levels of metabolisable energy. The results of the present study confirmed the applicability of fenugreek seed extract as a feed ingredient in broiler diets.

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Published online 22 June 2015
Habitat and feeding ecology of alpine musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster) in Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary, Uttarakhand, India 
Zarreen Syed and Orus Ilyas

Alpine musk deer is a threatened species and not much is known about its ecology. The present study aims to explore the ecology and habitat overlap with other wild ungulates and cattle species. Results show a significant overlap of the species with wild ungulates and cattle. Through feeding we were able to explore that the species prefer to browse over grass species.

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Published online 22 June 2015
Bioacoustic cues and their relations to dominance rank in Père David’s deer stags 
Ni Liu, Zhigang Jiang, Linyuan Zhang, Zhenyu Zhong, Xiaoge Ping, Huailiang Xu and Chunwang Li

Animals have developed an amazing way of vocal communication, which is very important for social contact or mate attraction. To unveil the mysteries of Père David’s deer’s unique language, we analysed their ‘conversation’ and discovered the interesting ‘accent’ of stags in different dominance ranks. The phenomenon that acoustic features related to the dominance hierarchy reflects how animals cope with reproductive competition by proper behavioural strategies.

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Published online 22 June 2015
Effect of fresh pasture forage quality, feeding level and supplementation on methane emissions from growing beef cattle 
Arjan Jonker, Stefan Muetzel, German Molano and David Pacheco

Methane production from cattle in New Zealand account for 21% of total national greenhouse gases produced. However, only dry matter intake (DMI) and a fixed methane yield factor are considered in this inventory. In this study, the effect of fresh pasture forage quality, feeding level and supplementation on methane production was determined in growing beef cattle. All these parameters had only minor effects on methane per unit of DMI and DMI alone explained 71% of variation in methane production.

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Published online 22 June 2015
Microbial phytase improves performance and bone traits in broilers fed diets based on soybean meal and containing lupin meal 
S. A. Kaczmarek, A. J. Cowieson, M. Hejdysz and A. Rutkowski

Phytase effects may vary depending on ingredient mix within a given diet. Most phytase studies are based on data generated in diets that use soybean meal. There is a need to explore possible variance in phytase effects in diets based on alternative protein sources such as lupin seed meal. The study reported herein examined the effect of phytase in diets based on alternative protein source and it can be concluded that phytase is an effective nutritional intervention in diets containing lupin seed meals.

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Published online 17 June 2015
Cloning and expression of caprine KIT gene and associations of polymorphisms with litter size 
X. P. An, J. X. Hou, T. Y. Gao and B. Y. Cao

Marker-assisted selection plays an important role in livestock genetic improvement. The g.88430T > A locus has significant effects on litter size. The combined genotypes TTAA can be used in marker-assisted selection.

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Published online 17 June 2015
Comparison of banana flower powder and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on rumen fermentation and milk production in dairy cows 
Sungchhang Kang, Metha Wanapat, Anusorn Cherdthong and Kampanat Phesatcha

High concentrate feeding to ruminant resulted in rumen acidosis due to the increasing lactic acid being produced leading to a reduction in rumen pH. Banana flower powder is reported to contain a high mineral element and could be used as a rumen buffer in maintaining rumen pH prior to high concentrate feeding. Therefore, banana flower powder is potentially used as a rumen buffer agent for high producing dairy cattle promising to replace sodium bicarbonate.

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Published online 17 June 2015
Patterns of milk production, blood metabolite profile and enzyme activities of two fat-tailed sheep breeds 
Shahab Payandeh, Farokh Kafilzadeh, Miguel Angel de la Fuente, Darab Ghadimi and Andrés L. Martínez Marín

Milk production, plasma parameters and different enzyme activities were compared in two Iranian fat-tailed sheep breeds (Mehraban and Sanjabi) during lactation. There were few differences in plasma parameters between breeds. However, Mehraban ewes performed better than Sanjabi ewes in the last two-thirds of the lactation period.

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Published online 16 June 2015
Effect of cut type and post-mortem ageing on the technological quality, textural profile and sensory characteristics of horse meat 
PilNam Seong, Kuyng Mi Park, SooHyun Cho, Geun Ho Kang, Hyun Seok Chae, Beom Young Park and Hoa Van Ba

Although horse meat is widely consumed in many countries worldwide, little attention has been paid to evaluating the factors affecting its quality characteristics. In this study, the quality characteristics of horse meat as affected by cut type and post-mortem ageing were investigated. The findings of the present study provide useful information that can improve consumer’s appreciation, acceptance and consumption for this meat type.

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Published online 16 June 2015
Transfer of aflatoxins from naturally contaminated feed to milk of Nili-Ravi buffaloes fed a mycotoxin binder 
N. Aslam, I. Rodrigues, D. M. McGill, H. M. Warriach, A. Cowling, A. Haque and P. C. Wynn

Feed ingredients used as concentrate feed to enhance milk production are often contaminated with fungal toxins, which after ingestion are transferred into milk. Transfer of aflatoxins from feed to milk was found in 4.6% of buffaloes. Using mycotoxin binder was effective at minimising its transfer and helping to improving the health status of milk consumers.

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Published online 16 June 2015
Methane production and in vitro digestibility of low quality forages treated with a protease or a cellulase 
J. M. Cantet, D. Colombatto and G. Jaurena

Patagonian meadow and Milium are forage resources of increasing importance for ruminants; however, both are rich in fibre with low nutritional quality. In this context, enzymes could help improve forage utilisation. The addition of a fibrolytic enzyme showed no differences with respect to Control treatment. Nevertheless, a protease addition was associated with lower ruminal digestibility without consequences on methane production. This finding suggests that both enzymes at the dose rates assayed here would not improve forage digestion, neither would reduce methane production.

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Published online 16 June 2015
Deer antler: a unique model for studying mammalian organ morphogenesis 
Zhao Haiping, Chu Wenhui, Liu Zhen and Li Chunyi

Bioelectricity encodes morphogenesis of lower animals, but it is currently unknown whether this concept can be applied to mammals. Deer antler is an ideal model for studying the morphogenesis of mammalian organs. Investigating morphogenetic information of deer antlers through bioelectricity will help us understand the underlying morphogenetic mechanism in mammals and the results will benefit human health and wellbeing, such as, for example birth defects, organ regeneration, organ senescence and tumour formation.

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Published online 16 June 2015
Effect of herb-clover mixes of plantain and chicory on yearling lamb production in the early spring period 
S. C. Somasiri, P. R. Kenyon, P. D. Kemp, P. C. H. Morel and S. T. Morris

Herb-clover mixes containing chicory, plantain, and clovers are potentially higher in nutritive value for lamb growth over the spring period in New Zealand than the widely used ryegrass/white clover mixes. Lambs grazing herb-mixes grew faster and were heavier at slaughter and had higher dressing-out percentages than lambs grazing ryegrass/white clover pastures. Therefore, herb-mixes are effective as a spring feed to finish lambs in addition to their well established use in summer.

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Published online 21 May 2015
Evaluating the efficacy of a topical anaesthetic formulation and ketoprofen, alone and in combination, on the pain sensitivity of dehorning wounds in Holstein-Friesian calves 
Crystal A. Espinoza, Dominique McCarthy, Peter J. White, Peter A. Windsor and Sabrina H. Lomax

Dehorning is a painful procedure performed on millions of dairy and beef calves each year. Effective and practical pain relief for these animals remains a challenge and the use of a novel pain-relief gel investigated in this study shows pain can be reduced. This has the potential to improve the welfare of calves undergoing dehorning.

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Published online 21 May 2015
Genetic parameters for liveweight, wool and worm resistance traits in multi-breed Australian meat sheep. 2. Genetic relationships between traits 
D. J. Brown and A. A. Swan

Australian meat sheep breeders have to balance recording and selection across growth traits, meat attributes, worm resistance and reproduction rate. This study investigated the genetic relationships between traits in the LAMBPLAN terminal sire database. The significant relationships between most traits suggest that breeders should us multiple trait selection indexes that consider the value of, and relationships between, all these traits, rather than focusing on just one or two traits.

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Published online 21 May 2015
Genetic parameters for liveweight, wool and worm resistance traits in multi-breed Australian meat sheep. 1. Description of traits, fixed effects, variance components and their ratios 
D. J. Brown, A. A. Swan, J. S. Gill, A. J. Ball and R. G. Banks

Australian meat sheep breeders have to balance recording and selection across multiple traits and also breeds. This study investigated the genetic variation within and across breeds in the LAMBPLAN terminal sire database. While direct heterosis was small for the traits studied, there were significant differences between breeds in most traits, which can be exploited by ram breeders.

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Published online 21 May 2015
Crude protein requirements of free-range laying hens 
Mônica Maria de Almeida Brainer, Carlos Bôa-Viagem Rabello, Marcos José Batista dos Santos, Jorge Vitor Ludke, Claudia da Costa Lopes, Waleska Rocha Leite de Medeiros and Fernando Guilherme Perazzo Costa

The factorial method is the basis for development nutritional requirement prediction equations, which facilitates the establishment of more appropriate nutrition programs. This study aimed to estimate the crude protein requirement for the maintenance, weight gain and egg production of free-range hens, and produce a predictive protein requirement equation. Based on the requirements that were estimated, we developed an equation that can be used to predict the protein requirements of free-range hens during the laying phase.

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Published online 21 May 2015
Reducing calcium and phosphorus in crossbred beef cattle diets: impacts on productive performance during the growing and finishing phase 
L. F. Prados, S. C. Valadares Filho, S. A. Santos, D. Zanetti, A. N. Nunes, D. R. Costa, L. D. S. Mariz, E. Detmann, P. M. Amaral, F. C. Rodrigues and R. F. D. Valadares

Supplying cattle with the appropriate levels of minerals through a balanced diet reduces the excretion of excess minerals into the environment and reduces feed costs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of beef cattle with a reduction of minerals (calcium and phosphorus) in diets. The results of this research support a reduction of minerals in diet and consequently, reduction in environmental pollution (phosphorus) and in cost of production of beef, without compromising the performance of bulls.

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Published online 01 May 2015
A promising and simple method to quantify soil/manure mixing on beef feedlot pens 
Chris Pratt, Matthew Redding and Jaye Hill

On beef feedlot pen surfaces, underlying soil mixes with manure by animal treading, which causes problems for a raft of personnel involved in manure handling from composters to environmental scientists. We show that measuring soil-enriched elements like silicon in pen manure offers a simple and effective way to quantify manure/soil mixing. Our proposed approach could have significant practical benefits: for example, it could be used by feedlot operators to assess the quality of their composted manure products.

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Published online 30 April 2015
A survey of the meat goat industry in Queensland and New South Wales. 1. General property information, goat and pasture management 
D. M. Nogueira, C. P. Gardiner, B. Gummow, J. Cavalieri, L. A. Fitzpatrick and A. J. Parker

This research provides the first comprehensive overview of the meat goat industry in New South Wales and Queensland. The aim was to survey farmers’ knowledge and practices on the management of pastures, stocking rates and markets utilised by meat goat producers. The results showed that the export carcass market was the most important source of income; fencing and access to processing facilities affected costs and market opportunities. Also, goats were considered to be an important method of weed control.

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Published online 30 April 2015
A survey of the meat goat industry in Queensland and New South Wales. 2. Herd management, reproductive performance and animal health 
D. M. Nogueira, B. Gummow, C. P. Gardiner, J. Cavalieri, L. A. Fitzpatrick and A. J. Parker

This study investigated goat herd management and productivity on meat goat properties in New South Wales and Queensland. Compared with high rainfall regions, properties in the pastoral regions had a later mean age at weaning, lower kidding rates, prolificacy and adult liveweights, higher mortality rates and less frequent use of nutritional supplements and anthelmintics. Productivity within pastoral regions may be enhanced by investigating causes of mortalities, strategic use of weaning, nutritional supplementation and sire selection based on genetic values.

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Published online 30 April 2015
Addition of sodium metabisulfite and microbial phytase, individually and in combination, to a sorghum-based diet for broiler chickens from 7 to 28 days post-hatch 
H. H. Truong, D. J. Cadogan, S. Y. Liu and P. H. Selle

A reducing agent, sodium metabisulphite and phytase were added to sorghum-based diets to determine their effects on nutrient utilisation in broilers. Sodium metabisulphite increased protein (N) digestibilities and disappearance rates but tended to depress energy utilisation. Sodium metabisulphite increased rates of protein digestion and would, therefore, influence starch and protein digestive dynamics.

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Published online 27 April 2015
Genetic evaluation of maternal behaviour and temperament in Australian sheep 
D. J. Brown, N. M. Fogarty, C. L. Iker, D. M. Ferguson, D. Blache and G. M. Gaunt

The temperament and behaviour of ewes at lambing can impact on the survival of their newborn lambs. Maternal behaviour and temperament are moderately heritable (the former also repeatable), which means these traits can be improved by selection. Scoring maternal behaviour at lambing could be a useful trait to include in breeding programs aimed at improving overall reproduction rates in sheep flocks.

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Published online 27 April 2015
Evaluation of greenhouse gas emissions from hog manure application in a Canadian cow–calf production system using whole-farm models 
Aklilu W. Alemu, Kim H. Ominski, Mario Tenuta, Brian D. Amiro and Ermias Kebreab

The Canadian beef cattle sector is a major contributor for agricultural GHG emissions. Our study evaluated the impacts of amount and time of hog manure application in a cow-calf production system using whole-farm models. Farm productivity was greater for the split manure application than single application. However, the environmental benefit (GHG) of the two scenarios was not consistent between models. Application of whole-farm approach in beef production systems is important to evaluate the environmental impacts of beneficial management practices.

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Published online 27 April 2015
Non-interference measurement of CH4, N2O and NH3 emissions from cattle 
Mei Bai, Jianlei Sun, Kithsiri B. Dassanayake, Marcelo A. Benvenutti, Julian Hill, Owen T. Denmead, Thomas Flesch and Deli Chen

Livestock contribute to 64% of greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture. However, obtaining integrated emissions from different sources and different greenhouse gases in feedlot is challenging. We conducted a study on a feedlot cattle pen and measured CH4, N2O and NH3 emissions. Predictions based on the Australian National Inventory recommendations were calculated. This study reveals that beef feedlot cattle contribute to 3.1% of CH4 emissions and 5.9% of N2O emissions from Australian agriculture.

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Published online 24 April 2015
Improving the use of available feed resources to overcome sheep feeding deficits in western China 
Joshua Philp, Adam M. Komarek, Sarah J. Pain, Xueling Li and William Bellotti

Increasing livestock numbers in developing economies is essential for improving rural livelihoods, however many smallholder farmers face regular shortages of quality feed. We first conducted an experiment in rural western China that emulated a change in farming practice where nitrogen-rich feed from the spring harvest is conserved for winter, then compared its efficiency to current farming practice. Our results demonstrated the potential for smallholder farmers to improve their situation by altering feed management.

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Published online 24 April 2015
Effect of natural mating or laparoscopic artificial insemination in superovulated Santa Inês ewes on superovulatory response, fertility and embryo viability 
J. T. M. Lima, J. F. Fonseca, M. F. A. Balaro, L. V. Esteves, F. O. Ascoli, C. R. Leite, A. C. S. Ribeiro, K. F. Delgado, J. M. G. Souza-Fabjan, R. A. Torres Filho and F. Z. Brandão

Failures in fertilisation are common in breeding programs after natural mating. Thus, we compared the effect of natural mating or laparoscopic artificial insemination on superovulatory response, fertility and embryo yield in superovulated ewes. This study indicated that the use of the natural mating in the multiple ovulation and embryo transfer program does not affect the fertilisation rate of Santa Inês ewes and could be recommended.

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Published online 24 April 2015
Prediction of crude protein and neutral detergent fibre concentration in residues of in situ ruminal degradation of pasture samples by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) 
J. P. Keim, H. Charles and D. Alomar

The in situ technique describes the degradation kinetics of feedstuffs and their nutritional components that are used in ration evaluation models. However, this technique requires the analyses of a high number of samples and sometimes there is an insufficient amount of residue for analysis. It is proposed that near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can predict the crude protein and neutral detergent fibre concentrations of the in situ residues. It is concluded that NIRS could be employed to predict those components of in situ fermentation residues of vegetative pastures, although more robust calibrations need to be developed.

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Published online 24 April 2015
Effect of the type of dietary fat when added as an energy source on animal performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of intensively reared Friesian steers 
A. Guerrero, E. Muela, M. V. Valero, I. N. Prado, M. M. Campo, J. L. Olleta, O. Catalán and C. Sañudo

Diet is one the main factors that modifies meat characteristics as well as the main cost in intensive rearing systems. The effect of different fat sources included at low level (3.8–4.0%) on meat quality from young Friesian steers has been assessed. At these low levels, the used fats did not change significantly animal performance or meat quality. Therefore, in concentrate rearing systems, it is possible to include the cheapest fat in the finishing step without significantly modifying the quality of the final product.

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Published online 24 April 2015
The fat-tail of Damara sheep: an assessment of mineral content as influenced by weight loss 
Joana R. Lérias, Tanya Kilminster, Tim Scanlon, John Milton, Chris Oldham, Johan C. Greeff, Luísa L. Martins, Miguel P. Mourato and André M. Almeida

We profiled for the first time the mineral contents of fat-tail adipose tissue from Damara sheep affected by weight loss. Only the concentrations of zinc and calcium were affected. This work is an important contribution towards the possible use of the fat-tail by the meat industry, adding value to Damara production through the use of this presently discarded offal.

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Published online 22 April 2015
The effect of inclusion level and basal diet on the determination of the digestible and metabolisable energy content of soybean oil and its digestibility when fed to growing pigs 
Yongbo Su, Xiaohua Bi, Qiang Huang, Ling Liu, Xiangshu Piao and Defa Li

Soybean oil can provide different available energy in pigs when its concentration or the composition of diet is different. This research determined the effect of soybean oil concentration and composition of diet on the available energy of soybean oil. The results showed that the more soybean oil pigs consumed the greater available energy soybean oil contained for growing pigs.

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Published online 22 April 2015
Rosiglitazone maleate increases weight gain and body fat content in growing lambs 
F. T. Fahri, I. J. Clarke, D. W. Pethick, R. D. Warner and F. R. Dunshea

Thiazolidinediones (TZD) are used in the treatment of diabetes but may increase fat deposition in humans. This study demonstrated that TZDs increase feed intake, growth and carcass fat, but not visceral fat in sheep. In conclusion, dietary TZDs mitigate against the inhibitory effect of carcass fatness on feed intake in sheep but the additional consumed energy is deposited as fat.

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Published online 22 April 2015
Effects of increasing rates of molasses supplementation and forage quality on the productivity of steers 
R. A. Hunter and P. M. Kennedy

Molasses supplements can provide a valuable source of energy for growing cattle in northern Australia, but the efficiency of use of energy in molasses may vary with characteristics of accompanying forage. Our experiments showed that good growth rates in steers fed molasses and forage could be achieved, especially with forage of low nutritive value, but that digestibility of the forages decreased as molasses content of the diet increased. We conclude that the feeding standards for cattle require modification before they can be accurately used to predict growth for cattle fed tropical diets.

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Published online 22 April 2015
Increasing the proportion of female lambs by feeding Merino ewes a diet high in omega-6 fatty acids around mating 
E. H. Clayton, M. A. Friend and J. F. Wilkins

In a previous experiment, the proportion of female lambs was higher when Border Leicester × Merino first-cross ewes were fed a diet high in omega-6 fatty acids. In the current study, the proportion of female lambs was also higher when Merino ewes were fed a diet high in omega-6 than a diet low in omega-6 fatty acids either pre-mating only or both pre- and post-mating. The mechanism resulting in the diet high in omega-6 influencing the sex ratio of lambs appears to operate before or around conception. Enterprises breeding first-cross ewes as dams for terminal sire operations may benefit from an increased proportion of females by feeding ewes a diet high in omega-6 around the time of mating.

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Published online 22 April 2015
Use of n-alkanes for determination of Kikuyu grass (Pennisetum clandestinum) intake in free-range broilers 
M. Singh, T. Durali and A. J. Cowieson

Free-range broilers consume unknown amounts of pasture with ambiguous nutritional value and this may influence performance. N-alkanes have been used in this study to estimate the intake of Kikuyu grass at 13.5–14.7% of total as-fed intake by free-range broilers. A significant increase in both feed intake and feed conversion ratio on accounting for grass consumption gives an indication that grass consumption may be under-represented and not systematically considered. The amount of grass consumed causes detrimental effects both for the bird and for production costs.

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Published online 21 April 2015
Grazing crops: implications for reproducing sheep 
David G. Masters and Andrew N. Thompson

Grazing young crops presents new opportunities to increase production and profit in the wheat-sheep and high rainfall farming zones in Australia. Forage from young crops has a high nutritive value and is available to meet an increased demand for feed from reproducing ewes in winter. Grazing young crops comes with an increased risk of a range metabolic disturbances and nutritional imbalances. These risks can be minimised by regular monitoring of livestock and crop biomass and the provision of mineral supplements.

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Published online 21 April 2015
Exhaled breath condensate hydrogen peroxide concentration, a novel biomarker for assessment of oxidative stress in sheep during heat stress 
Surinder S. Chauhan, Pietro Celi, Brian Leury, Fan Liu and Frank R. Dunshea

Heat stress is a multibillion dollar problem as high environmental temperature compromises animal production leading to devastating economic consequences to global animal agriculture. Therefore, with the aim to ameliorate heat stress impacts, current research developed a new biomarker to investigate oxidative stress induced by heat stress and also suggested antioxidants as a strategy to reduce heat stress in sheep.

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Published online 10 April 2015
Modelling the egg components and laying patterns of broiler breeder hens 
Nayara T. Ferreira, Nilva K. Sakomura, Juliano César de Paula Dorigam, Edney Pereira da Silva and Robert M. Gous

Broiler breeder hens exhibit an irregular frequency in egg laying, different from those observed with commercial laying hens. It is important to know this characteristic when predicting the daily requirements to develop an adequate feed program for a breeder’s flock. Thus, this study aimed to model egg production in a flock of broiler breeder hens by non-isometric equations. On the basis of the results achieved, the simulation models used here for broiler breeders have a good prediction of the weight of egg and its components over the laying period. Therefore, these models can be used to predict nutrient requirements for broiler breeder hens.

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Published online 10 April 2015
Proximate composition and variation in colour, drip loss and pH of breast meat from broilers supplemented with Moringa oleifera leaf meal over time 
T. T. Nkukwana, V. Muchenje, P. J. Masika, E. Pieterse, L. C. Hoffman and K. Dzama

Over the past few years, poultry meat product safety and quality have received a negative perspective from consumers. The use of antibiotic growth promoters, PSE (pale, soft, exudative)-like condition and oxidation are some of the concerns. Plant additives are gaining preference as they are perceived to exert antioxidant, antimicrobial and growth-promoting effects, actions that are partially associated with improved production of safe and quality poultry products. In the present study M. oleifera leaf meal enhanced the colour, shelf life and nutrient composition of broiler meat.

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Published online 10 April 2015
Crossbreed genetic performance study in the eventing horse competition 
I. Cervantes, E. Bartolomé, M. Valera, J. P. Gutiérrez and A. Molina

Crossbreeding involving different breeds is frequently used for the production of riding horses. Here we have tried to exploit the complementarity in the mating using a method to try and fit optimal contribution towards the best combination of breeds in future generations for a specific performance. The methodology applied here performed nicely in searching for the best contribution of several breeds to find the best combination for particular interests and could, therefore, be useful for other species/populations.

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Published online 10 April 2015
Environmental and genetic factors influence the liveweight of adult Merino and Border Leicester × Merino ewes across multiple sites and years 
S. E. Blumer, G. E. Gardner, M. B. Ferguson and A. N. Thompson

Liveweight change in the ewe flock during summer and autumn can affect farm profitability through effects on stocking rate, requirements for supplementary feeding, and productivity of the ewe and her progeny. Variation in liveweight change of ewes is primarily due to differences in environment and management. However, there are small beneficial associations between some breeding values and liveweight change in some environments.

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Published online 10 April 2015
Effects of dietary calcium propionate on growth performance and carcass characteristics of finishing lambs 
German D. Mendoza-Martínez, Juan M. Pinos-Rodríguez, Héctor A. Lee-Rangel, Pedro A. Hernández-García, Rolado Rojo-Rubio and Alejandro Relling

It is important to search alternative sources of energy in finishing lambs rations to reduce the use of grains. This study was designed to evaluate the addition of calcium propionate on lamb performance, a compound that usually is not included in the rations. Results show that it is feasible to incorporate 10 or 20 g/kg of calcium propionate in finishing diets.

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Published online 01 April 2015
Using growth and body composition to determine weight at maturity in Nellore cattle 
Marcos Inacio Marcondes, Luís Orlindo Tedeschi, Sebastião de Campos Valadares Filho, Luiz Fernando Costa e Silva and Alex Lopes da Silva

For several years nutrient requirements systems have been using maturity as the weight of an adult animal. However, little work has been done to verify if this is physiologically correct. The aim was to quantify the relationship between carcass components to develop an objective method to define maturity weight for Nellore cattle. Our database indicated that in Nellore cattle maturity was reached between 400 and 450 kg.

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Published online 01 April 2015
Response of two broiler strains to four feeding regimens under hot climate 
Youssef A. Attia, Waleed S. Al-Tahawy, Maria C. de Oliveira, Mohammed A. Al-Harthi, Abd Alrazk. E. Tag El-Din and Mohamed I. Hassan

The productive performance, digestibility, and meat quality in two broiler strains, Arbor Acres (AA) and Hubbard (Hub), fed diets according to four feeding regimens were evaluated. Optimal production performance and economic efficiency were observed in the AA and Hub broilers fed according to NRC and Hub guides, respectively. The interaction genetic strain × feeding regimen should be taken into account when developing nutritional programs for broilers.

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Published online 01 April 2015
Application of classification trees in determining the impact of phenotypic factors on conception to first service in Holstein cattle 
Heydar Ghiasi, Dariusz Piwczyński, Majid Khaldari and Magdalena Kolenda

Fertility is an important economic trait in dairy cattle. Most variation in fertility performance is due to phenotypic factors. The classification tree technique may help farmers enhance fertility in dairy cattle herds.

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Published online 01 April 2015
Metabolic indicators for retention of fetal membranes in Zebu and crossbred dairy cattle 
Susavi Kumari, Shiv Prasad, T. K. Patbandha, R. Pathak, A. Kumaresan, P. Boro, A. Manimaran and T. K. Mohanty

Retention of fetal membranes (RFM) in cows seriously affects the production and reproduction efficiency. We identified some metabolic indicators for RFM in Zebu and crossbred cows. These indicators can be used for monitoring the negative energy balance in the herd and to take suitable measures for reducing the incidence of RFM.

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Published online 01 April 2015
Resource use and environmental impacts from Australian export lamb production: a life cycle assessment 
S. G. Wiedemann, M.-J. Yan and C. M. Murphy

Agricultural industries face the challenge of maintaining and expanding production to meet global food requirements with fewer resources, while producing less greenhouse gas (GHG). This study quantified energy and water use, land occupation and GHG from the major export lamb production regions of Australia using a farm-gate life cycle assessment. Water, energy and GHG emissions were found to be moderate compared with other export nations or global averages. Lamb production primarily utilised non-arable land unsuitable for many alternative foods.

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Published online 26 March 2015
Replacing conventional with brown midrib corn silage in a total mixed ration: the impact on early and late lactation dairy cow intake, milk yield and composition, and milk fatty acids profile 
G. A. Genero, C. A. Cangiano, J. P. Raimondi, J. M. Roig and G. A. Gagliostro

Corn silages are widely used in dairy systems; in order to improve dairy cows’ milk production corn silages of high quality should be achieved. In the present study, the effect of a corn silage with a higher digestibility (brown midrib corn silage) on dairy cow performance was evaluated and showed an increase in milk and protein production. The use of this corn silage is an interesting strategy to enhance milk production in early lactation.

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Published online 25 March 2015
Analysis of population structure and genetic variability in Iranian buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) using pedigree information 
Navid Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh

Knowledge about pedigree is important in studies of population structure, especially where precise estimates of fitness parameters are required. The aim of this study was to use pedigree analysis to evaluate the population structure, genetic variability and inbreeding in Iranian buffaloes. Inbreeding trend was significantly positive over the years and average coancestry was increased in recent years. Avoiding the accumulation of inbreeding in a small population like this one may prevent the significant economic losses and decreased response to selection for important performance traits in the future.

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Published online 25 March 2015
Changes in the feather-free body of broiler breeder hens after sexual maturity 
M. K. Nonis and R. M. Gous

All animals and birds need a daily dose of nutrients with which to maintain their bodies, and these maintenance requirements sometimes make up a greater proportion of the overall requirement for nutrients than do those to sustain egg production or growth, so it is essential when calculating their daily nutrient requirements to work out accurately how much would be needed for maintenance purposes. These requirements should be based on the protein weight of the bird, and not bodyweight, because body fat does not need to be maintained, so the main aim of this research was to determine to what extent body protein weight changes over the life of a broiler breeder. As long as the hen continues to lay eggs it appears that body protein weight does not change, so her maintenance requirements will also not change during the laying period.

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Published online 18 March 2015
Resource use and environmental impacts from beef production in eastern Australia investigated using life cycle assessment 
Stephen Wiedemann, Eugene McGahan, Caoilinn Murphy and Mingjia Yan

Agricultural industries face the challenge of maintaining and expanding production to meet global food requirements with fewer resources, while producing less greenhouse gas. This study quantified energy and water use, land occupation and greenhouse gas from a diverse range of beef production systems in eastern Australia, finding that impacts are sensitive to productivity factors and climatic conditions. Beef utilised land unsuitable for alternative foods that require crop land, and improving productivity was identified as a way to lower greenhouse gas emissions.

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Published online 10 March 2015
Birthweight has no influence on chemical body composition and muscle energy stores in suckling piglets 
Maartje De Vos, Veronique Huygelen, Myriam Hesta, Sofie A. Willemen, Erik Fransen, Christophe Casteleyn, Steven Van Cruchten and Chris Van Ginneken

To seek an explanation for the poor performance (e.g. high mortality, carcass quality) of runt piglets, the effect of birthweight and age on body composition and energy stores was assessed. Strangely, birthweight had no effect during the suckling period. This indirectly confirms the importance of feed (composition and energy) intake during the fattening phase as an explanation of the poorer performance at slaughter of runt piglets.

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Published online 26 February 2015
Heat-induced apoptosis and gene expression in bovine mammary epithelial cells 
Han Hu, Jiaqi Wang, Haina Gao, Songli Li, Yangdong Zhang and Nan Zheng

Milk production is a function of the number and secretory activity of mammary epithelial cells. Heat stress induces cell apoptosis, disturbs the biological activity and arouses intracellular thermotolerance responses of bovine mammary epithelial cells. Under heat stress, with increasing cell apoptosis number and upregulation of pro-apoptotic genes, the expression of anti-apoptotic genes was stimulated to a high level to prevent cell damage and maintain cell survival.

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    | Supplementary Material (2.1 MB)
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Published online 26 February 2015
Intake, apparent digestibility, and methane emission in bulls receiving a feed supplement of monensin, virginiamycin, or a combination 
Marcelina Pereira da Fonseca, Ana Luiza da Costa Cruz Borges, Ricardo Reis e Silva, Helena Ferreira Lage, Alexandre Lima Ferreira, Fernando César Ferraz Lopes, Carlos Giovani Pancoti and José Avelino Santos Rodrigues

This research is an innovative source of information, which contributes to the study of improving the efficiency of animal production with a focus on reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. The dietary supplementation with additives can alter the ruminal metabolism and reduce energy loss in methane form. The results of this research support the study of the reduction of greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming.

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Published online 25 February 2015
Estimation of genetic parameters for lambing ease, birthweight and gestation length in Australian sheep 
L. Li and D. J. Brown

Lambing ease (LE) is an important trait that affects animal welfare and profitability in sheep enterprises. This study examined the genetic parameters for LE and its genetic correlations with birthweight and gestation length by comparing different datasets and models. Higher phenotypic variance and direct heritability were found in single-born lambs than estimates in twin-born lambs. Direct genetic and maternal genetic effects were significant for LE. Estimates of direct heritability for LE using linear approaches were similar to those using threshold approaches (after transferring to observed scale). Lambs with greater birthweight and longer gestation length had more lambing difficulty. These genetic parameters are now used in the Sheep Genetics evaluation system.

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Published online 25 February 2015
Carob pulp inclusion in lamb diets: effect on intake, performance, feeding behaviour and blood metabolites 
M. N. Noor-Ehsan Gobindram, M. Bognanno, G. Luciano, M. Lanza and L. Biondi

Livestock feeding systems rely heavily on cereals; locally available agro-industrial by-products can replace such conventional feedstuffs, often imported, reducing the cost of production even in terms of carbon footprint. Carob pulp contains substances that may negatively affect production levels and welfare; this study demonstrated that it can partially substitute barley in lamb diets, at relatively high level of inclusion, without harming the animals. Use of carob pulp could be a sustainable alternative feed resource easily to manage at farmer level.

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Published online 25 February 2015
Plant extracts in heavy pig feeding: effects on quality of meat and Cremona salami 
G. Pastorelli, R. Rossi, S. Ratti and C. Corino

Consumers have increased interest for natural products and high quality meat products, because they are concerned about the health risks related to consumption of some synthetic antioxidants. The effects of dietary plant extract (PE) on pork muscle and Cremona salami were studied. An improvement in oxidative stability and fat composition were found in raw meat and in Cremona salami respectively. Dietary PE supplementation is a possible strategy to fortify pork and salami production.

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Published online 20 February 2015
The effect of maternal nutrition level during mid-gestation on postnatal muscle fibre composition and meat quality in lambs 
U. Sen, E. Sirin, U. Ensoy, Y. Aksoy, Z. Ulutas and M. Kuran

Nutrition during pregnancy is important for a successful gestation but it may also be important for the postnatal growth and development of the lamb. The results of this study demonstrated that maternal nutrition level during mid-gestation influences growth performance, muscle fibre types and number, muscle fibre cellular characteristics and carcass characteristics, but not birthweight and meat quality of the lamb after weaning at the end of finishing period.

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Published online 20 February 2015
Enteric methane emissions in response to ruminal inoculation of Propionibacterium strains in beef cattle fed a mixed diet 
D. Vyas, A. Alazzeh, S. M. McGinn, T. A. McAllister, O. M. Harstad, H. Holo and K. A. Beauchemin

Inoculation of Propionibacterium strains into the rumen of cattle has been proposed as a means of increasing ruminal propionate synthesis, thereby reducing enteric methane emissions. Results from the present study investigated strain-specific effects of Propionibacteria on ruminal propionate synthesis and total methane emissions, and their ability to integrate with the rumen microbial community. However, results suggest that Propionibacterium strains have limited influence on mitigating enteric methane emissions from beef cattle probably due to variable effects on ruminal propionate synthesis.

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   |        Open Access Article
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Published online 20 February 2015
Increased proportion of female lambs by feeding Border Leicester × Merino ewes a diet high in omega-6 fatty acids around mating 
E. H. Clayton, J. F. Wilkins and M. A. Friend

The proportion of female lambs was previously shown to be higher when ewes were fed a diet high in omega-6 fatty acids both before and, following the time of mating. In the present study, the proportion of female lambs was higher when Border Leicester × Merino ewes were fed a diet high in omega-6 compared with omega-3 fatty acids either pre-mating only or both pre- and post-mating. The largest increase in the proportion of female lambs was observed when ewes were single-bearing compared with multiple-bearing. The mechanism resulting in the diet high in omega-6 influencing the sex ratio of lambs appears to operate before or around conception but is yet to be determined.

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Published online 20 February 2015
Endophyte metabolites associated with perennial ryegrass toxicosis 
K. F. M. Reed, W. J. Mace, L. V. Walker and L. R. Fletcher

Production losses from livestock affected by toxins associated with some varieties of perennial ryegrass are occasionally extreme in Australia relative to New Zealand. Concentrations of toxins were studied and the ratio of ergovaline : lolitrem B was generally greater for Victorian pasture compared with New Zealand. The effects of the vaso-constrictive ergot alkaloids (including ergovaline) combined with that of the relatively high solar radiation on ruminants’ heat load were considered most important with respect to severe perennial ryegrass toxicosis in Australia.

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Published online 20 February 2015
Correlated response to selection for some egg performance traits in egg line of Japanese quail 
B. Y. F. Mahmoud, G. Abou Khadiga and E. A. El-Full

Productivity increase of Japanese quail as a source of animal protein for human feed is desired. Construction of a multi-trait selection program to improve egg performance depending on aggregate breeding value estimation could give a great effect in correlated selection response, which has been evidenced through the present study. The present results could be helpful in programs aimed at improving animal production for intended institutions on national levels.

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Published online 20 February 2015
Validation of PigBal model predictions for pig manure production 
A. G. Skerman, S. Willis, E. J. McGahan, M. G. Borgognone and D. J. Batstone

The PigBal model is widely used to predict piggery manure solids and nutrient production, using diet, feed intake and pig production data. Replicated feeding trials demonstrated that the model provided accurate predictions of manure solids and potassium. This suggests that the model can be used confidently for designing piggery effluent treatment systems, evaluating the energy potential from anaerobic digestion of pig effluent, and estimating greenhouse gas emissions.

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Published online 19 February 2015
Bayesian analysis of direct and maternal effects for birthweight in Iranian buffaloes using Gibbs sampling 
Navid Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh

Calf birthweight information is used as an indicator trait for calving ease in animal selection to minimise the risk of dystocia. The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for birthweight of Iranian buffaloes using a Bayesian approach. The results of the present study indicate that exploitable genetic variation observed for birthweight could be considered in designing future selection programs for Iranian buffaloes.

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Published online 19 February 2015
Effects of potassium diformate on the gastric function of weaning piglets 
S. Xia, W. Yao, B. Zou, Y. Lu, N. Lu, H. Lei and D. Xia

Potassium diformate (KDF), as an acidifier, has been shown to improve growth performance in pigs, but it is not yet known whether KDF regulates gastric function. Adding 10 g/kg KDF to the diet of weaning piglets changed the expressions of somatostain, gastrin and H+-K+-ATPase and the activity of pepsin in the gastric oxyntic mucosa, altered the concentrations of lactic acid and hydrochloric acid in the digesta. For the first time, the present paper reports that KDF could regulate the expression of gastric function genes.

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Published online 19 February 2015
Eggshell quality: a comparison between Fayoumi, Gimieizah and Brown Hy-Line strains for mechanical properties and ultrastructure of their eggshells 
Lamiaa M. Radwan

This study suggested predicting the mechanical properties and ultrastructure of eggshells when egg weight was equal. A local breed had a higher resistance to eggshell breakage than commercial laying due to its longer palisade layer. Length of the palisade layer plays an important role in eggshell strength, therefore palisade layer should be considered in selection programs for improving eggshell strength.

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Published online 19 February 2015
Bovine STAT5A gene polymorphism and its influence on growth traits in Podolica breed 
Maria Selvaggi, Angela Gabriella D'Alessandro and Cataldo Dario

Quantitative traits, such as growth performances, are influenced both by environment and genes. In particular, they are under the control of several genes. Animal genotyping is a powerful aid to animal breeding. In this study we aimed to investigate a single nucleotide polymorphism within the bovine STAT5A gene in young bulls belonging to Podolica breed, looking for a possible relationship between this polymorphism and some growth performance traits. The investigated mutation seems associated with liveweight and daily gain of animals.

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Published online 19 February 2015
Genetic parameters for calving difficulty using complex genetic models in five beef breeds in Australia 
M. G. Jeyaruban, D. J. Johnston, B. Tier and H.-U. Graser

Accurate prediction of breeding value for calving difficulties is required to reduce its incidence in beef herds in Australia. This study provides breed-specific genetic parameters for calving difficulties, birthweight and gestation length for several beef breeds in Australia. These estimates will be used in the genetic evaluation of calving difficulties for BREEDPLAN to predict breeding values for calving ease in beef cattle.

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Published online 12 February 2015
Two-step weaning in beef calves: permanence of nose flaps for 7 or 21 days does not influence the behaviour response 
P. Alvez, G. Quintans, M. J. Hötzel and R. Ungerfeld

Artificial weaning is one of the greater stressors for farm animals. Two-step weaning with nose flaps decreases behavioural signs of discomfort after definitive separation. We compared the behavioural changes in calves after using nose flaps for 7 or 21 days before definitive separation. Results indicate that the response is similar after using nose flaps for those lengths.

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Published online 12 February 2015
Genomic scan for identifying candidate genes for paratuberculosis resistance in sheep 
Bianca Moioli, Silvia D'Andrea, Luigi De Grossi, Erminia Sezzi, Bruno De Sanctis, Gennaro Catillo, Roberto Steri, Alessio Valentini and Fabio Pilla

Healthy animals are desired in all kinds of animal farming. One avenue towards a lowered incidence of disease is breeding for improved disease resistance. This paper focuses on paratuberculosis in sheep, this disease being related to Crohn’s disease in humans. A genome-wide analysis of positive and negative sheep to paratuberculosis diagnose identified five most probable genes that play a role in disease resistance and cell-mediated immune response.

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   |        Open Access Article
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Published online 05 May 2014
Selection for residual feed intake affects appetite and body composition rather than energetic efficiency 
D. S. Lines, W. S. Pitchford, C. D. K. Bottema, R. M. Herd and V. H. Oddy

Feed costs are the largest single cost in any animal production enterprise with improvements in feed efficiency able to reduce feed costs. This study aimed to understand the basis for feed efficiency measured by residual feed intake and variation in maintenance requirements. The results obtained suggest that body composition, specifically fat deposition, is affected through inherent differences in feed intake or appetite rather than maintenance requirements.

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Published online 25 February 2014
Genetic divergence in residual feed intake affects growth, feed efficiency, carcass and meat quality characteristics of Angus steers in a large commercial feedlot 
R. M. Herd, P. F. Arthur, C. D. K. Bottema, A. R. Egarr, G. H. Geesink, D. S. Lines, S. Piper, J. P. Siddell, J. M. Thompson and W. S. Pitchford

The cost of feed is the largest recurring cost of producing beef. Inherited variation in feed efficiency is known and this experiment was to demonstrate the benefit in a large commercial feedlot of breeding cattle for improved feed efficiency. The results obtained confirm the feed saving advantages of inherited superior feed efficiency and that previously reported trade-offs in carcass traits, while confirmed, were minor.

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blank image Animal Production Science
Volume 56 Number 2 & 3 2016
GGAA2016

 
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Table of Contents 
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Foreword: GGAA2016 Special Edition 
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Richard Eckard
pp. iii-iii
 
 

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Greenhouse gas emissions of Canadian beef production in 1981 as compared with 2011 
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G. Legesse , K. A. Beauchemin , K. H. Ominski , E. J. McGeough , R. Kroebel , D. MacDonald , S. M. Little and T. A. McAllister
pp. 153-168

The amount of beef produced per animal in Canada has significantly increased over the past 30 years. To produce the same amount of liveweight for slaughter in 2011 as in 1981, 29% fewer cattle in the breeding herd and 24% less land were required. Greenhouse gas emissions per kilogram of liveweight declined by 14% during this period, owing to improved production efficiencies such as higher reproductive efficiency, bodyweight gains and increased crop yields.

 
    | Supplementary Material (2 MB)
 

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A universal equation to predict methane production of forage-fed cattle in Australia 
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E. Charmley , S. R. O. Williams , P. J. Moate , R. S. Hegarty , R. M. Herd , V. H. Oddy , P. Reyenga , K. M. Staunton , A. Anderson and M. C. Hannah
pp. 169-180

Multiple methods are currently used to estimate the emissions of enteric methane from the multiple classes of forage-fed cattle in Australia. A dataset of 1034 individual animal records of daily methane emission were collated to reassess the methods. We propose a single, linear, universal relationship to predict emissions of enteric methane from forage-fed cattle.

   |        Open Access Article
 

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The GreenFeed system for measurement of enteric methane emission from cattle 
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K. J. Hammond , G. C. Waghorn and R. S. Hegarty
pp. 181-189

Methane production by cattle contributes to global warming, and estimating daily methane production (DMP) in natural environments is a prerequisite for mitigation strategies. The GreenFeed system is well suited to indoor and pastoral systems, and estimates DMP from cattle using multiple short-term measurements. We evaluated GreenFeed for implementation and accuracy of DMP, and found values to be comparable with other measurement techniques, but required more animals and longer periods to provide robust estimates.

 
  
 

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Using airborne technology to quantify and apportion emissions of CH4 and NH3 from feedlots 
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Jorg M. Hacker , Deli Chen , Mei Bai , Caecilia Ewenz , Wolfgang Junkermann , Wolfgang Lieff , Barry McManus , Bruno Neininger , Jianlei Sun , Trevor Coates , Tom Denmead , Thomas Flesch , Sean McGinn and Julian Hill
pp. 190-203

Livestock production is the main source of greenhouse gases in agriculture in Australia. A novel airborne approach using modern gas analysers for methane and ammonia was tested at a feedlot. The flights were able to define the 3D-boundaries of, and the concentration levels within, the emission plume. Our results suggest that this technique is able to quantify emissions from sources within a feedlot, as well as determining emissions from large-scale open grazing farms.

 
  
 

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Intra-ruminal gas-sensing in real time: a proof-of-concept 
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Gregory J. Bishop-Hurley , David Paull , Philip Valencia , Leslie Overs , Kourosh Kalantar-zadeh , André-Denis G. Wright and Chris McSweeney
pp. 204-212

There are few methods available to accurately and repeatedly assess methane production from large numbers of individual grazing animals. An intra-rumen gas-sensing system incorporating commercially available gas sensors was developed to measure rumen gas concentrations in real-time. Although the devices can measure for several weeks in the rumen, the accuracy declines due to the harsh rumen environment. Therefore, future research needs to focus on building a new generation sensor or finding other ways of protecting the currently available commercial sensors.

 
  
 

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Repeatability of methane emission measurements in Australian beef cattle 
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K. A. Donoghue , T. Bird-Gardiner , P. F. Arthur , R. M. Herd and R. S. Hegarty
pp. 213-217

Beef cattle are responsible for a substantial component of methane emissions from Agriculture, and the beef industry is keen to address this issue. This study examines whether methane measurements on beef cattle are repeatable over time. Measurements of methane conducted within a short time frame are highly repeatable, while measurements taken over longer time-frames are substantially less repeatable. These results indicate that multiple measures may be required to accurately record methane traits throughout an animal’s life.

 
  
 

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Assessing individual differences in enteric methane emission among beef heifers using the GreenFeed Emission Monitoring system: effect of the length of testing period on precision 
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G. Renand and D. Maupetit
pp. 218-223

The GreenFeed system has been developed to provide individual measures of enteric methane emission and can be used in breeding programs for selecting low-emitting cattle. Based on spot-measures, the method requires averaging several day measurements for reaching a high enough repeatability. This work showed that averaging ~100 spot-measures recorded in a 4-week test period provided high repeatability (>0.77) for methane emission of beef heifers.

 
  
 

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Dose-response effect of nitrate on hydrogen distribution between rumen fermentation end products: an in vitro approach 
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J. Guyader , M. Tavendale , C. Martin and S. Muetzel
pp. 224-230

Nitrate is an effective feeding strategy to mitigate methane emissions in ruminants. By studying the dose-response effect of this compound on metabolic hydrogen distribution among rumen fermentation end products, this in vitro study showed that nitrate acts as an electron acceptor, but its mechanisms of action must also involve a direct toxic effect on methanogens. This result completes previous in vivo trials by detailing the mechanisms of action of nitrate on rumen fermentation.

 
  
 

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Proxies to adjust methane production rate of beef cattle when the quantity of feed consumed is unknown 
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R. M. Herd , J. I. Velazco , P. F. Arthur and R. S. Hegarty
pp. 231-237

Methane is a potent greenhouse gas produced by cattle and sheep during the process of digestion of plant material. This experiment showed that measurement of rate of carbon dioxide exhaled or of weight gain can be used as proxies for feed intake to adjust methane measurements when feed consumed by individual animals cannot be measured. This provides a new method of identifying identify those animals that emit higher or lower levels of methane than their intake in situations where feed intake cannot easily be measured in greenhouse-gas measurement experiments with beef cattle.

 
  
 

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Repeatability of enteric methane determinations from cattle using either the SF6 tracer technique or the GreenFeed system 
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M. Arbre , Y. Rochette , J. Guyader , C. Lascoux , L. M. Gómez , M. Eugène , D. P. Morgavi , G. Renand , M. Doreau and C. Martin
pp. 238-243

Information on the precision of different methods used to measure enteric methane emissions in cattle is important for the design of experiments. This work provides results on repeatability of measurements and on cows’ number required when determining methane emissions using the SF6 tracer technique and GreenFeed system. A repeatability of 0.70 was observed after 3 and 17 days of measurement with SF6 and GreenFeed, respectively, whereas the number of cows necessary to observe methane emission differences was the same for both methods.

 
  
 

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Mathematical formulae for accurate estimation of in vitro CH4 production from vented bottles 
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M. C. Hannah , P. J. Moate , P. S. Alvarez Hess , V. M. Russo , J. L. Jacobs and R. J. Eckard
pp. 244-251

The AnkomRF system for conducting in vitro studies on rumen fermentation employs a reaction vessel and a valve that vents excess gas when a pressure transducer detects the build-up of gas to a predetermined threshold. The current research presents mathematical formulae and methodologies that take account of the venting and enable accurate estimation of methane production in this system. This innovation will facilitate methane-production studies in many laboratories around the world.

 
  
 

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Measuring methane from grazing dairy cows using GreenFeed 
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G. C. Waghorn , A. Jonker and K. A. Macdonald
pp. 252-257

Dairy cows produce methane during digestion, and lowering emissions could lessen global warming. A method for estimating methane emissions from grazing cows, requiring individuals to eat (and breathe) in a semi-enclosed feeder equipped with sensors, was evaluated on four occasions during a lactation in two farmlets in New Zealand. This ‘GreenFeed’ system provided defensible data from 50% to 70% of cows in small herds, and it could be used to monitor farming practices designed to reduce cow methane emissions.

 
  
 

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Milk mid-infrared spectra enable prediction of lactation-stage-dependent methane emissions of dairy cattle within routine population-scale milk recording schemes 
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Amélie Vanlierde , Marie-Laure Vanrobays , Nicolas Gengler , Pierre Dardenne , Eric Froidmont , Hélène Soyeurt , Sinead McParland , Eva Lewis , Matthew H. Deighton , Michaël Mathot and Frédéric Dehareng
pp. 258-264

To improve the sustainability and profitability of dairy production through mitigation of methane emissions, the development of an easily measured proxy of methane is desirable. The improvement of the equation to predict individual methane emissions of dairy cows from milk mid-infrared spectra provide more robust and accurate predictions. This tool could now be used to develop management and breeding strategies to mitigate methane emissions.

   |        Open Access Article
 

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Disentangling the effect of sheep urine patch size and nitrogen loading rate on cumulative N2O emissions 
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Karina A. Marsden , Davey L. Jones and David R. Chadwick
pp. 265-275

Sheep deposit urine of varying N concentration and patch sizes to soil, yet there is limited information on how this influences soil N2O emissions. Such emissions were quantified from urine patches of differing N loading rates and patch sizes, where both properties were found to influence N2O emissions. More data is required on the volumes, frequencies and N concentrations of sheep urine events to facilitate more accurate emission estimates from sheep-grazed pastures.

   |        Open Access Article
 

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Efficacy of methane-reducing supplements in beef cattle rations 
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M. Caetano , M. J. Wilkes , W. S. Pitchford , S. J. Lee and P. I. Hynd
pp. 276-281

Methane production by cattle is a major contributor to anthropogenic greenhouse gases. We produced a feed supplement from readily available, inexpensive feedstuffs in southern Australia, and demonstrated that it was effective in reducing methane output from cattle. Incorporation of by-products with methane-reducing potential into commercial feeds is a cost-effective means of reducing methane output.

 
  
 

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The red macroalgae Asparagopsis taxiformis is a potent natural antimethanogenic that reduces methane production during in vitro fermentation with rumen fluid 
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Robert D. Kinley , Rocky de Nys , Matthew J. Vucko , Lorenna Machado and Nigel W. Tomkins
pp. 282-289

The red macroalgae Asparagopsis taxiformis has demonstrated a potent methane abatement effect in vitro. At a low inclusion level of 2% of substrate organic matter methane emissions were eliminated with minimal effect on substrate digestibility while improving the ratio of beneficial energy molecules for potential use in animal productivity.

 
  
 

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Use of dietary nitrate to increase productivity and reduce methane production of defaunated and faunated lambs consuming protein-deficient chaff 
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S. H. Nguyen , M. C. Barnett and R. S. Hegarty
pp. 290-297

Ruminant production is limited by low-quality diets and by the loss of energy intake to methane production, which contribute to greenhouse gas emissions. Strategies to reduce methane production from ruminants may affect animal productivity; removal of rumen protozoa in combination with nitrate supplementation additively increased productivity and decreased methane production. The results of the present study added new knowledge of combining two methane mitigation strategies to reduce greenhouse effects and increase productivity of ruminant animals consuming low-protein diets.

 
  
 

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Genetic and genomic relationship between methane production measured in breath and fatty acid content in milk samples from Danish Holsteins 
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J. Lassen , N. A. Poulsen , M. K. Larsen and A. J. Buitenhuis
pp. 298-303

Methane emission from cattle is a huge contributor of greenhouse gas and due to challenges to make direct measurements indicators can be useful in order to perform genetic selection. We investigated and found a genetic relationship between methane emission in the breath of Holstein cows and the concentration of fatty acids in the milk. By applying this information it will be possible to select for low methane emitting cows by selection of specific fatty acids in the milk.

   |        Open Access Article
 

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Milk production and composition, and methane emissions from dairy cows fed lucerne hay with forage brassica or chicory 
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S. R. O. Williams , P. J. Moate , M. H. Deighton , M. C. Hannah , W. J. Wales and J. L. Jacobs
pp. 304-311

Forage brassica and chicory can be used in summer as feeds for lactating dairy cows but neither showed any methane mitigating effect. The concentrations of specific fatty acids in milk were generally not related to methane emission or yield.

 
  
 

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Effect of dietary crude protein and forage contents on enteric methane emissions and nitrogen excretion from dairy cows simultaneously 
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M. Niu , J. A. D. R. N. Appuhamy , A. B. Leytem , R. S. Dungan and E. Kebreab
pp. 312-321

The interaction between dietary crude protein and forage content and their impact on enteric methane emissions and nitrogen excretion are not experimentally quantified in dairy cows. Cows receiving reduced crude protein diets had low manure nitrogen outputs and improved milk true protein production efficiencies, regardless of dietary forage content. Cows receiving reduced forage content diets had lower methane emissions as well as emission per unit of milk yield. This study provided some insights to understand the relationship between nitrogen excretion and methane emissions.

 
  
 

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Variation of greenhouse gas emissions and identification of their drivers during the fattening of Belgian Blue White bulls based on a LCA approach 
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Michaël Mathot , Eric Elias , Edouard Reding , Amélie Vanlierde , Werne Reuter , Viviane Planchon and Didier Stilmant
pp. 322-329

Ruminant-based products are strongly criticised for their greenhouse gas emissions. The large individual variation of estimated emissions from bulls during their fattening is related to their performances and management indicating that mitigation option exists at this stage of their life. However, to ensure an effective greenhouse gas emission mitigation option the whole life of the bull has to be considered.

 
  
 

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Swine wastewater treatment technology to reduce nitrous oxide emission by using an aerobic bioreactor packed with carbon fibres 
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Takahiro Yamashita , Makoto Shiraishi , Ryoko Yamamoto-Ikemoto , Hiroshi Yokoyama , Akifumi Ogino and Takashi Osada
pp. 330-336

An aerobic treatment technology using carbon fibre carriers was capable of mitigating emission of nitrous oxide. To mitigate emission of nitrous oxide during swine wastewater treatment, we demonstrated a reduction in greenhouse gases emissions at a practical level. The aerobic treatment technology reduced nitrous oxide emission by more than 60%, compared with an activated sludge treatment. Smooth conversion from NH4+ to N gas enabled treatment without the accumulation of NO3 and NO2, thus avoiding excessive nitrous oxide emission.

 
  
 

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Dung and farm dairy effluent affect urine patch nitrous oxide emissions from a pasture 
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J. Li , J. Luo , Y. Shi , Y. Li , Y. Ma , S. Ledgard , L. Wang , D. Houlbrooke , L. Bo and S. Lindsey
pp. 337-342

An increase in nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions is possible where urine patches in grazed pastures coincide with dung patches and farm dairy effluent (FDE) applications. To test this, a field experiment was conducted to quantify N2O emission factors for urine (EF, % of applied urine-N emitted as N2O). Our results suggest that dung addition or FDE application can increase urine EF, which should be considered when N2O emissions from grazed pastures are calculated.

 
  
 

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Acidification with sulfur of the separated solid fraction of raw and co-digested pig slurry: effect on greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions during storage 
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F. Gioelli , E. Dinuccio , D. Cuk , L. Rollè and P. Balsari
pp. 343-349

Acidification of manure is an effective measure for greenhouse gases (e.g. carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide) and ammonia emission mitigation. In this study we tested a new technique based on the addition of a powdery sulfur-based product (80% elemental sulfur concentration) to the manure. This technique was a reliable and effective way to acidify the separated solid fraction of raw and co-digested pig slurry, and reduced greenhouse gases (up to 78%) and ammonia (up to 65%) emissions from stored manure.

 
  
 

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Effect of dicyandiamide (DCD) on nitrous oxide emissions from cow urine deposited on a pasture soil, as influenced by DCD application method and rate 
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J. Luo , S. Ledgard , B. Wise and S. Lindsey
pp. 350-354

Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a greenhouse gas with high global warming potential. Animal urine deposited onto pastoral soils during grazing has been identified as an important source of N2O emissions and the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) can be used as a mitigation technology to reduce N2O emissions. This study investigated an innovative method of DCD delivery to animal urine and determined an optimum DCD application rate for achieving maximum N2O reduction.

 
  
 

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Gas emissions from dairy barnyards 
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J. M. Powell and P. A. Vadas
pp. 355-361

The manure deposited in dairy barnyards can be a large source of nutrient loss and gas emission. Fluxes of carbon dioxide, methane, ammonia and nitrous oxide were measured from barnyards in Wisconsin, USA, over 4 years. Bark surfaces generally had the highest gas emissions, followed by sand and soil. Tradeoffs between gas emissions, manure nutrient runoff and leaching, cow comfort and health need to be assessed more fully before recommending beneficial practices for barnyard construction and management.

 
  
 

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A novel and effective technology for mitigating nitrous oxide emissions from land-applied manures 
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Jaye Hill , Matthew Redding and Chris Pratt
pp. 362-369

Nitrous oxide (N2O) is the main greenhouse gas (GHG) produced by soil fertiliser. Previously, we introduced a novel clay-based technology to abate these emissions. Here, we test the technology at the glasshouse scale, with a model plant included. The technology achieved >50% decrease N2O emissions. Our technology could offer a simple way forward to decrease emissions from a significant agricultural GHG source.

 
    | Supplementary Material (2.4 MB)
 

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The concordance between greenhouse gas emissions, livestock production and profitability of extensive beef farming systems 
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Matthew T. Harrison , Brendan R. Cullen , Nigel W. Tomkins , Chris McSweeney , Philip Cohn and Richard J. Eckard
pp. 370-384

We assessed the impact of management and animal interventions on the relationships between gross margin, greenhouse gas mitigation and emissions intensity of a rangeland beef farm. Profitable strategies included finishing cattle on perennial legumes, optimising steer and heifer sale times, and adopting crossbreds with high female fertility. There was little relationship between gross margin and emissions intensity when individual interventions were applied to the base farm, but a significant, negative relationship emerged when several interventions were applied.

 
    | Supplementary Material (2.5 MB)
 

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An evaluation of carbon offset supplementation options for beef production systems on coastal speargrass in central Queensland, Australia 
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D. Cottle , R. Eckard , S. Bray and M. Sullivan
pp. 385-392

For approved carbon offset methods to be used by producers, returns need to outweigh costs. Monte Carlo simulations of beef production systems on coastal speargrass in central Queensland were run with probability functions used for: (1) urea, nitrate and cottonseed meal prices; (2) greenhouse gas mitigation; (3) livestock sale prices; and (4) carbon prices. The required carbon prices for a 2% return on capital were an order of magnitude higher than current carbon prices for the three forms of nitrate without including the costs of participating in carbon offset projects. The economics of mitigation options are often not evaluated.

 
  
 

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Adoptability and effectiveness of livestock emission reduction techniques in Australia’s temperate high-rainfall zone 
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Adrian R. James and Matthew T. Harrison
pp. 393-401

Many potential management techniques that livestock farmers could use to reduce livestock greenhouse gas emissions are rarely taken up by the industry, despite decades of research into their effectiveness. Research on sheep and cattle emissions rarely addresses actual end-use and farmer implementation, so this study modelled farmer adoption of different emission reduction techniques, and found wide variation in their maximum adoption levels and time to reach it. We found that feeding lipids and increasing ewe reproductive efficiency had the lowest and highest adoption rates, respectively.

 
    | Supplementary Material (2.2 MB)
 

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Effect of rhubarb (Rheum spp.) root on in vitro and in vivo ruminal methane production and a bacterial community analysis based on 16S rRNA sequence 
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Kyoung Hoon Kim , Selvaraj Arokiyaraj , Jinwook Lee , Young Kyoon Oh , Ho Young Chung , Gwi-Deuk Jin , Eun Bae Kim , Eun Kyoung Kim , Yoonseok Lee and Myunggi Baik
pp. 402-408

It is important to clarify whether rhubarb can reduce methane production in vivo. A decrease in methane partial concentration was demonstrated by the ruminal gas samples of rhubarb-treated steers. In addition, 16S rRNA sequencing of rhubarb-treated rumen liquor showed increases in Prevotella. These findings indicate that rhubarb effectively decreases methane gas emission with a concomitant increase in propionate in vivo.

 
  
 

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Quantifying effects of grassland management on enteric methane emission 
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A. Bannink , D. Warner , B. Hatew , J. L. Ellis and J. Dijkstra
pp. 409-416

Data on the effect of grassland management on grass characteristics in combination with enteric methane (CH4) emission in lactating cows is sparse, as well as studies evaluating this relationship. We evaluated an extant mechanistic model of enteric fermentation against observations on the effect of grassland management on CH4 emission, and found that a systematic difference in observed versus predicted values is largely caused by erroneous prediction of VFA profile. Model representations of feed digestion and VFA profile are key to predict enteric CH4 accurately, and particularly the latter requires further evaluation.

 
  
 

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Carbon-neutral wool farming in south-eastern Australia 
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Natalie A. Doran-Browne , John Ive , Phillip Graham and Richard J. Eckard
pp. 417-422

Ruminant livestock production generates higher levels of greenhouse gas emissions compared with other types of farming. Yet farms often contain substantial areas of trees that sequester carbon while providing additional co-benefits such as shelter, biodiversity, along with reduced erosion and salinity. This study demonstrated that sheep farms can be carbon neutral by sequestering carbon in trees and soils, which offset the emissions from sheep, fuel and electricity.

 
  
 

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Carbon footprint of milk production under smallholder dairying in Anand district of Western India: a cradle-to-farm gate life cycle assessment 
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M. R. Garg , B. T. Phondba , P. L. Sherasia and H. P. S. Makkar
pp. 423-436

Climate change is the most serious environmental challenge, which is threatening the well-being of future generations. After energy, industry and forestry sectors, livestock are the significant contributor of climate change, representing 14.5% of the global greenhouse gas emissions. The carbon footprint of cow and buffalo milk in Anand district was 1.9 and 2.5 kg CO2-eq/kg fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM), respectively and was far below the global estimates (i.e. 5.5 and 3.2 kg CO2-eq/kg FPCM for cow and buffalo, respectively) for southern Asia.

 
  
 

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Effects of Tithonia diversifolia on in vitro methane production and ruminal fermentation characteristics 
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S. A. Terry , R. S. Ribeiro , D. S. Freitas , G. D. Delarota , L. G. R. Pereira , T. R. Tomich , R. M. Maurício and A. V. Chaves
pp. 437-441

The supplementation of tropical plants into the diets of ruminants is thought to be an economically feasible method for decreasing CH4 emissions, compared with other forages. Tithonia diversifolia is a tropical shrub and was supplemented at three different concentrations (6.9%, 15.2% and 29.2%, DM basis) to evaluate its in vitro influence on rumen fermentation characteristics and CH4 production. There was no effect of Tithonia diversifolia on CH4 production when supplemented at 6.9% (DM basis), suggesting that at low replacement rates, this plant could potentially be used as an alternative feed.

 
  
 

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What is the best use of oil from cotton (Gossypium spp.) and canola (Brassica spp.) for reducing net greenhouse gas emissions: biodiesel, or as a feed for cattle? 
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C. I. Ludemann , S. M. Howden and R. J. Eckard
pp. 442-450

The scale of global cotton and canola production creates a challenge and opportunity for producers to utilise their by-products and abate greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). We showed that the emission abatement of using cotton and canola seed oil for biodiesel was greater than that from feeding the oil to cattle. Results of the present study provide an indication of what are the best options for dealing with cotton and canola by-products in terms of the net GHG effects.

 
  
 

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Forage brassica: a feed to mitigate enteric methane emissions? 
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Xuezhao Sun , David Pacheco and Dongwen Luo
pp. 451-456

This manuscript summarises New Zealand studies on the effect of feeding forage brassicas to ruminants on enteric methane emissions. From a series of experiments with sheep and cattle fed winter and summer varieties of brassica forage crops, we found that feeding several species, especially winter forage rape, can result in a lower methane yield than ryegrass pasture. This is an important finding as part of assessing these crops as methane mitigation options for pastoral systems.

 
  
 

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Effects of tea seed saponin supplementation on physiological changes associated with blood methane concentration in tropical Brahman cattle 
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C. A. Ramírez-Restrepo , C. J. O’Neill , N. López-Villalobos , J. Padmanabha , J. K. Wang and C. McSweeney
pp. 457-465

In the face of climate variability, it is imperative to implement sustainable interventions to reduce the carbon footprint of the ruminant industry. This study assessed the clinical feasibility of tea seed (Camellia sinensis L.) saponin (TSS) associated with intake, liveweight, rumen fermentation and blood biochemistry responses. Supplementation of 151 ± 2.77 mg of TSS/kg LW is toxic to Brahman cattle.

 
  
 

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Effect of short-term infusion of hydrogen on enteric gas production and rumen environment in dairy cows 
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D. W. Olijhoek , A. L. F. Hellwing , M. R. Weisbjerg , J. Dijkstra , O. Højberg and P. Lund
pp. 466-471

Reports on the effect of high hydrogen pressure on rumen metabolism of dairy cows in vivo are scarce. When hydrogen was infused into the rumen of dairy cows for 5.75 h at 48 L/h, only 2.7% was retained in the rumen, leading to increased methane production from 120 L/5 h to 130 L/5 h, which was probably due to low solubility of hydrogen in rumen liquid. It remains a challenge to modify the rumen hydrogen pressure in vivo.

 
  
 

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Effects of plants containing secondary metabolites as feed additives on rumen metabolites and methanogen diversity of buffaloes 
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L. Samal , L. C. Chaudhary , N. Agarwal and D. N. Kamra
pp. 472-481

Livestock contributes ~37% of the anthropogenic production of methane emission, mostly by large ruminants (cattle and buffalo). The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of plants as methane inhibitors on rumen metabolites and methanogen diversity of buffaloes. The ammonia-N concentration and ciliate protozoa population were reduced significantly in the supplemented groups. Methanogen diversity showed the possibility of Methanobrevibacter as the major methanogen. Sequence study of a large number of clones will help in understanding the true picture of rumen methanogen diversity and methane mitigation strategies can be planned accordingly.

 
  
 

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Comparative analysis of greenhouse gas emissions from three beef cattle herds in a corporate farming enterprise 
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Chris Taylor and Richard Eckard
pp. 482-494

This study provided a gate-to-gate Life Cycle Assessment that modelled the greenhouse gas emissions of three herds bred and grown by an integrated beef cattle enterprise across northern Australia. The results show reductions of greenhouse gas emissions when cattle are shifted to more intensive forms of herd management, such as lot feeding. However, emission reductions are dependent on the days spent grazing and associated liveweight gains on growing and backgrounding properties.

 
  
 

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How can grass-based dairy farmers reduce the carbon footprint of milk? 
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D. O’Brien , A. Geoghegan , K. McNamara and L. Shalloo
pp. 495-500

Worldwide, there is increasing pressure to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from livestock to avoid dangerous changes to our climate. The present study aimed to estimate greenhouse gases per unit of milk, or carbon footprint, from grass-based dairy farms and identify reduction strategies. Our results indicated that the carbon footprint of milk could be reduced by increasing herd genetic merit, extending the length of the grazing season and optimising N fertiliser use. Grass-based farmers can simultaneously improve these farm attributes and, thereby, significantly reduce carbon footprint.

 
  
 

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Effects of ruminal digesta retention time on methane emissions: a modelling approach 
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P. Huhtanen , M. Ramin and E. H. Cabezas-Garcia
pp. 501-506

Microbial digestion in the fore stomachs allows ruminant animals to utilise cell-wall carbohydrates, but at the expense of producing methane that is a strong greenhouse gas. The objective of the present study was to evaluate possible contribution of variation in digesta mean retention time from the rumen to among-animal variation in methane emissions, by using a mechanistic model. Predicted methane emissions increased with increased mean retention time, but negative effects on diet digestibility should be considered before starting to select low emitters.

 
  
 

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Sheep greenhouse gas emission intensities under different management practices, climate zones and enterprise types 
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D. J. Cottle , M. T. Harrison and A. Ghahramani
pp. 507-518

Greenhouse gas emission intensities (EI) were modelled for Merino ewe, Merino-cross ewe and Merino wether enterprises at 28 sites across eight Australian climate zones. The aim was to determine if EI are reduced by any management changes designed for climate change adaptation and to study how EI varies with climate zone and enterprise specialisation. Overall, animal breeding options reduced EI more than feedbase interventions and EI were highest in Merino wether flocks and in cool temperate regions with high rainfall and lowest in crossbred ewe flocks and in semiarid and arid regions.

 
  
 

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Smart livestock feeding strategies for harvesting triple gain – the desired outcomes in planet, people and profit dimensions: a developing country perspective 
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Harinder P. S. Makkar
pp. 519-534

Feed production and feeding determines the emissions of greenhouse gases from livestock production systems; and the profitability and overall sustainability of the livestock sector. This article presents promising innovations and practices in feed production and feeding that contribute to the desired triple gain: economic, environmental and social sustainability of livestock production systems in addition to enhancing food security.

 
  
 

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Prediction of the methane conversion factor (Ym) for dairy cows on the basis of national farm data 
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A. L. F. Hellwing , M. R. Weisbjerg , M. Brask , L. Alstrup , M. Johansen , L. Hymøller , M. K. Larsen and P. Lund
pp. 535-540

The yearly methane emission from cattle is, in most countries, based on the methane conversion factor (Ym, %) describing the proportion of the gross energy intake lost as methane. The aim was to predict this conversion factor based on Danish experimental and farm data. The international climate panel suggests that 6.5% is used, but the results showed a lower methane conversion factor for Danish dairy cows (5.98–6.13%), which is in accordance with the high production level.

 
  
 

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Relationships between milk fatty acid profiles and enteric methane production in dairy cattle fed grass- or grass silage-based diets 
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J. Dijkstra , S. van Gastelen , E. C. Antunes-Fernandes , D. Warner , B. Hatew , G. Klop , S. C. Podesta , H. J. van Lingen , K. A. Hettinga and A. Bannink
pp. 541-548

The milk fatty acid (FA) profile has been suggested as a simple indicator to estimate methane production in dairy cattle. We evaluated the relationships between methane production and milk FA profile in dairy cattle fed grass- or grass silage-based diets, and found that quantitative relationships between milk FA profile and methane production in cattle fed grass- or grass silage-based diets markedly differ from those determined for other types of diets published in literature. The implementation of milk FA profile as a simple, easy-to-use indicator of methane production in practice may require diet-specific prediction equations.

 
  
 

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Manure distribution as a predictor of N2O emissions from soil 
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S. O. Petersen , K. R. Baral and E. Arthur
pp. 549-556

Manure hotspots are a significant source of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide, but spatial heterogeneity is generally not accounted for in models of nitrous oxide emission from soil. An incubation experiment with three manure materials, two soil types, and three soil water potentials was used to analyse patterns of nitrous oxide emission with a conceptual model that includes two compartments, manure hotspots and bulk soil, with different emission potentials. The study highlights the need to account for heterogeneity.

 
    | Supplementary Material (2 MB)
 

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Prediction and evaluation of enteric methane emissions from lactating dairy cows using different levels of covariate information 
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B. Santiago-Juarez , L. E. Moraes , J. A. D. R. N. Appuhamy , W. F. Pellikaan , D. P. Casper , J. Tricarico and E. Kebreab
pp. 557-564

Livestock are significant contributors to greenhouse gas emissions. Although there are numerous equations developed to estimate methane emissions from livestock, most of them are not applicable in commercial dairy because they require inputs not routinely measured in such operations. We have developed equations that use milk yield and composition information to estimate methane production and associated errors. This will help in evaluating mitigating strategies in commercial dairy farms.

 
  
 

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Modelling enteric methane abatement from earlier mating of dairy heifers in subtropical Australia by improving diet quality 
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K. M. Christie , M. T. Harrison , L. M. Trevaskis , R. P. Rawnsley and R. J. Eckard
pp. 565-573

Dairy heifers contribute to the dairy industry’s greenhouse gas footprint without producing milk.  In sub-tropical dairy regions the use of high quality supplementary feed to improve live-weight gain and reduce time to first mating has been shown to reduce their life time emissions intensity of milk production.  The Australian dairy industry is identifying ways to reduce its carbon footprint and accelerating the live-weight of dairy replacement heifers, particularly in northern Australia, is viewed as an effective and viable mitigating option.

 
    | Supplementary Material (1.8 MB)
 

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Predicting enteric methane emission in sheep using linear and non-linear statistical models from dietary variables 
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A. K. Patra , M. Lalhriatpuii and B. C. Debnath
pp. 574-584

A better estimate of enteric methane production from sheep is necessary for more accurate preparation of national greenhouse gas inventory. This study aimed to develop models for prediction of enteric methane production from sheep and showed that few models improved the prediction of methane production. These models could precisely estimate enteric methane emissions and assess the costs and benefits of enteric methane mitigation from sheep.

 
  
 

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Modelling the influence of soil carbon on net greenhouse gas emissions from grazed pastures 
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Rachelle Meyer , Brendan R. Cullen and Richard J. Eckard
pp. 585-593

There is growing interest in the potential of soil carbon sequestration as an offset against livestock emissions in grazing systems. A systems modelling study showed full offset of livestock emissions only at a low-rainfall, low-productivity site, where initial soil organic matter was low. Soil carbon may initially offset livestock emissions in the years following a transition from cropping to permanent pasture, but this offset diminishes as soil carbon approaches a new equilibrium.

 
  
 

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Modelled greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle grazing irrigated leucaena in northern Australia 
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Chris A. Taylor , Matthew T. Harrison , Marnie Telfer and Richard Eckard
pp. 594-604

This study modelled the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) of beef cattle herds grazing irrigated leucaena paddocks on a property in northern Queensland, Australia. GHG emissions were compared with the emissions of cattle grazing native pasture. The results showed reductions in GHG emission intensities between 53% and 57% when cattle graze leucaena and long-term GHG emission reductions were modelled when factoring in the carbon sequestration of the leucaena paddock.

 
    | Supplementary Material (2.4 MB)
 

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Can adaptation to nitrate supplementation and provision of fermentable energy reduce nitrite accumulation in rumen contents in vitro? 
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V. de Raphélis-Soissan , J. V. Nolan , J. R. Newbold , I. R. Godwin and R. S. Hegarty
pp. 605-612

Supplementing ruminants with dietary nitrate reduces methane emissions, but can expose animals to nitrite toxicity risks. This study investigated if adaptation to dietary nitrate and supplementation of fermentable energy sources reduce accumulation of nitrite in vitro. However, there was no effect of additional energy on nitrite accumulation, and adaptation of rumen fluid donors to dietary nitrate even increased accumulation of nitrite. In vivo verification is needed to assess the role of adapting ruminants to nitrate supplementation on risks of nitrite toxicity.

 
  
 

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Methanogenic potential of forages consumed throughout the year by cattle in a Sahelian pastoral area 
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M. Doreau , H. Benhissi , Y. E. Thior , B. Bois , C. Leydet , L. Genestoux , P. Lecomte , D. P. Morgavi and A. Ickowicz
pp. 613-618

A requirement for evaluating the environmental footprint of African pastoral systems is to have reliable information on methane emission from forages consumed by ruminants. This work shows a large seasonal variation of methane emission determined in vitro that was partly explained by forage chemical composition. This is a first step of a more accurate determination of methane effectively produced by cattle managed on African pastures.

 
  
 

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Supplementation with Calliandra calothyrsus improves nitrogen retention in cattle fed low-protein diets 
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D. Korir , J. P. Goopy , C. Gachuiri and K. Butterbach-Bahl
pp. 619-626

Ruminants in developing countries are maintained mainly on a low-quality diet that is poorly utilised, resulting in low productivity. The present paper assessed the effects of protein supplementation on improving utilisation of low-quality diet in cattle, with the outcome indicating increased intakes and nitrogen retention; however, dry matter digestibility was unaltered. This may imply that supplementation at submaintenance intake may improve nitrogen utilisation in cattle, but fibre utilisation may not be improved.

 
  
 

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Soybean oil suppresses ruminal methane production and reduces content of coenzyme F420 in vitro fermentation 
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Mengzhi Wang , Yujia Jing , Shimin Liu , Jian Gao , Liangfeng Shi and Phil Vercoe
pp. 627-633

The methane emission from ruminant livestock has a greenhouse gas effect. This experiment examined suppressing the effects of peanut, rapeseed, corn and soybean oils to methane production from adult goats. The results showed that soybean oil reduced methane production more effectively than the other oils and could be used as an ingredient in ruminant diets for methane mitigation.

 
  
 

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In vitro methane and gas production characteristics of Eragrostis trichopophora substrate supplemented with different browse foliage 
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Abubeker Hassen , Jacobus Johannes Francois Theart , Willem Adriaan van Niekerk , Festus Adeyemi Adejoro and Belete Shenkute Gemeda
pp. 634-640

Livestock production from the communal as well as commercial farms under extensive production systems needs to be competitive globally in terms of production cost and environmental foot print associated with the production of meat and milk. The use of selected browse foliage from the Kalahari Desert in South Africa to supplement Eragrostis trichopophora hay in order to improve in vitro ruminal fermentation and associated methane production was studied. Browse foliage with good methane mitigation potential will be identified for subsequent evaluation using in vivo trials.

 
  
 

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In vitro fermentability and methane production of some alternative forages in Australia 
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Z. Durmic , P. J. Moate , J. L. Jacobs , J. Vadhanabhuti and P. E. Vercoe
pp. 641-645

Management strategies for reducing methane emissions from livestock in forage-based grazing systems may include a selection of plants with the potential to alter methane production in the rumen. While a range of conventional forages have been reported to reduce ruminal methane, there is an array of emerging forages yet to be investigated for their methane mitigation potential. In the current study, we have found that some alterantive forages such as chicory, broccoli and plantain may mitigate production of methane by ruminants.

 
  
 

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Greenhouse-gas mitigation potential of agro-industrial by-products in the diet of dairy goats in Spain: a life-cycle perspective 
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G. Pardo , I. Martin-Garcia , A. Arco , D. R. Yañez-Ruiz , R. Moral and A. del Prado
pp. 646-654

Ruminant livestock systems in harsh climatic regions are associated with high greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions and production costs. The use of food by-products from local agro-industry can help to overcome these issues. We analysed the environmental implications of two alternative dietary strategies for dairy goats, including tomato-fruit wastes and olive oil by-products. Results showed animal feeding is the preferable option for GHG mitigation in this case, but the implications of other competing uses for organic by-products (biogas, compost) must be carefully considered.

 
  
 

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These articles have been peer reviewed and accepted for publication. They are still in production and have not been edited, so may differ from the final published form.

    AN16073  Accepted 09 February 2016
    Comparative performance of broiler chickens offered nutritionally-equivalent diets based on six diverse, ‘tannin-free’ sorghum varieties with quantified concentrations of phenolic compounds, kafirin, and phytate
    Ha Truong, Karlie Neilsen, Bernard McInerney , Ali Khoddami, Thomas Roberts, David Cadogan, Sonia Liu, Peter Selle
    Abstract


    AN15776  Accepted 10 February 2016
    Effect of probiotic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain H57 on productivity and the incidence of diarrhoea in dairy calves
    Oanh Le, Peter Dart, Karen Harper, Dagong Zhang, Benjamin Schofield, Matthew Callaghan, Allan Lisle, Athol Klieve, David McNeill
    Abstract


    AN15087  Accepted 10 February 2016
    Effect of residual leaf area index on spatial components of Tifton 85 pastures and ingestive behavior of sheep
    Wilton Silva, João Paulo Costa, Gregory Caputti, Andre Luis Valente, Denise Tsuzukibashi, Euclides Malheiros, Ricardo Reis, Ana Ruggieri
    Abstract


    AN15650  Accepted 08 February 2016
    Methane, nitrous oxide and ammonia emissions from pigs housed on litter and from stockpiling of spent litter
    Frances Phillips, Stephen Wiedemann, Travis Naylor, Eugene McGahan, Bradley Warren, Caoilinn Murphy, Stephen Parkes, Joel Wilson
    Abstract


    AN15816  Accepted 07 February 2016
    Effects of dietary supplementation of cinnamaldehyde and formic acid on growth performance, intestinal microbiota and immune response in broiler chickens
    Manish Pathak, G. P. Mandal, Amlan Kumar Patra, Indranil Samanta, Saktipada Pradhan, Sudipto Haldar
    Abstract


    AN15463  Accepted 03 February 2016
    The effects of different protein levels in laying hens under hot summer conditions
    Mehran Torki, Masoomeh Nasiroleslami, Hossein Ghasemi
    Abstract


    AN15134  Accepted 02 February 2016
    Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Oriental Herbal Medicine Residue and Methyl Sulfonyl Methane on the Growth Performance and Meat Quality of Ducks
    Jin-Woo Hwang, Sun Hee Cheong, Yon-Suk Kim, Jae-Woong Lee, Bo Im You, Sang Ho Moon, Byong Tae Jeon, Pyo Jam Park
    Abstract


    AN15771  Accepted 31 January 2016
    Crossbreeding in beef production: Meta-analysis of breed means to estimate breed-specific effects on leather properties
    Anette Theunissen, Mike MacNeil, Michiel Scholtz, Frikkie Neser, Johan de Bruyn
    Abstract


    AN15441  Accepted 06 December 2015
    Mechanical nociceptive threshold testing in Bos indicus bull calves
    Gabrielle Musk, Michael Laurence, Teresa Collins, Jonathan Tuke, Timothy Hyndman
    Abstract


    AN15434  Accepted 07 December 2015
    Effect of β-carotene supplementation on the expression of lipid metabolism related genes and the deposition of back fat in beef cattle
    Qing Jin, Yifan Liu, Xiaomu Liu, Fachun Wan, Hongbo Zhao, Haijian Cheng, Wei You, Guifen Liu, Xiuwen Tan
    Abstract


    AN15360  Accepted 29 January 2016
    Crambe cake impairs lamb performance and fatty acid profile of meat
    Juliano Issakowicz, Mauro Bueno, Cristina Barbosa, Erika Canova, Heverton Moreira, André Geraldo, Ana Claudia Sampaio
    Abstract


    AN15337  Accepted 09 December 2015
    Sugarcane tops as a substitute for sugarcane in high-concentrate diets for beef bulls
    Julião Couto, Severino Delmar Villela, Mario Henrique Mourthé, Adalfredo Rocha Lobo-Jr, Roseli Santos, Paulo Gustavo Martins
    Abstract


    AN15230  Accepted 29 January 2016
    Feed intake, liveweight gain and carcase traits of lambs offered pelleted annual pasture hay supplemented with flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) flakes or algae (Schizochytrium sp.)
    Vivianne Burnett, Joe Jacobs, Sorn Norng, Eric Ponnampalam
    Abstract


    AN15045  Accepted 09 December 2015
    Replacing synthetic N with clovers or alfalfa in bermuagrass pastures. I. Herbage mass and pasture carrying capacity
    Paul Beck, Tom Hess, Don Hubbell, Shane Gadberry, John Jennings, Michael Sims
    Abstract


    AN15729  Accepted 27 January 2016
    Essential role of methyldonors in animal productivity
    Pierre Cronje
    Abstract


    AN15549  Accepted 27 January 2016
    The repeatability of textural wool handle
    James Preston, Sue Hatcher, Bruce McGregor
    Abstract


    AN15415  Accepted 27 January 2016
    Social interaction patterns according to stocking density and time post-mixing in group-housed gestating sows
    Jean-Loup Rault
    Abstract


    AN15388  Accepted 26 January 2016
    Effects of a limited period of iron supplementation on the growth performance and meat colour of dairy bull calves for veal production
    Kai Cui, Yan Tu, Yongchao Wang, Nai-Feng Zhang, Tao Ma, Qi-Yu Diao
    Abstract


    AN15311  Accepted 25 January 2016
    Fatty acid composition and physicochemical and, sensory characteristics of meat from ewe lambs supplemented with zilpaterol hydrochloride and soybean oil
    José Dávila-Ramírez, Leonel Avendano-Reyes, Ulises Macias-Cruz, Etna Peña-Ramos, Thalia Islava-Lagarda, Libertad Zamorano-García, Martin Valenzuela-Melendres, Juan Camou, Humberto González Rios
    Abstract


    AN15684  Accepted 23 January 2016
    In vitro rumen fermentation characteristics of goat and sheep supplemented with polyunsaturated fatty acids
    Su Chui Len Candyrine, Juan Boo Liang, Yong Meng Goh, Norhani Abdullah, Mahdi Ebrahimi, Mohammad Faseleh Jahromi
    Abstract


    AN15666  Accepted 23 January 2016
    An update on direct-fed microbials in broiler chickens in post-antibiotic era
    Kyung-Woo Lee, Hyun Lillehoj
    Abstract


    AN15586  Accepted 21 January 2016
    Greenhouse gas emission intensity based on lifetime milk production of dairy animals; as impacted by ration balancing programme
    Manget Garg, Pankaj Sherasia, Bhupendra Phondba, Harinder Makkar
    Abstract


    AN15383  Accepted 18 January 2016
    INVITED REVIEW: Animal welfare and efficient farming: is conflict inevitable?
    Marian Dawkins
    Abstract


    AN15372  Accepted 19 January 2016
    A world without in-feed antibiotics, the scientific process For alternatives
    Mamduh Sifri
    Abstract


    AN15712  Accepted 17 January 2016
    Efficacy of hydrate sodium calcium aluminosilicate and yeast cell wall to ameliorate the toxic effects of aflatoxin in ducks.
    Sirisak Tanpong, Sawitree Wongtangtintharn, Komkrich Pimpukdee, Bundit Tengjaroenkul, Jowaman Khajarern
    Abstract


    AN15437  Accepted 18 January 2016
    INVITED REVIEW - RNA interference-based technology: what role in animal agriculture?
    Barry Bradford, Caitlin Cooper, Mark Tizard, Timothy Doran, Tracey Hinton
    Abstract


    AN15111  Accepted 15 January 2016
    Daily methane emissions and emission intensity of grazing beef cattle genetically divergent for residual feed intake
    Jose Velazco, Robert Herd, David Cottle, Roger Hegarty
    Abstract


    AN15702  Accepted 14 January 2016
    Comparison of aquaporin-1 expression between yak (Bos grunniens) and indigenous cattle (Bos taurus) in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau
    Chongliang Zhong, Jingpeng Kang, Gavin Stewart, Jianwei Zhou, Xiaodan Huang, Jiandui Mi, Jia Liu, Chao Yang, Ying Zhang, Ruijun Long
    Abstract


    AN14586  Accepted 13 January 2016
    Ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility and microbial protein synthesis in sheep fed diets with different levels of date pulp
    Amin Khezri, Samira Javidan, Omid Dayani, Reza Tahmasbi
    Abstract


    AN15610  Accepted 11 January 2016
    Impact of phytogenic feed additives on growth performance, nutrient digestion and methanogenesis in growing buffaloes
    Lipismita Samal, L. C. Chaudhary, N. Agarwal, Devki Kamra
    Abstract


    AN15643  Accepted 11 January 2016
    Joint estimation of (co) variance components and breeding values for mean and dispersion of days from calving to first service in Holstein cow
    Heydar Ghiasi, Majbritt Felleki
    Abstract


    AN15190  Accepted 12 January 2016
    Comparison of rumen in vitro fermentation of temperate pastures using different batch culture systems
    Juan Keim, David Pacheco, Robert Berthiaume, Stefan Muetzel
    Abstract


    AN15024  Accepted 11 January 2016
    The effect of different levels of crude protein on the pathophysiology of Haemonchus contortus infection in two year old Boer dry does under confined conditions
    Tham Can, Peter Murray, Mark Hohenhaus
    Abstract


    AN15656  Accepted 09 January 2016
    Methane emissions from lactating and non-lactating dairy cows and growing cattle fed fresh pasture
    Arjan Jonker, German Molano, John Koolaard, Stefan Muetzel
    Abstract


    AN15422  Accepted 09 January 2016
    Predicting milk responses to cereal based supplements in grazing dairy cows
    Janna Heard, Murray Hannah, Christie Ho, Emer Kennedy, Peter Doyle, Joe Jacobs, Bill Wales
    Abstract


    AN15657  Accepted 09 January 2016
    Genetic study of visual scores and hip height at different ages in Nelore cattle
    Daniel Silveira, Lucas De Vargas, Vanerlei Roso, Gabriel Campos, Fabio Ricardo Souza, Arione Boligon
    Abstract


    AN15484  Accepted 09 January 2016
    Estimation of genetic parameters for test-day milk yield and fat percentage in first calving Iranian buffaloes
    Mostafa Madad, Sadegh Alijani, Amin Yousefi, Ramin Jafarzadeh Ghadimi
    Abstract


    AN15757  Accepted 07 January 2016
    Enzyme- and gene-based approaches for developing methanogen-specific compounds to control ruminant methane emissions: a review
    Gemma Henderson, Gregory Cook, Ron Ronimus
    Abstract


    AN15649  Accepted 08 January 2016
    Methane, nitrous oxide and ammonia emissions from an Australian piggery with short and long hydraulic retention time effluent storage
    Eugene McGahan, Frances Phillips, Stephen Wiedemann, Travis Naylor, Bradley Warren, Caoilinn Murphy, David Griffith, Maximilien Desservettaz
    Abstract


    AN15425  Accepted 07 January 2016
    Effect of measurement duration in respiration chambers on methane traits of beef cattle
    Paul Arthur, Kath Donoghue, Tracie Bird-Gardiner, Robert Herd, Roger Hegarty
    Abstract


    AN15133  Accepted 07 January 2016
    Characterization of smallholding dairy farms in southern Brazil
    Lucas Balcão, Cibele Longo, João Costa, Cíntia Uller-Gómez, Luiz Machado Filho, Maria Jose Hotzel
    Abstract


    AN15502  Accepted 07 January 2016
    Effects of oats grain supplements on performance, rumen parameters and composition of beef from cattle grazing oats pasture
    Hugo Arelovich, Josefina Marinissen, Brett Gardner, Marcela Martinez, Rodrigo Bravo
    Abstract


    AN15692  Accepted 07 January 2016
    Effect of Maize Cob and Husk Ratio in Napier Pakchong 1 Silage on Nutritive Value and In vitro Gas Production in Rumen Fluid of Thai Native Cattle
    Saowaluck Yammuen-art, Patcharee Somrak, chirawat Phatsara
    Abstract


    AN15638  Accepted 04 January 2016
    Greenhouse gas emissions from dung, urine and dairy pond sludge applied to pasture. 2. Methane emissions
    Kevin Kelly, Graeme Ward, James Hollier
    Abstract


    AN15392  Accepted 04 January 2016
    Effect of volume of urine and mass of feces on N2O and CH4 emissions of dairy cows excretes in a tropical pasture
    Abmael Cardoso, Bruno Alves, Segundo Urquiaga, Robert Boddey
    Abstract


    AN15595  Accepted 04 January 2016
    Greenhouse gas emissions from dung, urine and dairy pond sludge applied to pasture. 1. Nitrous oxide emissions
    Graeme Ward, Kevin Kelly, James Hollier
    Abstract


    AN15356  Accepted 05 January 2016
    Effects of dietary active dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) supply at two levels of concentrate on energy and nitrogen utilization and methane emissions of lactating dairy cows
    Camila Muñoz, Tianhai Yan, David Wills
    Abstract


    AN15101  Accepted 24 December 2015
    The contribution of Qualitative behavioural assessment to livestock welfare assessment
    Patricia Fleming, Taya Clarke, Sarah Wickham, Catherine Stockman, Anne Barnes, Teresa Collins, David Miller
    Abstract


    AN15540  Accepted 23 December 2015
    Dietary choice and grazing behaviour of sheep on spatially arranged pasture systems 2. Wether lamb growth and carcass weight at slaughter
    Margaret Raeside, Matthew Robertson, Zhongnan Nie, Joe Jacobs, Debra Partington, Ralph Behrendt
    Abstract


    AN15539  Accepted 23 December 2015
    Dietary choice and grazing behaviour of sheep on spatially arranged pasture systems. 1. Herbage mass, nutritive characteristics and diet selection
    Margaret Raeside, Matthew Robertson, Zhongnan Nie, Debra Partington, Joe Jacobs, Ralph Behrendt
    Abstract


    AN15584  Accepted 22 December 2015
    Emissions of nitrous oxide, ammonia and methane from Australian layer hen manure storage with a mitigation strategy applied
    Travis Naylor, Stephen Wiedemann, Frances Phillips, Bradley Warren, Eugene McGahan, Caoilinn Murphy
    Abstract


    AN15572  Accepted 18 December 2015
    A regional model of sheep lice management practices to examine the impact of managing straying sheep combined with other management choices
    Peri Lucas, Brian Horton, David Parsons, Anna Carew
    Abstract


    AN15451  Accepted 16 December 2015
    Crude glycerin as a replacement for corn in starter feed: performance and metabolism of pre-weaned dairy calves
    Carla Maris Bittar, Gustavo Guilherme Napoles, Carlos Eduardo Oltramari, Jackeline Silva, Marilia De Paula, Flavia Hermelina Rocha Santos, Mariana Gallo, Gerson Mourão
    Abstract


    AN15545  Accepted 15 December 2015
    Effect of enzyme activity on growth, carcass yield and organs weight of growing pigs fed copra meal-based diets
    Siaka Diarra
    Abstract


    AN15046  Accepted 09 December 2015
    Replacing synthetic N with clovers or alfalfa in bermuagrass pastures. II. Herbage nutritive value for growing beef steers
    Paul Beck, Tom Hess, Don Hubbell, Shane Gadberry, John Jennings, Michael Sims
    Abstract


    AN15047  Accepted 14 December 2015
    Replacing synthetic N with clovers or alfalfa in bermuagrass pastures. III Performance of growing steers
    Paul Beck, Tom Hess, Don Hubbell, Shane Gadberry, John Jennings, Michael Sims
    Abstract


    AN15533  Accepted 13 December 2015
    Live weight gain and urinary nitrogen excretion of dairy heifers grazing perennial ryegrass-white clover pasture, canola, and wheat
    Long Cheng, Jeff Mccormick, Chris Logan, Helen Hague, Miriam Hodge, Grant Edwards
    Abstract


    AN15342  Accepted 12 December 2015
    Examining the impacts of red deer hind body condition score and pasture forage mass on calf weaning weight
    David Stevens, Bryan Thompson, Geoff Asher, Ian Scott
    Abstract


    AN15563  Accepted 12 December 2015
    Changes in feed intake during isolation stress in respiration chambers may impact methane emissions assessment
    Pol Llonch, Shane Troy, Carol-Anne Duthie, Miguel Somarriba, John Rooke, Marie Haskell, Rainer Roehe, Simon Turner
    Abstract


    AN15366  Accepted 11 December 2015
    The effect of long term under- and over-feeding on the expression of genes related to glucose metabolism in the mammary tissue of goats
    Eleni Tsiplakou, Emmanouil Flemetakis, Evaggelia Kouri, George Zervas
    Abstract


    AN15479  Accepted 10 December 2015
    Methionine concentration in the pre-starter diet – its effect on broiler breast muscle development
    Dean Powell, Sandra Velleman, Aaron Cowieson, Wendy Muir
    Abstract


    AN15458  Accepted 04 December 2015
    Genetic analyses on body weight, reproductive, and carcass traits in composite beef cattle
    Bruno Pires, Patrícia Tholon, Marcos Eli Buzanskas, Ana Sbardella, Jaqueline Rosa, Luiz Otávio da Silva, Roberto Augusto Torres Júnior, Danísio Munari, Maurício Alencar
    Abstract


    AN15358  Accepted 04 December 2015
    Effect of dietary fish oil with or without vitamin E supplementation on fresh and cryopreserved ovine sperm
    Mohammad Habibi, Mohammad Javad Zamiri, Amir Akhlaghi, Abdolhossein Shahverdi, Alireza Alizadeh, Mohammad Reza Jaafarzadeh
    Abstract


    AN15354  Accepted 03 December 2015
    Use of feed technology to improve the nutritional value of feed ingredients
    Oscar Rojas, Hans Stein
    Abstract


    AN15352  Accepted 03 December 2015
    Digestibility of calcium in feed ingredients and requirements of digestible calcium for growing pigs
    Jolie Gonzalez Vega, Hans Stein
    Abstract


    AN15182  Accepted 29 October 2015
    Influence of Acacia tortilis leaf meal-based diet on serum biochemistry, carcass characteristics and internal organs of finishing pigs
    Mbongeni Khanyile, Saymore Petros Ndou, Michael Chimonyo
    Abstract


    AN15116  Accepted 27 November 2015
    Effect of feeding whole crop corn silage as dietary roughage on physiological and digestive response of sheep under heat exposure
    Md Mostafizar Rahman, Paramintra Vinitchaikul, Arvinda Panthee, Xue Bi, Hiroaki Sano
    Abstract


    AN15057  Accepted 27 November 2015
    Pedigree-based analysis of genetic variability in the registered Normande cattle breed in Colombia
    Derly Rodriguez, Emanuela Tullo, Rita Rizzi
    Abstract


    AN15431  Accepted 25 November 2015
    Population genetic structure and milk production traits in Girgentana goat breed
    Salvatore Mastrangelo, Marco Tolone, Maria Montalbano, Lina Tortorici, Rosalia Di Gerlando, Maria Teresa Sardina, Baldassare Portolano
    Abstract


    AN15660  Accepted 24 November 2015
    Responses to various protein and energy supplements by steers fed low-quality tropical hay. 2. Effect of stage of maturity of steers
    Stuart McLennan, Joanne Campbell, Cuong Pham, Kerri Chandra, Simon Quigley, Dennis Poppi
    Abstract


    AN15475  Accepted 25 November 2015
    Development of cecal predominant microbiota in broilers during a complete rearing using denaturing gradient gel eletrophoresis
    Jesica Blajman, María Zbrun, Marcelo Signorini, Jorge Zimmermann, Eugenia Rossler, Ayelén Berisvil, Analía Romero Scharpen, Diego Astesana, Lorena Soto, Laureano Frizzo
    Abstract


    AN15659  Accepted 16 November 2015
    Responses to various protein and energy supplements by steers fed low-quality tropical hay. 1. Comparison of response surfaces for young steers
    Stuart McLennan, Matt Bolam, James Kidd, Kerri Chandra, Dennis Poppi
    Abstract


    AN15001  Accepted 16 November 2015
    Physiological and growth parameters of fattening lambs after shearing under heat stress conditions
    Farid Moslemipur, Shahram Golzar-Adabi
    Abstract


    AN15428  Accepted 16 November 2015
    Quality characteristics of premium mutton nuggets enriched with almond based functional components
    Rajiv Kumar, Brahma Sharma, Sanjod Mendiratta, Om Malav, Suman Talukder, Sheikh Ahmad
    Abstract


    AN15172  Accepted 15 November 2015
    The use of walk over weigh to predict calving date in extensively managed beef herds
    Michael Aldridge, Stephen Lee, Julian Taylor, Greg Popplewell, Fergus Job, Wayne Pitchford
    Abstract


    AN15324  Accepted 13 November 2015
    Managing the rumen to limit the incidence and severity of nitrite poisoning in nitrate-supplemented ruminants