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Animal Production Science is an international journal publishing original research and reviews on the production of food, fibre and pharmaceuticals from animals. More

Editor-in-Chief: Wayne Bryden

 
 
 

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Published online 27 April 2015
Genetic evaluation of maternal behaviour and temperament in Australian sheep 
D. J. Brown, N. M. Fogarty, C. L. Iker, D. M. Ferguson, D. Blache and G. M. Gaunt

The temperament and behaviour of ewes at lambing can impact on the survival of their newborn lambs. Maternal behaviour and temperament are moderately heritable (the former also repeatable), which means these traits can be improved by selection. Scoring maternal behaviour at lambing could be a useful trait to include in breeding programs aimed at improving overall reproduction rates in sheep flocks.

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Published online 27 April 2015
Evaluation of greenhouse gas emissions from hog manure application in a Canadian cow–calf production system using whole-farm models 
Aklilu W. Alemu, Kim H. Ominski, Mario Tenuta, Brian D. Amiro and Ermias Kebreab

The Canadian beef cattle sector is a major contributor for agricultural GHG emissions. Our study evaluated the impacts of amount and time of hog manure application in a cow-calf production system using whole-farm models. Farm productivity was greater for the split manure application than single application. However, the environmental benefit (GHG) of the two scenarios was not consistent between models. Application of whole-farm approach in beef production systems is important to evaluate the environmental impacts of beneficial management practices.

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Published online 27 April 2015
Non-interference measurement of CH4, N2O and NH3 emissions from cattle 
Mei Bai, Jianlei Sun, Kithsiri B. Dassanayake, Marcelo A. Benvenutti, Julian Hill, Owen T. Denmead, Thomas Flesch and Deli Chen

Livestock contribute to 64% of greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture. However, obtaining integrated emissions from different sources and different greenhouse gases in feedlot is challenging. We conducted a study on a feedlot cattle pen and measured CH4, N2O and NH3 emissions. Predictions based on the Australian National Inventory recommendations were calculated. This study reveals that beef feedlot cattle contribute to 3.1% of CH4 emissions and 5.9% of N2O emissions from Australian agriculture.

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Published online 24 April 2015
Improving the use of available feed resources to overcome sheep feeding deficits in western China 
Joshua Philp, Adam M. Komarek, Sarah J. Pain, Xueling Li and William Bellotti

Increasing livestock numbers in developing economies is essential for improving rural livelihoods, however many smallholder farmers face regular shortages of quality feed. We first conducted an experiment in rural western China that emulated a change in farming practice where nitrogen-rich feed from the spring harvest is conserved for winter, then compared its efficiency to current farming practice. Our results demonstrated the potential for smallholder farmers to improve their situation by altering feed management.

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Published online 24 April 2015
Effect of natural mating or laparoscopic artificial insemination in superovulated Santa Inês ewes on superovulatory response, fertility and embryo viability 
J. T. M. Lima, J. F. Fonseca, M. F. A. Balaro, L. V. Esteves, F. O. Ascoli, C. R. Leite, A. C. S. Ribeiro, K. F. Delgado, J. M. G. Souza-Fabjan, R. A. Torres Filho and F. Z. Brandão

Failures in fertilisation are common in breeding programs after natural mating. Thus, we compared the effect of natural mating or laparoscopic artificial insemination on superovulatory response, fertility and embryo yield in superovulated ewes. This study indicated that the use of the natural mating in the multiple ovulation and embryo transfer program does not affect the fertilisation rate of Santa Inês ewes and could be recommended.

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Published online 24 April 2015
Prediction of crude protein and neutral detergent fibre concentration in residues of in situ ruminal degradation of pasture samples by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) 
J. P. Keim, H. Charles and D. Alomar

The in situ technique describes the degradation kinetics of feedstuffs and their nutritional components that are used in ration evaluation models. However, this technique requires the analyses of a high number of samples and sometimes there is an insufficient amount of residue for analysis. It is proposed that near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can predict the crude protein and neutral detergent fibre concentrations of the in situ residues. It is concluded that NIRS could be employed to predict those components of in situ fermentation residues of vegetative pastures, although more robust calibrations need to be developed.

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Published online 24 April 2015
Effect of the type of dietary fat when added as an energy source on animal performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of intensively reared Friesian steers 
A. Guerrero, E. Muela, M. V. Valero, I. N. Prado, M. M. Campo, J. L. Olleta, O. Catalán and C. Sañudo

Diet is one the main factors that modifies meat characteristics as well as the main cost in intensive rearing systems. The effect of different fat sources included at low level (3.8–4.0%) on meat quality from young Friesian steers has been assessed. At these low levels, the used fats did not change significantly animal performance or meat quality. Therefore, in concentrate rearing systems, it is possible to include the cheapest fat in the finishing step without significantly modifying the quality of the final product.

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Published online 24 April 2015
The fat-tail of Damara sheep: an assessment of mineral content as influenced by weight loss 
Joana R. Lérias, Tanya Kilminster, Tim Scanlon, John Milton, Chris Oldham, Johan C. Greeff, Luísa L. Martins, Miguel P. Mourato and André M. Almeida

We profiled for the first time the mineral contents of fat-tail adipose tissue from Damara sheep affected by weight loss. Only the concentrations of zinc and calcium were affected. This work is an important contribution towards the possible use of the fat-tail by the meat industry, adding value to Damara production through the use of this presently discarded offal.

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Published online 22 April 2015
The effect of inclusion level and basal diet on the determination of the digestible and metabolisable energy content of soybean oil and its digestibility when fed to growing pigs 
Yongbo Su, Xiaohua Bi, Qiang Huang, Ling Liu, Xiangshu Piao and Defa Li

Soybean oil can provide different available energy in pigs when its concentration or the composition of diet is different. This research determined the effect of soybean oil concentration and composition of diet on the available energy of soybean oil. The results showed that the more soybean oil pigs consumed the greater available energy soybean oil contained for growing pigs.

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Published online 22 April 2015
Rosiglitazone maleate increases weight gain and body fat content in growing lambs 
F. T. Fahri, I. J. Clarke, D. W. Pethick, R. D. Warner and F. R. Dunshea

Thiazolidinediones (TZD) are used in the treatment of diabetes but may increase fat deposition in humans. This study demonstrated that TZDs increase feed intake, growth and carcass fat, but not visceral fat in sheep. In conclusion, dietary TZDs mitigate against the inhibitory effect of carcass fatness on feed intake in sheep but the additional consumed energy is deposited as fat.

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Published online 22 April 2015
Effects of increasing rates of molasses supplementation and forage quality on the productivity of steers 
R. A. Hunter and P. M. Kennedy

Molasses supplements can provide a valuable source of energy for growing cattle in northern Australia, but the efficiency of use of energy in molasses may vary with characteristics of accompanying forage. Our experiments showed that good growth rates in steers fed molasses and forage could be achieved, especially with forage of low nutritive value, but that digestibility of the forages decreased as molasses content of the diet increased. We conclude that the feeding standards for cattle require modification before they can be accurately used to predict growth for cattle fed tropical diets.

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Published online 22 April 2015
Increasing the proportion of female lambs by feeding Merino ewes a diet high in omega-6 fatty acids around mating 
E. H. Clayton, M. A. Friend and J. F. Wilkins

In a previous experiment, the proportion of female lambs was higher when Border Leicester × Merino first-cross ewes were fed a diet high in omega-6 fatty acids. In the current study, the proportion of female lambs was also higher when Merino ewes were fed a diet high in omega-6 than a diet low in omega-6 fatty acids either pre-mating only or both pre- and post-mating. The mechanism resulting in the diet high in omega-6 influencing the sex ratio of lambs appears to operate before or around conception. Enterprises breeding first-cross ewes as dams for terminal sire operations may benefit from an increased proportion of females by feeding ewes a diet high in omega-6 around the time of mating.

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Published online 22 April 2015
Use of n-alkanes for determination of Kikuyu grass (Pennisetum clandestinum) intake in free-range broilers 
M. Singh, T. Durali and A. J. Cowieson

Free-range broilers consume unknown amounts of pasture with ambiguous nutritional value and this may influence performance. N-alkanes have been used in this study to estimate the intake of Kikuyu grass at 13.5–14.7% of total as-fed intake by free-range broilers. A significant increase in both feed intake and feed conversion ratio on accounting for grass consumption gives an indication that grass consumption may be under-represented and not systematically considered. The amount of grass consumed causes detrimental effects both for the bird and for production costs.

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Published online 21 April 2015
Simple versus diverse pastures: opportunities and challenges in dairy systems 
Keith G. Pembleton, Katherine N. Tozer, Grant R. Edwards, Joe L. Jacobs and Lydia R. Turner

Diverse pastures offer benefits to pasture-based dairy systems in terms of increased forage and animal production, improved resilience and the potential to reduce nitrate leaching. The management required to maintain the diversity in the pastures may limit their application. However, the benefits of diverse pastures can be archived with only three species making their management and application simpler.

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Published online 21 April 2015
Immune system, inflammation and nutrition in dairy cattle 
G. Bertoni, A. Minuti and E. Trevisi

Both the immune system and the inflammatory response must function well for animals to remain healthy and perform optimally. Nevertheless, their combined action can have negative effects on animal health and production, with accumulating results suggesting that the activation of inflammatory reactions should be minimised. Nutrition is probably important in these processes, not only in avoiding diseases and other causes of immune-system activation, but also to avoid or attenuate the inflammatory response altogether.

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Published online 21 April 2015
Exhaled breath condensate hydrogen peroxide concentration, a novel biomarker for assessment of oxidative stress in sheep during heat stress 
Surinder S. Chauhan, Pietro Celi, Brian Leury, Fan Liu and Frank R. Dunshea

Heat stress is a multibillion dollar problem as high environmental temperature compromises animal production leading to devastating economic consequences to global animal agriculture. Therefore, with the aim to ameliorate heat stress impacts, current research developed a new biomarker to investigate oxidative stress induced by heat stress and also suggested antioxidants as a strategy to reduce heat stress in sheep.

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Published online 21 April 2015
Grazing crops: implications for reproducing sheep 
David G. Masters and Andrew N. Thompson

Grazing young crops presents new opportunities to increase production and profit in the wheat-sheep and high rainfall farming zones in Australia. Forage from young crops has a high nutritive value and is available to meet an increased demand for feed from reproducing ewes in winter. Grazing young crops comes with an increased risk of a range metabolic disturbances and nutritional imbalances. These risks can be minimised by regular monitoring of livestock and crop biomass and the provision of mineral supplements.

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Published online 21 April 2015
Dairying and water-quality issues in Australia and New Zealand 
M. R. Scarsbrook and A. R. Melland

Dairying intensification is linked to a range of freshwater impacts in Australia and New Zealand. This paper compares and contrasts water quality state, impacts and responses, highlighting coastal issues in Australia and faecal contamination concerns in New Zealand waterways. Both countries are seeking to reduce the effects of dairying on freshwaters through a varying combination of regulation and industry programs.

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Published online 10 April 2015
Modelling the egg components and laying patterns of broiler breeder hens 
Nayara T. Ferreira, Nilva K. Sakomura, Juliano César de Paula Dorigam, Edney Pereira da Silva and Robert M. Gous

Broiler breeder hens exhibit an irregular frequency in egg laying, different from those observed with commercial laying hens. It is important to know this characteristic when predicting the daily requirements to develop an adequate feed program for a breeder’s flock. Thus, this study aimed to model egg production in a flock of broiler breeder hens by non-isometric equations. On the basis of the results achieved, the simulation models used here for broiler breeders have a good prediction of the weight of egg and its components over the laying period. Therefore, these models can be used to predict nutrient requirements for broiler breeder hens.

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Published online 10 April 2015
Proximate composition and variation in colour, drip loss and pH of breast meat from broilers supplemented with Moringa oleifera leaf meal over time 
T. T. Nkukwana, V. Muchenje, P. J. Masika, E. Pieterse, L. C. Hoffman and K. Dzama

Over the past few years, poultry meat product safety and quality have received a negative perspective from consumers. The use of antibiotic growth promoters, PSE (pale, soft, exudative)-like condition and oxidation are some of the concerns. Plant additives are gaining preference as they are perceived to exert antioxidant, antimicrobial and growth-promoting effects, actions that are partially associated with improved production of safe and quality poultry products. In the present study M. oleifera leaf meal enhanced the colour, shelf life and nutrient composition of broiler meat.

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Published online 10 April 2015
Crossbreed genetic performance study in the eventing horse competition 
I. Cervantes, E. Bartolomé, M. Valera, J. P. Gutiérrez and A. Molina

Crossbreeding involving different breeds is frequently used for the production of riding horses. Here we have tried to exploit the complementarity in the mating using a method to try and fit optimal contribution towards the best combination of breeds in future generations for a specific performance. The methodology applied here performed nicely in searching for the best contribution of several breeds to find the best combination for particular interests and could, therefore, be useful for other species/populations.

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Published online 10 April 2015
Environmental and genetic factors influence the liveweight of adult Merino and Border Leicester × Merino ewes across multiple sites and years 
S. E. Blumer, G. E. Gardner, M. B. Ferguson and A. N. Thompson

Liveweight change in the ewe flock during summer and autumn can affect farm profitability through effects on stocking rate, requirements for supplementary feeding, and productivity of the ewe and her progeny. Variation in liveweight change of ewes is primarily due to differences in environment and management. However, there are small beneficial associations between some breeding values and liveweight change in some environments.

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Published online 10 April 2015
Effects of dietary calcium propionate on growth performance and carcass characteristics of finishing lambs 
German D. Mendoza-Martínez, Juan M. Pinos-Rodríguez, Héctor A. Lee-Rangel, Pedro A. Hernández-García, Rolado Rojo-Rubio and Alejandro Relling

It is important to search alternative sources of energy in finishing lambs rations to reduce the use of grains. This study was designed to evaluate the addition of calcium propionate on lamb performance, a compound that usually is not included in the rations. Results show that it is feasible to incorporate 10 or 20 g/kg of calcium propionate in finishing diets.

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Published online 01 April 2015
Using growth and body composition to determine weight at maturity in Nellore cattle 
Marcos Inacio Marcondes, Luís Orlindo Tedeschi, Sebastião de Campos Valadares Filho, Luiz Fernando Costa e Silva and Alex Lopes da Silva

For several years nutrient requirements systems have been using maturity as the weight of an adult animal. However, little work has been done to verify if this is physiologically correct. The aim was to quantify the relationship between carcass components to develop an objective method to define maturity weight for Nellore cattle. Our database indicated that in Nellore cattle maturity was reached between 400 and 450 kg.

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Published online 01 April 2015
Response of two broiler strains to four feeding regimens under hot climate 
Youssef A. Attia, Waleed S. Al-Tahawy, Maria C. de Oliveira, Mohammed A. Al-Harthi, Abd Alrazk. E. Tag El-Din and Mohamed I. Hassan

The productive performance, digestibility, and meat quality in two broiler strains, Arbor Acres (AA) and Hubbard (Hub), fed diets according to four feeding regimens were evaluated. Optimal production performance and economic efficiency were observed in the AA and Hub broilers fed according to NRC and Hub guides, respectively. The interaction genetic strain × feeding regimen should be taken into account when developing nutritional programs for broilers.

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Published online 01 April 2015
Application of classification trees in determining the impact of phenotypic factors on conception to first service in Holstein cattle 
Heydar Ghiasi, Dariusz Piwczyński, Majid Khaldari and Magdalena Kolenda

Fertility is an important economic trait in dairy cattle. Most variation in fertility performance is due to phenotypic factors. The classification tree technique may help farmers enhance fertility in dairy cattle herds.

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Published online 01 April 2015
Metabolic indicators for retention of fetal membranes in Zebu and crossbred dairy cattle 
Susavi Kumari, Shiv Prasad, T. K. Patbandha, R. Pathak, A. Kumaresan, P. Boro, A. Manimaran and T. K. Mohanty

Retention of fetal membranes (RFM) in cows seriously affects the production and reproduction efficiency. We identified some metabolic indicators for RFM in Zebu and crossbred cows. These indicators can be used for monitoring the negative energy balance in the herd and to take suitable measures for reducing the incidence of RFM.

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Published online 01 April 2015
Resource use and environmental impacts from Australian export lamb production: a life cycle assessment 
S. G. Wiedemann, M.-J. Yan and C. M. Murphy

Agricultural industries face the challenge of maintaining and expanding production to meet global food requirements with fewer resources, while producing less greenhouse gas (GHG). This study quantified energy and water use, land occupation and GHG from the major export lamb production regions of Australia using a farm-gate life cycle assessment. Water, energy and GHG emissions were found to be moderate compared with other export nations or global averages. Lamb production primarily utilised non-arable land unsuitable for many alternative foods.

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Published online 26 March 2015
Replacing conventional with brown midrib corn silage in a total mixed ration: the impact on early and late lactation dairy cow intake, milk yield and composition, and milk fatty acids profile 
G. A. Genero, C. A. Cangiano, J. P. Raimondi, J. M. Roig and G. A. Gagliostro

Corn silages are widely used in dairy systems; in order to improve dairy cows’ milk production corn silages of high quality should be achieved. In the present study, the effect of a corn silage with a higher digestibility (brown midrib corn silage) on dairy cow performance was evaluated and showed an increase in milk and protein production. The use of this corn silage is an interesting strategy to enhance milk production in early lactation.

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Published online 25 March 2015
Analysis of population structure and genetic variability in Iranian buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) using pedigree information 
Navid Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh

Knowledge about pedigree is important in studies of population structure, especially where precise estimates of fitness parameters are required. The aim of this study was to use pedigree analysis to evaluate the population structure, genetic variability and inbreeding in Iranian buffaloes. Inbreeding trend was significantly positive over the years and average coancestry was increased in recent years. Avoiding the accumulation of inbreeding in a small population like this one may prevent the significant economic losses and decreased response to selection for important performance traits in the future.

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Published online 25 March 2015
Changes in the feather-free body of broiler breeder hens after sexual maturity 
M. K. Nonis and R. M. Gous

All animals and birds need a daily dose of nutrients with which to maintain their bodies, and these maintenance requirements sometimes make up a greater proportion of the overall requirement for nutrients than do those to sustain egg production or growth, so it is essential when calculating their daily nutrient requirements to work out accurately how much would be needed for maintenance purposes. These requirements should be based on the protein weight of the bird, and not bodyweight, because body fat does not need to be maintained, so the main aim of this research was to determine to what extent body protein weight changes over the life of a broiler breeder. As long as the hen continues to lay eggs it appears that body protein weight does not change, so her maintenance requirements will also not change during the laying period.

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Published online 18 March 2015
Resource use and environmental impacts from beef production in eastern Australia investigated using life cycle assessment 
Stephen Wiedemann, Eugene McGahan, Caoilinn Murphy and Mingjia Yan

Agricultural industries face the challenge of maintaining and expanding production to meet global food requirements with fewer resources, while producing less greenhouse gas. This study quantified energy and water use, land occupation and greenhouse gas from a diverse range of beef production systems in eastern Australia, finding that impacts are sensitive to productivity factors and climatic conditions. Beef utilised land unsuitable for alternative foods that require crop land, and improving productivity was identified as a way to lower greenhouse gas emissions.

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Published online 10 March 2015
Birthweight has no influence on chemical body composition and muscle energy stores in suckling piglets 
Maartje De Vos, Veronique Huygelen, Myriam Hesta, Sofie A. Willemen, Erik Fransen, Christophe Casteleyn, Steven Van Cruchten and Chris Van Ginneken

To seek an explanation for the poor performance (e.g. high mortality, carcass quality) of runt piglets, the effect of birthweight and age on body composition and energy stores was assessed. Strangely, birthweight had no effect during the suckling period. This indirectly confirms the importance of feed (composition and energy) intake during the fattening phase as an explanation of the poorer performance at slaughter of runt piglets.

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Published online 26 February 2015
Heat-induced apoptosis and gene expression in bovine mammary epithelial cells 
Han Hu, Jiaqi Wang, Haina Gao, Songli Li, Yangdong Zhang and Nan Zheng

Milk production is a function of the number and secretory activity of mammary epithelial cells. Heat stress induces cell apoptosis, disturbs the biological activity and arouses intracellular thermotolerance responses of bovine mammary epithelial cells. Under heat stress, with increasing cell apoptosis number and upregulation of pro-apoptotic genes, the expression of anti-apoptotic genes was stimulated to a high level to prevent cell damage and maintain cell survival.

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Published online 26 February 2015
Intake, apparent digestibility, and methane emission in bulls receiving a feed supplement of monensin, virginiamycin, or a combination 
Marcelina Pereira da Fonseca, Ana Luiza da Costa Cruz Borges, Ricardo Reis e Silva, Helena Ferreira Lage, Alexandre Lima Ferreira, Fernando César Ferraz Lopes, Carlos Giovani Pancoti and José Avelino Santos Rodrigues

This research is an innovative source of information, which contributes to the study of improving the efficiency of animal production with a focus on reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. The dietary supplementation with additives can alter the ruminal metabolism and reduce energy loss in methane form. The results of this research support the study of the reduction of greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming.

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Published online 25 February 2015
Estimation of genetic parameters for lambing ease, birthweight and gestation length in Australian sheep 
L. Li and D. J. Brown

Lambing ease (LE) is an important trait that affects animal welfare and profitability in sheep enterprises. This study examined the genetic parameters for LE and its genetic correlations with birthweight and gestation length by comparing different datasets and models. Higher phenotypic variance and direct heritability were found in single-born lambs than estimates in twin-born lambs. Direct genetic and maternal genetic effects were significant for LE. Estimates of direct heritability for LE using linear approaches were similar to those using threshold approaches (after transferring to observed scale). Lambs with greater birthweight and longer gestation length had more lambing difficulty. These genetic parameters are now used in the Sheep Genetics evaluation system.

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Published online 25 February 2015
Carob pulp inclusion in lamb diets: effect on intake, performance, feeding behaviour and blood metabolites 
M. N. Noor-Ehsan Gobindram, M. Bognanno, G. Luciano, M. Lanza and L. Biondi

Livestock feeding systems rely heavily on cereals; locally available agro-industrial by-products can replace such conventional feedstuffs, often imported, reducing the cost of production even in terms of carbon footprint. Carob pulp contains substances that may negatively affect production levels and welfare; this study demonstrated that it can partially substitute barley in lamb diets, at relatively high level of inclusion, without harming the animals. Use of carob pulp could be a sustainable alternative feed resource easily to manage at farmer level.

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Published online 25 February 2015
Plant extracts in heavy pig feeding: effects on quality of meat and Cremona salami 
G. Pastorelli, R. Rossi, S. Ratti and C. Corino

Consumers have increased interest for natural products and high quality meat products, because they are concerned about the health risks related to consumption of some synthetic antioxidants. The effects of dietary plant extract (PE) on pork muscle and Cremona salami were studied. An improvement in oxidative stability and fat composition were found in raw meat and in Cremona salami respectively. Dietary PE supplementation is a possible strategy to fortify pork and salami production.

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Published online 20 February 2015
The effect of maternal nutrition level during mid-gestation on postnatal muscle fibre composition and meat quality in lambs 
U. Sen, E. Sirin, U. Ensoy, Y. Aksoy, Z. Ulutas and M. Kuran

Nutrition during pregnancy is important for a successful gestation but it may also be important for the postnatal growth and development of the lamb. The results of this study demonstrated that maternal nutrition level during mid-gestation influences growth performance, muscle fibre types and number, muscle fibre cellular characteristics and carcass characteristics, but not birthweight and meat quality of the lamb after weaning at the end of finishing period.

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Published online 20 February 2015
Transcriptome profiling of muscle by RNA-Seq reveals significant differences in digital gene expression profiling between Angus and Luxi cattle 
G. F. Liu, H. J. Cheng, W. You, E. L. Song, X. M. Liu and F. C. Wan

RNA sequencing technology provides fascinating information about transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene regulation. This study analysed the differences in muscle gene expression between Angus and Luxi cattle. The results provide unprecedented resolution of mRNAs expressed across the two breeds.

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Published online 20 February 2015
Enteric methane emissions in response to ruminal inoculation of Propionibacterium strains in beef cattle fed a mixed diet 
D. Vyas, A. Alazzeh, S. M. McGinn, T. A. McAllister, O. M. Harstad, H. Holo and K. A. Beauchemin

Inoculation of Propionibacterium strains into the rumen of cattle has been proposed as a means of increasing ruminal propionate synthesis, thereby reducing enteric methane emissions. Results from the present study investigated strain-specific effects of Propionibacteria on ruminal propionate synthesis and total methane emissions, and their ability to integrate with the rumen microbial community. However, results suggest that Propionibacterium strains have limited influence on mitigating enteric methane emissions from beef cattle probably due to variable effects on ruminal propionate synthesis.

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Published online 20 February 2015
Increased proportion of female lambs by feeding Border Leicester × Merino ewes a diet high in omega-6 fatty acids around mating 
E. H. Clayton, J. F. Wilkins and M. A. Friend

The proportion of female lambs was previously shown to be higher when ewes were fed a diet high in omega-6 fatty acids both before and, following the time of mating. In the present study, the proportion of female lambs was higher when Border Leicester × Merino ewes were fed a diet high in omega-6 compared with omega-3 fatty acids either pre-mating only or both pre- and post-mating. The largest increase in the proportion of female lambs was observed when ewes were single-bearing compared with multiple-bearing. The mechanism resulting in the diet high in omega-6 influencing the sex ratio of lambs appears to operate before or around conception but is yet to be determined.

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Published online 20 February 2015
Liveweight gains of young sheep grazing dual-purpose wheat with sodium and magnesium supplied as direct supplement, or with magnesium supplied as fertiliser 
H. Dove and W. M. Kelman

Sheep grazing wheat may consume a diet deficient in magnesium or sodium. We measured liveweight gain of sheep to these elements, provided separately or together, while they grazed dual-purpose wheat. Direct supplements in feed troughs led to profitable 20–25% increases in liveweight gain, but fertilising the wheat with Mg was ineffective and unprofitable. Thus, direct supplementation is recommended in farming practice.

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Published online 20 February 2015
Endophyte metabolites associated with perennial ryegrass toxicosis 
K. F. M. Reed, W. J. Mace, L. V. Walker and L. R. Fletcher

Production losses from livestock affected by toxins associated with some varieties of perennial ryegrass are occasionally extreme in Australia relative to New Zealand. Concentrations of toxins were studied and the ratio of ergovaline : lolitrem B was generally greater for Victorian pasture compared with New Zealand. The effects of the vaso-constrictive ergot alkaloids (including ergovaline) combined with that of the relatively high solar radiation on ruminants’ heat load were considered most important with respect to severe perennial ryegrass toxicosis in Australia.

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Published online 20 February 2015
Correlated response to selection for some egg performance traits in egg line of Japanese quail 
B. Y. F. Mahmoud, G. Abou Khadiga and E. A. El-Full

Productivity increase of Japanese quail as a source of animal protein for human feed is desired. Construction of a multi-trait selection program to improve egg performance depending on aggregate breeding value estimation could give a great effect in correlated selection response, which has been evidenced through the present study. The present results could be helpful in programs aimed at improving animal production for intended institutions on national levels.

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Published online 20 February 2015
Validation of PigBal model predictions for pig manure production 
A. G. Skerman, S. Willis, E. J. McGahan, M. G. Borgognone and D. J. Batstone

The PigBal model is widely used to predict piggery manure solids and nutrient production, using diet, feed intake and pig production data. Replicated feeding trials demonstrated that the model provided accurate predictions of manure solids and potassium. This suggests that the model can be used confidently for designing piggery effluent treatment systems, evaluating the energy potential from anaerobic digestion of pig effluent, and estimating greenhouse gas emissions.

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Published online 19 February 2015
Bayesian analysis of direct and maternal effects for birthweight in Iranian buffaloes using Gibbs sampling 
Navid Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh

Calf birthweight information is used as an indicator trait for calving ease in animal selection to minimise the risk of dystocia. The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for birthweight of Iranian buffaloes using a Bayesian approach. The results of the present study indicate that exploitable genetic variation observed for birthweight could be considered in designing future selection programs for Iranian buffaloes.

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Published online 19 February 2015
Legume grain-based supplements in dairy sheep diet: effects on milk yield, composition and fatty acid profile 
Adriana Bonanno, Antonino Di Grigoli, Francesca Vitale, Marco Alabiso, Cristina Giosuè, Francesca Mazza and Massimo Todaro

Supplements based on GMO-free legume grains (chickpea, faba bean, or pea) are proposed as alternatives of a concentrate feed containing soybean in dairy sheep feeding. The faba bean and pea had no adverse effects on milk production, whereas chickpea reduced milk yield, showed a lower efficiency of protein utilisation for casein synthesis, but increased the content of some healthy polyunsaturated fatty acids. The legume grains can replace soybean as components of the concentrate feed for lactating ewes.

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Published online 19 February 2015
Effect of creatine monohydrate supplementation on carcass traits, meat quality and postmortem energy metabolism of finishing pigs 
J. L. Li, Z. Y. Guo, Y. J. Li, L. Zhang, F. Gao and G. H. Zhou

Supplementation with creatine monohydrate (CMH) before slaughter was beneficial to improving pork quality. In this study, we evaluated the effects of dietary supplementation with CMH in pigs on the meat quality and postmortem energy metabolism, and found that CMH supplementation could delay early pH decline and decrease the rate of glycolysis in postmortem longissimus dorsi muscle resulting in a decreased drip loss. These data provide convincing evidence for the widespread use of CMH supplementation to improve pork quality.

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Published online 19 February 2015
Effects of potassium diformate on the gastric function of weaning piglets 
S. Xia, W. Yao, B. Zou, Y. Lu, N. Lu, H. Lei and D. Xia

Potassium diformate (KDF), as an acidifier, has been shown to improve growth performance in pigs, but it is not yet known whether KDF regulates gastric function. Adding 10 g/kg KDF to the diet of weaning piglets changed the expressions of somatostain, gastrin and H+-K+-ATPase and the activity of pepsin in the gastric oxyntic mucosa, altered the concentrations of lactic acid and hydrochloric acid in the digesta. For the first time, the present paper reports that KDF could regulate the expression of gastric function genes.

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Published online 19 February 2015
Eggshell quality: a comparison between Fayoumi, Gimieizah and Brown Hy-Line strains for mechanical properties and ultrastructure of their eggshells 
Lamiaa M. Radwan

This study suggested predicting the mechanical properties and ultrastructure of eggshells when egg weight was equal. A local breed had a higher resistance to eggshell breakage than commercial laying due to its longer palisade layer. Length of the palisade layer plays an important role in eggshell strength, therefore palisade layer should be considered in selection programs for improving eggshell strength.

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Published online 19 February 2015
Bovine STAT5A gene polymorphism and its influence on growth traits in Podolica breed 
Maria Selvaggi, Angela Gabriella D'Alessandro and Cataldo Dario

Quantitative traits, such as growth performances, are influenced both by environment and genes. In particular, they are under the control of several genes. Animal genotyping is a powerful aid to animal breeding. In this study we aimed to investigate a single nucleotide polymorphism within the bovine STAT5A gene in young bulls belonging to Podolica breed, looking for a possible relationship between this polymorphism and some growth performance traits. The investigated mutation seems associated with liveweight and daily gain of animals.

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Published online 19 February 2015
Supplementation for beef cattle on Marandu grass pastures with different herbage allowances 
A. P. De Oliveira, D. R. Casagrande, L. M. A. Bertipaglia, R. P. Barbero, T. T. Berchielli, A. C. Ruggieri and R. A. Reis

The efficiency of the supplementation for beef cattle is dependent on forage allowance. The performance of beef cattle with supplemented or without at three herbage allowances was evaluated. The supplements increased bodyweight gains without compromising the gain per hectare at different herbage allowances.

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Published online 19 February 2015
Genetic variation within and between subpopulations of the Australian Merino breed 
Andrew A. Swan, Daniel J. Brown and Julius H. J. van der Werf

Genetic differences between strain and flock subpopulations of the Australian Merino were compared to differences within subpopulations. For most traits, the differences between subpopulations were at least as large as the differences within subpopulations. The relative variances estimated from this study can be used to improve breeding value estimation models, and by breeders to increase genetic gain.

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Published online 19 February 2015
Genetic parameters for calving difficulty using complex genetic models in five beef breeds in Australia 
M. G. Jeyaruban, D. J. Johnston, B. Tier and H.-U. Graser

Accurate prediction of breeding value for calving difficulties is required to reduce its incidence in beef herds in Australia. This study provides breed-specific genetic parameters for calving difficulties, birthweight and gestation length for several beef breeds in Australia. These estimates will be used in the genetic evaluation of calving difficulties for BREEDPLAN to predict breeding values for calving ease in beef cattle.

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Published online 18 February 2015
Genetic variability detected at the lactoferrin locus (LTF) in the Italian Mediterranean river buffalo 
Alfredo Pauciullo, Luigi Ramunno, Nicolò P. P. Macciotta, Giustino Gaspa, Angelo Coletta, Elisa Apicella, Daniela Gallo and Gianfranco Cosenza

Eleven polymorphisms were detected for the first time between exons 15 and 16 of the Mediterranean river buffalo lactoferrin gene. The exonic markers g.88G>A and g.1351G>A were selectively neutral in relation to the improvement of milk production because no association with milk yield was revealed. However, they be used for future association studies with other traits of economic interest.

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Published online 12 February 2015
Determination and prediction of the net energy content of seven feed ingredients fed to growing pigs based on chemical composition 
D. W. Liu, L. Liu, D. F. Li and F. L. Wang

It is important to establish dynamic prediction models to estimate the available energy in feedstuffs for timely and accurate feed formulation. In our study, two experiments were conducted to study the correlation coefficients between available energy and chemical composition of seven feed ingredients and subsequently to establish prediction equations for net energy for these same ingredients. The NE prediction equations could be used to estimate the NE values of seven ingredients fed to growing pigs with acceptable accuracy.

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Published online 12 February 2015
Estimation of dietary selenium requirement for Chinese egg-laying ducks 

The data on the function and requirement of minerals is insufficient for egg-laying ducks despite the large-scale laying duck production in Asia. Selenium deficiency leads to low antioxidant enzyme activities in ducks and the selenium requirement for laying ducks was obtained based on the egg production and activities of antioxidant enzymes in this study. Required selenium intake is important for the functions of antioxidant enzyme in production birds and animals.

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Published online 12 February 2015
Estimates of repeatability and heritability of methane production in sheep using portable accumulation chambers 
J. P. Goopy, D. L. Robinson, R. T. Woodgate, A. J. Donaldson, V. H. Oddy, P. E. Vercoe and R. S. Hegarty

We have developed a new method for measuring enteric methane production – that allows the prediction of methane production of large numbers of individual animals under field conditions. This will facilitate estimates of genetic parameters and help identify individuals whose rumen physiology and microbial ecology can be studied to improve our understanding of the biological bases for differences in methane production. Our work also suggests that more than one measure is desirable and that measurement of feed intake is critical.

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Published online 12 February 2015
Genomic scan for identifying candidate genes for paratuberculosis resistance in sheep 
Bianca Moioli, Silvia D'Andrea, Luigi De Grossi, Erminia Sezzi, Bruno De Sanctis, Gennaro Catillo, Roberto Steri, Alessio Valentini and Fabio Pilla

Healthy animals are desired in all kinds of animal farming. One avenue towards a lowered incidence of disease is breeding for improved disease resistance. This paper focuses on paratuberculosis in sheep, this disease being related to Crohn’s disease in humans. A genome-wide analysis of positive and negative sheep to paratuberculosis diagnose identified five most probable genes that play a role in disease resistance and cell-mediated immune response.

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Published online 12 February 2015
Two-step weaning in beef calves: permanence of nose flaps for 7 or 21 days does not influence the behaviour response 
P. Alvez, G. Quintans, M. J. Hötzel and R. Ungerfeld

Artificial weaning is one of the greater stressors for farm animals. Two-step weaning with nose flaps decreases behavioural signs of discomfort after definitive separation. We compared the behavioural changes in calves after using nose flaps for 7 or 21 days before definitive separation. Results indicate that the response is similar after using nose flaps for those lengths.

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Published online 12 February 2015
Effect of fitting sheep covers and injection of a mineral supplement on the brightness, clean colour and photostability of wool grown by grazing Merino sheep 
S. Hatcher and J. W. V. Preston

The brightness, clean colour and photostability of Australian Merino wool is not currently suitable for white and pastel shade products without bleaching during processing. This study investigated whether coating fleeces and provision of a long-acting injection mineral supplement would improve these traits. Brightness and clean colour were both significantly improved by coating but there was no impact on photostability and no evidence of any improvement in the three traits due to the mineral supplement.

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Published online 20 January 2015
Egg quality and production performance of laying hens injected with growth hormone and testosterone in the late phase of production 
H. Mohammadi, Z. Ansari-Pirsaraei, S. N. Mousavi, M. Bouyeh, A. Gholibeikifard, P. Nouri, A. Hatefi and M. Rahmani

Hen ageing is accompanied by a disruption of productive performance, namely egg production. The aim of the present study is to clarify the intricate network of reproductive physiology in laying hens in the late phase of reproduction by means of exogenous growth hormone and testosterone injection. The results show the positive effects of the exogenous hormones on egg quality and production performance.

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Published online 15 January 2015
Carcass and meat quality of organic lambs compared with lambs reared under traditional and intensive production systems 
Omur Kocak, Bulent Ekiz, Hulya Yalcintan, Akin Yakan and Alper Yilmaz

Possible health risks related to chemical, antibiotic and hormone residues in foods caused an increase in the demand for organic foods. Carcass and meat quality of lambs reared under organic, intensive and traditional systems were investigated to obtain information that can be a guide for production system preference for sheep farmers and meat product choice for consumers. Meat from traditional systems was found more acceptable while meats of organic and traditional systems were healthier according to meat fatty acid composition.

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Published online 15 January 2015
Environmental variation and breed sensitivity for growth rate and backfat depth in pigs 
L. Li and S. Hermesch

Selecting genotypes best suited for specific environments will benefit performance across environments when genotypes of animals respond differently to the changes in environments. The variation in environmental conditions was quantified based on mean growth rate and backfat depth of groups of pigs. Significant breed-by-environment interactions were found for growth rate but not for backfat depth. Large White, the leaner breed, was less able to perform consistently across the observed range of environmental conditions while Duroc was least sensitive.

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Published online 15 January 2015
Evaluating vitamin D with graded levels of strontium supplementation on broiler chicken performance and mineral composition 
L. C. Browning and A. J. Cowieson

Vitamin D and strontium (an element similar to calcium) have a close physiological relationship and have been shown to improve broiler chicken performance and human skeletal integrity. Vitamin D and strontium were shown to have a significant interaction on bird performance. Higher levels of vitamin D improved bodyweight gain and helped reduce poor growth and feed efficiency caused by feeding strontium at the highest level of 0.12%. Calcium and sodium were found to be present in bone at an approximate ratio of 30 : 1. Further research is required to evaluate optimum dose rates for strontium and vitamin D supplementation.

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Published online 15 January 2015
A regional model of sheep lice management practices for predicting the impact of treatment for lice when no lice are detected 
Brian J. Horton, Andrew Bailey and Anna L. Carew

A model of lice prevalence was used to examine the value of treating sheep for lice after shearing, when no lice have been detected. The model showed treatment was cost-effective when the risk that the flock was infested was more than 10%. We concluded that use of this intervention threshold would reduce the current prevalence of lice in Australian sheep flocks without increasing costs associated with managing lice.

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Published online 07 January 2015
Biochemical profiles and physicochemical parameters of beef from cattle raised under contrasting feeding systems and pre-slaughter management 
D. G. Pighin, P. Davies, A. A. Pazos, I. Ceconi, S. A. Cunzolo, D. Mendez, M. Buffarini and G. Grigioni

Animal diet and pre mortem handling may affect the biochemical conversion of muscle into meat. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of two different pre-slaughter handling in Angus steers raised and finished in two contrasting feeding systems on the muscle metabolism and the related meat quality. The results obtained showed an impact of pre-slaughter handling and feeding systems on the peri mortem biochemistry and in the related meat quality through pH-independent mechanisms.

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Published online 24 December 2014
Growth performance, and carcass and meat quality traits in progeny of Poll Nellore, Angus and Brahman sires under tropical conditions 
A. S. C. Pereira, F. Baldi, R. D. Sainz, B. L. Utembergue, H. L. J. Chiaia, C. U. Magnabosco, F. R. Manicardi, F. R. C. Araujo, C. F. Guedes, R. C. Margarido, P. R. Leme and P. J. A. Sobral

The Zebu breeds produce meat with organoleptic characteristics that are not well accepted in most demanding markets. This study aimed to characterise progeny of sires representing several major families in the Poll Nellore breed in Brazil. There is substantial variation within the Poll Nellore breed for carcass and meat traits, and several sires have a proportion of their progeny comparable in terms of meat tenderness to those of Angus sires.

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Published online 02 December 2014
GNSS technology and its application for improved reproductive management in extensive sheep systems 
Eloise S. Fogarty, Jaime K. Manning, Mark G. Trotter, Derek A. Schneider, Peter C. Thomson, Russell D. Bush and Greg M. Cronin

GNSS tracking offers scientists a research tool to study livestock behaviour under pastoral conditions. As the reproductive efficiency of Merino sheep in Australia is poor, the application of GNSS technology offers a potential means to improve reproductive efficiency through enhanced behaviour monitoring. This study found Merino ewes displayed a change in their daily activity pattern during oestrus. Thus, remote detection of oestrus through monitoring of changes in normal ewe behaviour may be possible through the application of GNSS technology.

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Published online 02 December 2014
Effects of long wool insecticide treatments on lice numbers and wool damage on sheep 
N. J. Campbell, P. J. James and B. J. Horton

Long wool treatments are frequently applied to control sheep lice between shearings, but no data was available to indicate the production benefits of these treatments in merino sheep. Both long wool treatments tested, one applied by hand jetting and one as a backline spray-on treatment, gave large reductions in louse numbers, significant increases in clean wool cut and significant improvement in a number of wool quality parameters.

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Published online 02 December 2014
Ability of sire breeding values to predict progeny bodyweight, fat and muscle using various transformations across environments in terminal sire sheep breeds 
A. E. Huisman, D. J. Brown and N. M. Fogarty

How do we accurately evaluate the genetic merit of terminal sires bred across the wide range of Australian sheep environments? When their weights and fat measurements were transformed to a proportion of the mean of their contemporary group (% or units) it resulted in consistent relationships between the estimated genetic merit of sires and the performance of their progeny. These data transformations methods have now been implemented in the national genetic evaluation system to allow the breeding values of terminal sires to be more accurately compared across Australia.

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Published online 02 December 2014
A combination of xylanase, amylase and protease influences growth performance, nutrient utilisation, starch and protein digestive dynamics in broiler chickens offered maize-, sorghum- and wheat-based diets 
S. Y. Liu, D. J. Cadogan, A. Péron, H. H. Truong and P. H. Selle

The inclusion of exogenous enzymes in poultry diets has increased remarkably in recent decades; however, there is a lack of parallel comparison of enzyme responses in broiler diets based on different grains. A combination of xylanase, protease and amylase was shown to significantly improve energy utilisation in maize-, sorghum- and wheat-based diets, and with more pronounced improvement of feed conversion efficiency in maize-based diets. The differences of enzyme response in nutrient digestion should be considered when diets based on various grains are formulated.

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Published online 02 December 2014
Correlations of methane and carbon dioxide concentrations from feedlot cattle as a predictor of methane emissions 
Mei Bai, David W. T. Griffith, Frances A. Phillips, Travis Naylor, Stephanie K. Muir, Sean M. McGinn and Deli Chen

Methane emissions from livestock industries contributed 70% of total agricultural greenhouse gas emissions in Australia in 2009. It is difficult to measure methane emissions from large commercial feedlots. Accurate measurements are required. A 2-year study conducted at two Australian commercial feedlots showed a strong correlation between methane and carbon dioxide concentrations. This result could be used as a new method to predict methane emissions for the purpose of inventory, mitigation strategies and animal feed efficiency at Australian beef production systems.

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Published online 02 December 2014
Integrated animal and cropping systems in single and multi-objective frameworks for enhancing the livelihood security of farmers and agricultural sustainability in Northern India 
U. K. Behera, H. Kaechele and J. France

Reduced productivity and environmental concerns caused by intensive cultivation of rice-wheat systems necessitate diversification of farming in Northern India. Therefore s study was undertaken to develop models of integrated farming systems (IFS), involving animals and cropping, for various sizes of farm and to compare them with rice-wheat. The study revealed that IFS offer more perspectives for an economically viable and sustainable agriculture for typical farms in the region.

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Published online 02 December 2014
Effect of hypothyroidism on growth performance, carcass composition and meat quality of fat-tailed Lori-Bakhtiari lambs 
Yousef Baghcheghi, Ahmad Zare Shahneh, Mahdi Ganjkhanlou, Mahdi Khodaei Motlagh and Ali Reza Yousefi

Lamb meat quality is increasingly important to international markets and to consumers and is affected by a variety factors including the level of thyroid hormones. We evaluated the effects of hypothyroidism on growth performance and meat quality of growing lambs. Our results indicate that mild hypothyroidism may have some beneficial effects on growth efficiency and meat quality of lambs.

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Published online 02 December 2014
The influence of season on lambs 
S. J. Pain, J. R. Corkran, P. R. Kenyon, S. T. Morris and P. D. Kemp

Mixed species swards can provide good quality herbage for sheep over summer and autumn. The studies reported here examined grazing preference and diet selection of lambs for plantain, chicory, red clover and ryegrass. Some seasonal differences were noted for chicory and plantain, but they were never significantly lower than that of ryegrass and were likely due to seasonal changes in nutritive value. Pastures with a diverse range of plant species offer a unique opportunity to maximise animal feed intake and perhaps the nutritive value of that selected.

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Published online 02 December 2014
Changes in behaviour, milk production and bodyweight in beef cows subjected to two-step or abrupt weaning 
R. Ungerfeld, M. J. Hötzel and G. Quintans

Artificial weaning is one of the greater stressors for farm animals. Therefore, we tested if the use of nose flaps on calves to end suckling improves the cows’ welfare after definitive weaning. As this management decreased the main behavioural changes that indicate distress and decreased the bodyweight loss of the cows after the definitive separation it may be recommended for practical application.

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Published online 02 December 2014
Descriptive statistics and the pattern of horse racing in New Zealand: Part Two Harness racing 
Charlotte F. Bolwell, Chris W. Rogers, Erica K. Gee and Sarah M. Rosanowski

It is important to understand the ‘normal’ pattern of Harness racing in New Zealand in order to identify industry trends and changes over time. This study describes the pattern of pacing and trotting races in Standardbred racing and highlights factors unique to the Harness racing industry. Differences in track surfaces, gait, region and drivers between the Standardbred and Thoroughbred industry suggest a need for baseline data specific to the Harness racing industry in New Zealand.

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Published online 02 December 2014
Descriptive statistics and the pattern of horse racing in New Zealand: Part One Thoroughbred racing 
Charlotte F. Bolwell, Chris W. Rogers, Erica K. Gee and Sarah M. Rosanowski

It is important to understand the ‘normal’ pattern of Thoroughbred racing in New Zealand in order to identify industry trends and changes. Over the past 7 years Thoroughbred racing has remained relatively consistent in terms of races, starts, and horses involved in racing. These results provide background for future studies of Thoroughbred racing in New Zealand.

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Published online 10 November 2014
Biological defleecing: intravenous infusion of amino acid mixtures lacking lysine and methionine creates a weakened zone in the wool staple, which is amenable to mechanical wool harvesting 
P. I. Hynd, N. M. Edwards, S. Weaver, K. Chenoweth, R. Stobart and N. Heberle

An alternative to manual shearing of sheep is required if the wool industry is to remain competitive with other textile fibres in the marketplace. We demonstrate that it is possible to create a weak zone in wool that can then remain on the animal for several weeks before removal without shearing. This work demonstrates the feasibility of a new approach to wool removal that should be further investigated.

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Published online 31 October 2014
Evaluation of predictive equations developed to assess body composition of F1 Nellore × Angus bulls and steers 
M. A. Fonseca, S. C. Valadares Filho, L. O. Tedeschi, M. L. Chizzotti, M. G. Machado and D. C. Abreu

Individual cattle management systems rely on equations to predict an animal’s body composition and marketing individual animals at the best economical end-point. Such equations must be precise and accurate in a sense to optimise the power of prediction of those systems. Careful evaluation has shown that different types of animals require specific equations or calibration of what it is currently available. Poor forecasting of animals’ profitability could be associated with misconception of the prediction equations chosen in those systems.

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Published online 31 October 2014
Influence of maize particle size on the kinetics of starch digestion in the small intestine of growing pigs 
N. O. Amaral, L. G. M. Amaral, V. S. Cantarelli, E. T. Fialho, M. G. Zangeronimo and P. B. Rodrigues

The digestion rate of starch in the small intestine of pigs can affect the efficiency of nutrient utilisation. This study aimed to evaluate the digestion kinetics of starch, nutrient utilisation and performance of growing pigs fed diets containing corn of different sizes. The smaller corn particle had higher rate of digestion and feed efficiency without impacting the digestibility of starch. This may influence the amino acid requirement of pigs and should be considered in the formulation of diets.

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Published online 28 October 2014
Effects of supplementary bee pollen and its polysaccharides on nutrient digestibility and serum biochemical parameters in Holstein calves 
Yan Tu, Guo-Feng Zhang, Kai-Dong Deng, Nai-Feng Zhang and Qi-Yu Diao

The present study evaluated bee pollen or its polysaccharides as a feed additive in calves. The growth performance, serum biochemical parameters and nutrients apparent digestibility of 14–70-day-old calves were investigated and these showed that dietary supplementation of bee pollen and its polysaccharides at an optimum dosage were of benefit to calves. Bee pollen should be a new additive in a calf’s diet.

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Published online 28 October 2014
Relationship between the concentration of bone morphogenetic protein-15 (BMP-15) and growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9) in pre-ovulatory follicles, ovarian cysts and serum in sows 
Tomasz Stankiewicz and Barbara Błaszczyk

In sows, ovarian cysts constitute a significant proportion of ovarian dysfunction and are a serious problem disturbing fertility in pigs. Therefore, studies contributing to more fully explain the pathogenesis of porcine ovarian cysts are very important. Our studies suggest that BMP-15 and GDF-9, which belong to transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), may play a role in the mechanism of the formation of ovarian cysts, and to determine their concentrations in serum may be useful in the diagnosis of ovarian cysts in sows in the future.

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Published online 28 October 2014
Processing and storage of ratite oils affects primary oxidation status and radical scavenging ability 
Suzanne Mashtoub, Darin C. Bennett, Cuong D. Tran and Gordon S. Howarth

Treatments for cardiovascular and gastrointestinal diseases seek to minimise oxidative damage by free radicals through the use of antioxidants such as those found in ratite (flightless birds) oils. The current study identified several factors which may impact the clinical efficacy of Emu Oil including farm location, diet composition, rendering procedures, time of render and duration of storage. Further studies would facilitate standardisation of Emu Oil bioactivity to ensure consistent health benefits.

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Published online 28 October 2014
Modelling the potential of birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) to reduce methane emissions and increase production on wool and prime lamb farm enterprises 
Natalie Doran-Browne, Ralph Behrendt, Ross Kingwell and Richard Eckard

In 2011 the Australian government introduced a voluntary offset scheme called the Carbon Farming Initiative, which allows farmers to receive carbon credits when they reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Lotus corniculatus is a legume that inhibits the formation of methane in the rumen, as well as producing increased wool growth, liveweight gain and fecundity. This study showed that while the use of lotus reduced emissions, income from increased productivity was 15–30 times greater than from potential carbon offset income.

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Published online 28 October 2014
Effects of crude protein level in the concentrate and time allotment on pasture on milk yield, urinary nitrogen, and purine derivative excretion in lactating Latxa ewes 
R. Fernández, A. R. Seradj, L. M. Oregi, A. García-Rodríguez and J. Balcells

In the Basque Country, Spain, dairy sheep production is based on high pasture use. Scarce grass source in the region makes shepherds attempt to balance herbage and forage with concentrates high in protein level to maintain the nutritional requirements of lactating ewes. This study shows a reduction in the protein level of the supplementary concentrate contributed to a reduction in the ration cost and nitrogen waste without a measurable effect on ewe performance or milk yield.

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Published online 21 October 2014
Effect of high temperatures on breeding rabbit behaviour 
Antoni Dalmau, Bernardo Catanese, Oriol Rafel, Pedro Rodriguez, Carmen Fuentes, Pol Llonch, Eva Mainau, Antonio Velarde, Josep Ramón, Ester Taberner, Manel López-Béjar and Miriam Piles

Rabbits find it difficult to cope with high temperatures, especially when housed in typical commercial cages, where mobility is reduced. Changes in physiology and behaviour under controlled conditions of temperature were studied, and results showed that animals can adapt some of their important behaviours, such as grooming, once they could predict the thermal changes.

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Published online 21 October 2014
Heart rate variability: a biomarker of dairy calf welfare 
J. B. Clapp, S. Croarkin, C. Dolphin and S. K. Lyons

Quantifying chronic stress, from pain and suffering, to assess welfare in farmed animals can be elusive, because behavioural observations are highly subjective and emotions of fear are hidden, while levels of the stress hormone (cortisol) are typically normal. Dairy calf welfare is compromised; from stress of early weaning, separation and isolation. We measured these management stressors non-invasively using heart rate variability (HRV) and showed that HRV was a welfare biomarker.

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Published online 21 October 2014
Effect of sex and slaughter weight on meat and fat quality of the Krškopolje pig reared in an enriched environment 
M. Zemva, T. M. Ngapo, S. Malovrh, A. Levart and M. Kovac

Improvements in meat quality are constantly sought through sources of variation along the meat chain, one such source being native pig breeds, which are not only a part of biotic diversity, but also a part of the cultural heritage of many countries. Currently undergoing breed reconstruction, the Krškopolje pig from Slovenia, when raised in an enriched environment for the growing-finishing periods, showed good marbling content and composition. These initial meat quality findings show commercial potential for this breed.

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Published online 21 October 2014
Detection of chromosomal segments underlying scrotal circumference in ram lambs and age at onset of puberty in ewe lambs 
A. K. Esmailizadeh

Scrotal circumference in ram lambs and age at the onset of puberty in ewe lambs are valuable indicators of reproductive development in sheep production. Genomic regions underlying these traits were identified. Future studies targeting these regions may eventually lead to developing DNA tests to assist selection for early onset of puberty in sheep.

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Published online 01 October 2014
Fatty acids composition, cholesterol and vitamin E contents of Longissimus dorsi and Semitendinosus muscles of Suino Nero Lucano pigs slaughtered at two different weights 
Annamaria Perna, Amalia Simonetti, Immacolata Intaglietta and Emilio Gambacorta

The lipid fraction of meat is closely associated with consumer health. In this study the nutritional quality of the lipid fraction of meat from Suino Nero Lucano, an Italian autochthonous pig breed, was evaluated. The meat showed relatively low content of cholesterol and a higher proportion of unsaturated than saturated fatty acids. From our findings, regarding the muscle and the slaughter weight, meat production with specific nutritional characteristics can be hypothesised.

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Published online 01 October 2014
Associative effects of poor-quality forages combined with food industry byproducts determined in vitro with an automated gas-production system 
Franco Tagliapietra, Mirko Cattani, Matteo Guadagnin, Mohamed L. Haddi, Leonardo Sulas, Rosella Muresu, Andrea Squartini, Stefano Schiavon and Lucia Bailoni

In many areas of the Mediterranean region low-quality forages are largely diffused and may represent a potential feed resource for ruminants. The present study evidenced the presence of positive associative effects, with an increased in vitro gas production, when low-quality forages, milk thistle and crown daisy were used in mixtures with apple pomace and citrus pulp. Mixtures of low-quality roughages with food byproducts might represent a strategy to improve profitability and sustainability of livestock systems in arid and semi-arid areas.

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Published online 01 October 2014
Native Australian shrub legume species may provide an alternative feed source for livestock 
P. A. O'Keeffe, D. J. Orchard, B. A. Orchard, J. W. Piltz and E. H. Clayton

Native plants are more tolerant of Australian conditions than introduced species and may provide farmers with an alternative feed source for livestock during times of drought. The nutritional value of 7 out of 15 selected native shrub legumes was found to be adequate for the needs of livestock. These species may be able to be included in low-input livestock grazing systems.

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Published online 01 October 2014
Quality and sensory characteristics of Culatello dry-cured products obtained from the Italian autochthonous pig Suino Nero Lucano and from a modern crossbred pig 
Annamaria Perna, Amalia Simonetti, Immacolata Intaglietta and Emilio Gambacorta

Culatello dry-cured product is one of the most valuable products of Italian gastronomy and it is highly appreciated also at international level. Suino Nero Lucano is an Italian autochthonous pig breed and it represents a cultural and biological heritage that links the typical product to the territory. In this study the quality and sensory characteristics of Culatello dry-cured product obtained from Suino Nero Lucano pigs and from modern crossbreed pigs were investigated. Our results confirm that Suino Nero Lucano pigs represent a resource both for the obtainment of products with high nutritional and sensory value and for promoting the economic development of areas where they are raised.

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Published online 30 September 2014
Effect of calcium salt of fatty acids supplementation on performance of Malpura lambs 
R. S. Bhatt, A. Sahoo, A. K. Shinde and S. A. Karim

Lambs need a high energy ration to support faster growth but in arid and semiarid regions, heat stress is the major setback for achieving desired liveweight gain as it reduced the dry matter intake. Calcium salt of fatty acids (Ca-FA) increase the energy value of feed and are not degraded in the rumen, thereby, not affecting the rumen microbes adversely. The present study envisages the result of supplementation of a graded level of Ca-FA in concentrate on lamb growth and revealed that 40 g/kg Ca-FA prepared from industrial-grade rice bran oil in growing lamb rations improved liveweight gain, organic matter intake and digestibility and metabolisable energy intake during the post-weaning period with higher dressing yield.

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Published online 30 September 2014
SNP included in candidate genes involved in muscle, lipid and energy metabolism behave like neutral markers 
Natalia Sevane, Javier Cañon, John L. Williams, Hubert Levéziel, Alessio Valentini, Susana Dunner and

Reliable estimates of the genetic relationships among populations are important to understand history and selection events in the formation of breeds. Using markers within genes that may be under selection may provide different information from neutral markers. The discriminant resolution power of single nucleotide polymorphisms within candidate genes related with beef production traits was used to evaluate the genetic relationships among bovine breeds. The data showed that there is marker-type specificity in revealing differences in the development of breeds.

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    | Supplementary Material (2.1 MB)
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Published online 30 September 2014
Strategic early treatment for control of sheep flystrike: potential economic benefits examined using a weather-driven model of flystrike risk 
Brian J. Horton

The use of preventive chemical flystrike treatment before flies are active in early spring may restrict reproduction of the sheep blowfly. Modelling suggests that early treatment may reduce flystrike later in the fly season and reduce the need for additional preventive treatment. Further studies are required to determine the extent of the reduction in the risk of flystrike after early treatment.

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Published online 30 September 2014
Comparison between feeding rumen-protected choline and vitamin E on milk yield and blood metabolites in early lactation dairy cows 
Mohammadreza Rahmani, Mehdi Dehghan-banadaky and Romic Kamalyan

Rapid increase in milk production in early-lactation cows leads to reduced dry matter intake, negative energy balance, lipolysis and insulin resistance. Thus, the concentrations of some blood metabolites and enzymes that are indicative of liver function may be altered. Choline and vitamin E supplementation may improve liver function in dairy cows in early lactation.

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Published online 30 September 2014
Nutritive value of wheat concentrated distillers solubles in diets for growing pigs 
P. Rosenfelder, M. Eklund, H. K. Spindler, U. Messerschmidt, C. Potthast and R. Mosenthin

Co-products from the bioethanol industry used as feed for farm animals are receiving considerable attention as worldwide bioethanol production is increasing. There is little information on the nutritional value of wet co-products from bioethanol production as feed for pigs. It can be concluded from the results of this study that wet concentrated distillers solubles manufactured from wheat contain more energy and ileal digestible amino acids than corresponding dried co-products recorded in recognised tables with information on nutritional value of feed ingredients.

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Published online 30 September 2014
Performance of beef Guzerat and Guzerat-cross bulls during the feedlot, and carcass traits of Guzerat-cross groups 
F. B. Diniz, S. D. J. Villela, M. H. F. Mourthé, P. V. R. Paulino, A. V. Pires, R. C. Sousa, L. L. A. Oliveira and P. G. M. A. Martins

Guzerat (Bos indicus breed) animals have been used in crossbreeding programs for either beef, dairy or dual purposes, but studies evaluating their performance and carcass traits are scarce. We evaluated performance, carcass traits and meat cuts of Guzerat-based bulls. Results from this study indicate that all groups evaluated have potential for meat production since they meet the Brazilian beef industry standards, and bulls from a dual-purpose cross can be an option for dairy producers, to diversify revenues.

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Published online 30 September 2014
Body condition score is a critical factor determining the onset of puberty in Blanca Andaluza female goat kids 
L. Gallego-Calvo, M. C. Gatica, I. Celi, J. L. Guzmán and L. A. Zarazaga

The main objective was to determine the role of the body condition score on the onset of goat puberty. We designed an experiment to study the role of the body condition score as modulator of the onset of the puberty. We used Blanca Andaluza goat kids, an endangered native Spanish breed raised for meat production in extensive or semi-extensive grazing systems. The interest in this kind of system has been increased among Spanish farmers in recent years, more specifically for organic livestock. These results could support the goat farmers.

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Published online 30 September 2014
Viability analyses of an endangered donkey breed: the case of the Asinina de Miranda (Equus asinus) 
M. Quaresma, A. M. F. Martins, J. B. Rodrigues, J. Colaço and R. Payan-Carreira

Most European donkey breeds are disappearing and this genetic resource may be lost in a generation. How that happens at breed level is not fully documented, but our study indicates that the most critical factor is the low percentage of females breeding yearly. The percentage needed is ~50% per year, with current carrying capacity, reduced juvenile mortality and mortality at breeding age in females, reduced harvest and reduction in age at first offspring production also important.

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Published online 25 September 2014
Effect of climate variability on pasture-based dairy feeding systems in south-east Australia 
Şeyda Özkan, Julian Hill and Brendan Cullen

Variability in climate affects plant growth, leading to uncertainty in pasture supply. Modelling the impact of climate variability on pasture production in this study revealed varying levels of feed deficits and surpluses, reflecting the incorporation of summer and winter crops into a traditional pasture-based system. Alternative feeding strategies with high-quality feed are a prerequisite to overcome feed gaps in dairying.

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Published online 18 September 2014
The movement pattern of horses around race meetings in New Zealand 
S. M. Rosanowski, C. W. Rogers, C. F. Bolwell and N. Cogger

In New Zealand, the speed at which an infectious disease could spread through the horse population would be economically devastating, particularly for participants of the racing industry. In an outbreak, prior knowledge about the potential pathways of spread enables control to be one step ahead of disease. This descriptive study highlights the potential importance of racehorses in disease spread as a result of the frequency and distance associated with the movement of horses to race meetings.

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Published online 18 September 2014
Evaluation of fructosamine as a new biomarker for diagnosis of hepatic lipidosis in dairy cows 
Masoud Mostafavi, Hesam A. Seifi, Mehrdad Mohri and Abdullah Jamshidi

Fatty liver is a significant metabolic disorder in the dairy industry and a major risk factor for decreased average lifetime of cows. We investigated how the measurement of serum fructosamine, as a non-invasive diagnostic tool, could aid the early diagnosis of hepatic lipidosis. Our results indicate that the measurement of fructosamine could facilitate the diagnosis of fatty liver in dairy cows.

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Published online 17 September 2014
Comparison of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) with crossbred and purebred Brahman cattle for growth performance on savannah and slaughter traits at four ages in Venezuela 
A. Rodas-González, N. Huerta-Leidenz, A. Vidal, O. Colina, J. Lopez and R. Rodriguez

This trial provides a fair comparison between Murrah crossbred water buffalo and Brahman-influenced cattle, raised under savannah conditions, in growth and slaughter traits at four age endpoints (7, 17, 19 and 24 months). Buffalo had lower dressing yield but consistently outperformed cattle in growth and carcass traits. Buffalo may offer advantages for meat production under extensive tropical conditions.

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Published online 17 September 2014
A review of the genetic and non-genetic factors affecting extended lactation in pasture-based dairy systems 
Mary Abdelsayed, Peter C. Thomson and Herman W. Raadsma

Over the past 50 years, selection of cows with high milk production potential has increased, and with this increase has come decreases in reproductive performance. As a management option, superior-yielding cows that have failed to get into calf in a traditional 12-month calving system may be carried over and milked continuously for another 6 months (18–month calving system) instead of being culled. This review provides information and insight on what is currently known about extended lactation; examines the potential for genetic improvement; and details both genetic and non-genetic factors that need to be considered when selecting cows suitable for extended lactation, targeting especially Australian pastured systems. Such findings will help the dairy industry make better selection decisions when breeding for extended lactation and provide breeding tools to help achieve this.

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    | Supplementary Material (77 KB)
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Published online 15 September 2014
Plane of nutrition of Corriedale ewe lambs from foetal life to the onset of breeding affects weight at service and reproductive outcome 
L. Piaggio, H. Deschenaux, F. Baldi, S. Fierro, G. Quintans and G. Banchero

Sheep managed on native pastures are exposed to heterogeneous species of grasses with different distribution and quality, which frequently render lambs unable to reproduce in their first year of age. This experiment evaluated differential nutrition at three different stages during female lambs’ first year of life. From the phases studied, growth rate after weaning and liveweight achieved at the onset of breeding better explained the successful pregnancy of ewe lambs.

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Published online 15 September 2014
A new simple method for estimating the pork carcass mass of primal cuts and lean meat content of the carcass 
Dariusz Lisiak, Kamil Duziński, Piotr Janiszewski, Karol Borzuta and Damian Knecht

There is no simple, affordable method to determine the size of primal cuts of lean meat using linear measurements. The aim of this study was the development of equations to predict lean meat content, and masses of ham, loin, shoulder and belly. Equations were developed for estimating meat content with greater accuracy than most classification devices. Based on simple measurements, these equations may obtain valuable information for the meat industry.

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Published online 15 September 2014
Lactoferrin gene variants, their expression in the udder and mastitis susceptibility in dairy cattle 
Adrianna Pawlik, Grażyna Sender, Magdalena Sobczyńska, Agnieszka Korwin-Kossakowska, Henryka Lassa and Jolanta Oprządek

One of the proposed methods of dairy cattle udder inflammation control is the selection of animals less prone to infection by using genetic markers. The study’s aim was to investigate the feasibility of two single nucleotide polymorphisms, placed in the 5′-flanking region and 3′-untranslated region of the bovine lactoferrin gene, to serve as mastitis markers. It was shown that both polymorphisms significantly influence lactoferrin content in milk, and that one of them (LF+32) is associated with the cow’s estimated breeding value for somatic cell count and could potentially be used as a molecular marker for mastitis resistance in dairy cows.

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Published online 15 September 2014
Effects of large or small furnished cages on performance, welfare and egg quality of laying hens 
Fanyu Meng, Donghua Chen, Xiang Li, Jianhong Li and Jun Bao

Furnished cage type is concerned with productivity, welfare and egg quality of lying hens. The effects of large and small furnished cages on layer hens were studied and the results showed that the hens in LFC had lower productivity, higher egg quality and better welfare than those in SFC and CC. The study provided further information for furnished cage design.

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Published online 15 September 2014
Dietary phosphate equivalence of four forms of Pi contrasted with a novel microbial phytase from Citrobacter braakii in broiler chickens 
A. J. Cowieson, F. Fru-Nji and O. Adeola

Broiler diets are typically formulated to either available or digestible phosphorus concentrations and in many cases these two terms are used synonymously. However, available phosphorus is a relative term that is dependent on a reference inorganic phosphorus source and so can vary. The present experiment assessed the relative digestibility of various inorganic phosphorus sources, observed differences in bioefficacy and provided contrasting information for diet design and phytase inclusion strategies.

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Published online 15 September 2014
Effect of fescue toxicosis on whole body energy and nitrogen balance, in situ degradation and ruminal passage rates in Holstein steers 
A. F. Koontz, D. H. Kim, K. R. McLeod, J. L. Klotz and D. L. Harmon

Fescue toxicosis results in decreased growth in livestock and is a major economic problem for producers. This study indicates that despite subtle changes in metabolism occurring feed intake and not feed utilisation is the major cause of the decreased growth that occurs during toxicosis. Factors that contribute to the decreased intake must be overcome to alleviate this syndrome.

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Published online 15 September 2014
Gossypol was not detected in the longissimus muscle of lambs fed several forms of cottonseed 
P. G. Viana, P. M. T. Lima, T. P. Paim, J. R. Souza, A. M. M. Dantas, E. F. Pereira, V. Gonçalves, C. McManus, A. L. Abdalla and H. Louvandini

Cottonseed by-products are alternative feedstuffs that may be successfully fed to ruminants; however, their use is limited by gossypol, a toxic compound present in the cottonseed plant that affects animals and humans. This study evaluated productive and health parameters, as well as the presence of gossypol residues in the meat of lambs fed cottonseed by-products. The results obtained were satisfactory and no gossypol residues were found in meat, demonstrating the potential of these by-products as feedstuffs for lambs.

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Published online 15 September 2014
Dietary supplementation with sunflower seeds and vitamin E for fattening lambs improves the fatty acid profile and oxidative stability of the Longissimus lumborum 
Fabiana Alves de Almeida, Américo Garcia da Silva Sobrinho, Gabriela Milani Manzi, Natália Ludmila Lins Lima, Viviane Endo and Nivea Maria Brancacci Lopes Zeola

The inclusion of oil seeds in the diet of ruminants can improve the health quality of their meat. This was verified when we supplemented fattening lambs with sunflower seeds and vitamin E; the lamb meat had a higher amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Considering the current demand for healthy food, inclusion of these ingredients in the lamb diet is advantageous.

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Published online 15 September 2014
Polymerisation effects of four microsatellites on litter size in Xinong Saanen goats 
J. X. Hou, J. G. Wang, X. P. An, G. Q. Zhu and B. Y. Cao

In the goat industry, litter size is extremely important. Polymerisation effects of four microsatellites (OarAE101, BM1329, BM143 and LSCV043) significantly affected litter size of goats. The four microsatellites could serve as a genetic marker for litter size in goat breeding.

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    | Supplementary Material (76 KB)
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Published online 01 September 2014
Good science for improving policy: greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural manures 
Chris Pratt, Matthew Redding, Jaye Hill, Andrew Shilton, Matthew Chung and Benoit Guieysse

Agricultural manures have been thought to be a relatively minor greenhouse gas (GHG) emission source within Australasia’s agricultural sector. However, our review revealed omissions and assumptions in current manure emission GHG estimates that, when accounted for, could mean that manures are indeed a major GHG emission source. The encouraging news is that several ‘close-to-market’ options exist to mitigate these emissions.

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Published online 12 August 2014
Effect of conception date and hind nutrition on fetal growth trajectory and gestation length of red deer (Cervus elaphus) 
I. C. Scott, G. W. Asher, N. Jopson, N. Cox, J. A. Archer, D. R. Stevens and G. K. Barrell

In farmed venison production systems in New Zealand, early summer calving often results in a misalignment between pasture availability and energy demand of the lactating hind. Attempts to achieve early calving by advancing conception date are partly mitigated by a negative association between conception date and gestation length. This study has demonstrated that gestation length is shortened in hinds that receive an ad libitum diet of high quality food during the third trimester of gestation.

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Published online 12 August 2014
A comparison of growth, carcass traits, and tissue composition of ‘Segureña’ lambs raised either in an extensive production system or an intensive one 
E. Armero and A. Falagán

Current society shows an increasing interest in traditional production systems: related to rural development, animal welfare and healthier products. The aim of this work was to raise ‘Segureña’ lambs on pasture with salt-tolerant forages, however lambs showed lower growth rate and carcasses with poorer conformation scores than those raised in an intensive system. Supplementation with concentrates in grazing systems seems to be necessary to improve lambs’ performance in semiarid regions.

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Published online 26 June 2014
Productivity results and physiological response of the gastrointestinal tract of rabbits fed diets containing rapeseed cake and wheat distillers dried grains with solubles 
A. Gugołek, J. Juśkiewicz, P. Wyczling, D. Kowalska, J. Strychalski, M. Konstantynowicz and C. Zwoliński

Biofuel industry generates vast amounts of plant by-products, including rapeseed cake (RC) and distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS). The aim of study was to determine whether RC and wheat DDGS can be used as components of diets for rabbits. Our study demonstrated that 5% RC can be incorporated into rabbit dietary as a substitute of soybean meal. Because the productivity of rabbits fed 2.5% of DDGS (with 2.5% RC) was comparable to the 5% RC, the incorporation of up to 2.5% wheat DDGS to a diet should also be taken as a dietary option. The higher content of DDGS (5%) in the diet deteriorated the growth of rabbits.

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Published online 26 June 2014
Impact of simulated heat stress on growth, physiological adaptability, blood metabolites and endocrine responses in Malpura ewes under semiarid tropical environment 
S. Indu, V. Sejian and S. M. K. Naqvi

The study was conducted to observe the impact of simulated heat-stress model on productive and adaptive capability of Malpura ewes. Compared with constant heat-stress models, the simulated model inflicts less severe physiological strain as evidenced by relatively lower changes in the heat-stress markers such as RR, RT and plasma cortisol. However, their growth and reproductive performance are compromised during the process of adaptation.

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Published online 26 June 2014
Source and frequency of dry season lipid supplementation of finishing grazing cattle 
Márcia Cristina Araújo Santana, Bruno Ramalho Vieira, Diogo Fleury Costa, Paulo Henrique Moura Dian, Giovani Fiorentini, Roberta Carrilho Canesin, Gener Tadeu Pereira, Ricardo Andrade Reis and Telma Teresinha Berchielli

This paper is about the inclusion of ingredients of soybean origin in supplements and the frequency of supplementation of grazing cattle during the drier periods of the year, evaluating the effects on animal performance. The main finding was that frequency of supplementation did not affect the weight gain of cattle, but suggested that supplementation could be done 3 days a week opposed to daily, and would decrease production costs.

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Published online 13 June 2014
Establishment of optimum regression model and determination of relationships between body measurements and slaughter traits in Japanese quails by path analysis 
Fatih Uckardes, Dogan Narinc and Hande Kucukonder

Path analysis was used to investigate effects of some morphological measurements on slaughter and carcass traits. The direct effect of bodyweight on carcass weight was the strongest and positively influenced (P < 0.01). Finally, the optimum multiple regression equation on carcass weight was found bodyweight as R2 of 0.7463.

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Published online 13 June 2014
Effects of weaning beef cattle in two stages or by abrupt separation on nasal abrasions, behaviour, and weight gain 
Christian Lambertz, Peter R. Bowen, Georg Erhardt and Matthias Gauly

As an alternative to traditional weaning by abrupt separation, weaning beef calves in two stages by fitting nose flaps to prevent nursing before the final separation might reduce the stress response. Although two-stage weaning positively influenced the post-weaning behaviour of the calves and cows, the devices caused heavy irritations of the nasal septum. Therefore, the design of the anti-suckling devices and the period the devices are fitted should be modified in order to minimise nasal abrasions.

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Published online 13 June 2014
Evaluating rates of technology adoption and milking practices on New Zealand dairy farms 
J. P. Edwards, B. T. Dela Rue and J. G. Jago

Milk harvesting is a fundamental component of dairy farming, requiring significant labour input. Consequently, with increasing herd sizes, there is a constant drive to improve milking efficiency. Explaining differences in milking efficiency by monitoring milking practices and the adoption of new technologies can, therefore, be beneficial to the industry. The results of this work indicate the use of technology was associated with greater labour efficiency but the potential benefits of each technology require careful evaluation to ensure appropriate selection decisions are made by farmers to meet their requirements.

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Published online 13 June 2014
Evaluation of the efficacy of sequential or continuous administration of probiotics and phytogenics in broiler diets 
K. C. Mountzouris, P. Tsirtsikos, G. Papadomichelakis, G. Schatzmayr and K. Fegeros

The search for solutions to safeguard animal performance and health while reducing antibiotic usage currently attracts worldwide interest. While certain feed additives such as probiotics and phytogenics show promising results, tailoring additive combinations as part of an overall efficacious dietary strategy is largely undeveloped. Our results support the concept of sequential or throughout probiotic and phytogenic administration as being beneficial for broiler performance and broiler antioxidant status, worth of further investigation.

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Published online 27 May 2014
Age and season effects on quality of diets selected by Criollo crossbred goats on rangeland 
Leticia Gaytán, Abdel-Fattah Z. M. Salem, Alvaro Rodríguez, Jose E. García, Jose R. Arévalo and Miguel Mellado

In the arid zones of Mexico young kids graze/browse together with their mothers on rangeland. It is unknown if goat kids discern between forages, therefore the aim was to find out if 4-week-old goat kids display an efficient foraging behavior. Kids ingested a diet richer in nutrients than mature goats; thus, herbage selection seems to be shaped by physiological effort.

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Published online 20 May 2014
Effects of black seed oil and Ferula elaeochytris supplementation on ruminal fermentation as tested in vitro with the rumen simulation technique (Rusitec) 
F. Klevenhusen, K. Deckardt, Ö. Sizmaz, S. Wimmer, A. Muro-Reyes, R. Khiaosa-ard, R. Chizzola and Q. Zebeli

Plant extracts in ruminant diets might have beneficial effects on nutrient degradation in the rumen while mitigating methane production. In this study the main bioactive components of black seed (Nigella sativa) oil and of the root powder of Ferula elaeochytris were identified and their effects were investigated in an incubation system. No significant changes on nutrient degradation and methane formation were observed, possibly depending on the low dosages tested.

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Published online 20 May 2014
Re-used progesterone devices efficiently synchronise oestrus and ovulation after autoclaving process in Toggenburg goats during the breeding season 
J. M. G. Souza-Fabjan, C. A. A. Torres, A. L. R. S. Maia, F. Z. Brandão, E. Oba, M. J. Bertoldo and J. F. Fonseca

As protocols for oestrus synchronisation shortened the time of exposure to progesterone, CIDR devices were able to be reused; however, they can be a health risk. This study demonstrated that new and previously used (and autoclaved) devices are equally effective for synchronisation of oestrus and ovulation during the breeding season in goats. This approach decreases the cost of oestrus synchronisation program and makes it more economically feasible for producers.

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Published online 20 May 2014
Possible involvement of myo-inositol in the physiological response of broilers to high doses of microbial phytase 
A. J. Cowieson, R. Aureli, P. Guggenbuhl and F. Fru-Nji

Although myo-inositol is proportionately equivalent to phosphorus in phytic acid, its contribution to the observed beneficial effects of phytase in poultry and swine nutrition is obscure. Evidence is presented herein to show substantial increases in myo-inositol concentrations in the plasma of poultry in response to phytase addition. As myo-inositol has recently been shown to be an insulin-mimetic, links between insulin pathways, glucose uptake, protein accretion and exogenous phytase are drawn.

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Published online 05 May 2014
Selection for residual feed intake affects appetite and body composition rather than energetic efficiency 
D. S. Lines, W. S. Pitchford, C. D. K. Bottema, R. M. Herd and V. H. Oddy

Feed costs are the largest single cost in any animal production enterprise with improvements in feed efficiency able to reduce feed costs. This study aimed to understand the basis for feed efficiency measured by residual feed intake and variation in maintenance requirements. The results obtained suggest that body composition, specifically fat deposition, is affected through inherent differences in feed intake or appetite rather than maintenance requirements.

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Published online 25 February 2014
Genetic divergence in residual feed intake affects growth, feed efficiency, carcass and meat quality characteristics of Angus steers in a large commercial feedlot 
R. M. Herd, P. F. Arthur, C. D. K. Bottema, A. R. Egarr, G. H. Geesink, D. S. Lines, S. Piper, J. P. Siddell, J. M. Thompson and W. S. Pitchford

The cost of feed is the largest recurring cost of producing beef. Inherited variation in feed efficiency is known and this experiment was to demonstrate the benefit in a large commercial feedlot of breeding cattle for improved feed efficiency. The results obtained confirm the feed saving advantages of inherited superior feed efficiency and that previously reported trade-offs in carcass traits, while confirmed, were minor.

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blank image Animal Production Science
Volume 55 Number 5 2015

 
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Table of Contents 
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Whole-grain feeding for chicken-meat production: possible mechanisms driving enhanced energy utilisation and feed conversion 
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Sonia Yun Liu, Ha H. Truong and Peter H. Selle
pp. 559-572

Whole-grain feeding regimes for chicken-meat production provide economic advantages by reducing feed costs while generating improvements in energy utilisation and feed conversion efficiency; however, the genesis of the performance improvements are not defined. The present paper considers the contexts in which these responses may be best realised. Identifying the drivers will enable the most appropriate WGF strategies to be adopted.

 
  
 

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Influence of cardamom essential oils and seeds on growth performance, blood characteristics and immunity of broilers 
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Mosa Omidi, Kamran Taherpour, Javad Cheraghi and Hossein A. Ghasemi
pp. 573-579

The application of herbs and spice products as alternatives to antibiotics in raising broilers is receiving attention. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of cardamom seed and its essential oils on broilers and the results suggested that high levels of cardamom essential oils benefited feed efficiency and cholesterol metabolism. This could meet consumer demand for a safe feed additive.

 
  
 

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Effects of feeding various levels of full fat soybean extruded at high temperature on performance, serum components and intestinal morphology of broiler chickens 
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Safa Zhaleh, Abolghasem Golian, Seyed Ali Mirghelenj, Avisa Akhavan and Abdollah Akbarian
pp. 580-586

The present paper reports on application of extruded full fat soybean (EFFSB) in broiler diet to identify its potential toward improving production performance criteria. The FFSB extruded at 170°C had acceptable protein solubility in KOH, indicating a good EFFSB. The latter in turn indicates an optimum balance between degradation of ANFs and maintaining the bioavailability of essential amino acids, hence having the potential to exert positive effect on blood metabolites and intestinal morphology of broilers at market age.

 
  
 

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Micro-encapsulated sodium butyrate attenuates oxidative stress induced by corticosterone exposure and modulates apoptosis in intestinal mucosa of broiler chickens 
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Y. Jiang, W. H. Zhang, F. Gao and G. H. Zhou
pp. 587-594

Under the conditions of intensive farming, it is very important to improve poultry health. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of micro-encapsulated sodium butyrate (MSB)on oxidative stress and apoptosis in the intestinal mucosa of broilers and the main discovery was that dietary MSB can partially attenuate oxidative stress induced by corticosterone treatment and inhibit apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells. This could confirm again that nutritional regulation of pre-slaughter stress through feed additives may provide a simple way to improve poultry health.

 
  
 

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Monthly metabolisable energy feed requirements of crossbred ewes in accelerated and traditional lamb production systems 
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N. M. Fogarty
pp. 595-602

Accelerated lambing potentially increases biological efficiency of lamb production and affects seasonal patterns of feed requirements. Metabolisable energy requirements were used to calculate dry sheep equivalents (DSE) and showed that crossbred ewes in accelerated lambing weaned 16–47% greater weight of lamb per DSE over 4 years than ewes in traditional systems. The increased efficiency of accelerated lambing requires a more consistent feed supply throughout the year.

 
  
 

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Effects of duration of salt supplementation of sheep on rumen metabolism and the accumulation of elements 
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Clive J. C. Phillips, Mohamed O. Mohamed and Paul C. Chiy
pp. 603-610

Excess salt in the sheep’s diet can impair digestion, but they may adapt to high concentrations in plants by reducing absorption. We found no evidence of adaptation, in fact their rumen developed a reduced ability to maintain a normal pH over time, with implications for accumulation of some elements in the brain and kidney. Thus farmers should beware exposing their sheep to high salt in their feed for prolonged periods.

 
  
 

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The effects of chronic nitrate supplementation on erythrocytic methaemoglobin reduction in cattle 
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I. Godwin, L. Li, K. Luijben, N. Oelbrandt, J. Velazco, J. Miller and R. Hegarty
pp. 611-616

Cattle fed nitrate risk methaemoglobinaemia, but with chronic feeding their red cells increase their ability to reduce methaemoglobin. In vitro studies suggest that phosphate plays a role in aiding the reduction of methaemoglobin and that the metabolic endpoint of red cells changes to maximise substrate availability for methaemoglobin reduction. It appears that both the animal and its rumen microbes adapt to nitrate feeding.

 
  
 

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An animal house study on utilisation of fresh tedera (Bituminaria bituminosa var. albomarginata and crassiuscula) by Merino wethers 
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C. M. Oldham, D. Wood, J. Milton, D. Real, P. Vercoe and A. J. van Burgel
pp. 617-624

Bituminaria bituminosa is a drought-tolerant, perennial legume that has been used for centuries as a part of the mixed sward in grazing systems around the Mediterranean sea and ‘cut and carried’ to feed as hay to dairy goats in the Canary Islands; varieties albomarginata and crassiuscula, commonly known as tedera, are native only to the Canary Islands. In south-western Australia, tedera will likely be directly grazed as green plants to help fill the feed gap in summer–autumn, due to its drought tolerance and capacity to retain green leaves. . Sheep fed fresh tedera exclusively for 34 days readily consumed the forage and remained in good health, they maintained their liveweight (42.5 kg) and body condition (condition score 3) throughout the experiment.

 
  
 

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Effect of soybean roasting and monensin on microbial protein synthesis, ruminal parameters and plasma metabolites of lactating dairy cows 
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E. Abdi, F. Fatahnia, M. Dehghan Banadaki, A. Azarfar and S. G. Mosavi
pp. 625-629

Rumen degradation of dietary proteins should be minimised using appropriate feed additives and/or technological processing. We hypothesised that supplementing dairy cow ration with monensin and roasting whole soybean seed improves microbial protein synthesized in the rumen; however, such an effect was not observed in the present study. Interactions between the type of technological processing and monensin supplementation should be further investigated

 
  
 

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Effects of two different forage sources on mammary gland growth, mammary cell turnover and activity in early lactation dairy cows 
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Tong Qin, Haoyu Wang, Dengpan Bu, Haisheng Hao, Dong Wang and Huabin Zhu
pp. 630-633

The forage system is critically important to lactation performance in dairy cows. Our results suggested that the expression of IGF-1R in the mammary glands and the number of mammary cells is significantly affected by forage system, and this is closely related to the milk production in early lactation cows. This research provided the basis for better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of lactation regulation.

 
  
 

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Influence of dietary flavours on sheep feeding behaviour and nutrient digestibility 
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J. J. Villalba, A. Mereu and I. R. Ipharraguerre
pp. 634-638

Ruminants ingest a diversity of forages, but in intensive feeding systems they are commonly fed single rations or pastures. The present study suggests that a diversity of flavours presented in the same ration has the potential to stimulate intake and alter eating behaviour in sheep. These effects may in turn contribute to enhance animal production and welfare.

 
  
 

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Combining wavelet and linear-regression methods to model the effect of available forage on daily grazing and lying activity of mature Bos indicus cows during summer months 
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M. S. Gadberry, W. Whitworth and G. Montgomery
pp. 639-647

Wavelet and linear regression methods were used to model time-of-day changes in behaviour due to available forage. The study concluded decreasing forage availability resulted in greater lying activity from 1000 to 1300 and greater grazing activity from 1300 to 2100. Understanding the dynamics between forage supply and behaviour could provide decision tools incorporating behaviour into drought management decisions.

 
  
 

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Welfare of recently weaned piglets transported on unpaved roads: the effect of age and the use of straw bedding 
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P. Roldan-Santiago, D. Mota-Rojas, H. Orozco-Gregorio, F. Borderas-Tordesillas, R. Martínez-Rodríguez, P. Mora-Medina, S. Flores-Peinado, M. Sánchez-Hernández and M. E. Trujillo-Ortega
pp. 648-653

At weaning, the welfare of piglets may decrease because they are exposed to several stressors.

The objective was to assess the physiological response of piglets weaned at three different ages under two different trip conditions. Piglets transported immediately after weaning at Ages 8, 15 and 22 days present significant metabolic, hydric and gas exchange imbalances.

 
  
 

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Mediterranean river buffalo CSN1S1 gene: search for polymorphisms and association studies 
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G. Cosenza, A. Pauciullo, N. P. P. Macciotta, E. Apicella, R. Steri, A. La Battaglia, L. Jemma, A. Coletta, D. Di Berardino and L. Ramunno
pp. 654-660

The αs1-casein is the most polymorphic milk protein and its genetic variants influence the quali-quantitative characteristics and the technological properties of the milk. This study investigates the genetic variability at the CSN1S1 in the Mediterranean buffalo. A significant association between the c.628C>T SNP and the protein percentage was found. This result offers useful indications for future applications of marker-assisted selection programmes.

 
  
 

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The association between polymorphism of the GH1 gene and changes in protein structure and carcass traits in Mehraban sheep (Ovis aries) 
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A. Bahrami, S. R. Miraei-Ashtiani, H. Mehrabani-Yeganeh, H. Banani-Rad and Sh. Behzadi
pp. 661-665

We report the identification of five SSCP patterns in the sheep GH1 gene. The present study suggests a positive effect of SSCP patterns with carcass traits. We report the identification of two different protein structures in the GH1 protein. The identified SNPs in the GH1 gene could be used as molecular markers.

 
  
 

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Effect of different concentrations of trehalose and glycerol on the freezability of ram semen using soybean lecithin-based diluents 
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Zh. Bohlool, M. Mohammadi, M. Roostaei-Ali Mehr and N. Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh
pp. 666-671

To improve the spermatozoa fertility, cryodamages must be decreased by using suitable diluents and cryopreservation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different levels of trehalose and glycerol on the freezing process of ram semen, when lecithin is used as cryoprotectant. It was concluded that simultaneous use of glycerol and trehalose had a desirable effect on motility of ram frozen–thawed sperm.

 
  
 

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Correlations among various blood parameters at exsanguination and their relationships to pork quality traits 
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J. H. Choe, M. H. Choi, Y. C. Ryu, K. S. Lim, E. A. Lee, J. H. Kang, K. C. Hong, S. K. Lee, Y. T. Kim, S. S. Moon, K. W. Lee, M. S. Rhee and B. C. Kim
pp. 672-679

Measuring blood stress indicators could be useful for improving animal welfare and meat quality. The current study measured various blood parameters from pigs under the standard pre-slaughter conditions using a portable analyser. Higher levels of blood lactate and glucose correlated with decreased pork quality. Therefore, measuring blood lactate and glucose could easily and quickly provide information about pork quality.

 
  
 

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Association of carcass weight with quality and functional properties of beef from Hanwoo steers 
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Dinesh D. Jayasena, Ki Chang Nam, Jong Ju Kim, Hyeonju Ahn and Cheorun Jo
pp. 680-690

Beef producers in Korea try to increase marbling in beef muscles due to higher consumer demand towards such meat. Increasing marbling through extended feeding eventually burdens stakeholders of the beef industry and this study showed that medium (375–425 kg) carcass weight was optimal for achieving superior beef quality. Medium carcasses provide more health benefits at lower cost.

 
  
 

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These articles have been peer reviewed and accepted for publication. They are still in production and have not been edited, so may differ from the final published form.

    AN14896  Accepted 24 April 2015
    Development and adoption of new technologies to increase the efficiency and sustainability of pasture based systems
    Padraig French, Laurence Shalloo, Bernadette O'Brien
    Abstract


    AN14102  Accepted 21 April 2015
    The effect of the level and feeding duration of spray-dried plasma protein on growth performance, digestive enzyme activities, nutrient digestibility, and intestinal mucosal development of broiler chickens
    Sleman Beski, Robert Swick, Paul Iji
    Abstract


    AN14879  Accepted 21 April 2015
    Growth, feed intake and carcass characteristic of indigenous goats fed some local resources in Tunisian arid land
    Naziha Ayeb, Mouldi Seddik, Naziha Atti, Moufida Atigui, imen Fguiri, Ahmed Barmat, Samira Arroum, Margherita Addis, Mohamed Hammadi, Touhami Khorchani
    Abstract


    AN14777  Accepted 16 April 2015
    Fabric and greasy wool handle, their importance to the Australian wool industry-A review
    James Preston, Sue Hatcher, Bruce McGregor
    Abstract


    AN15069  Accepted 15 April 2015
    The effects of essential oil and condensed tannin on fermentation and methane production under in vitro conditions
    Mevlut Gunal, Brittany Pinski, Amer AbuGhazaleh
    Abstract


    AN14731  Accepted 14 April 2015
    Production and physiological effects of perennial ryegrass alkaloids under thermoneutral conditions in Merinos
    Michelle Henry, Stuart Kemp, Iain Clarke, Frank Dunshea, Brian Leury
    Abstract


    AN14922  Accepted 13 April 2015
    Fatty acid composition and mRNA expression levels of lipid-metabolic genes in the muscles of ovariectomised young goats
    Lei Zhang, Yan-yan Wang, zhan-qin Zhou, Mingzhe Fu, Guang Li, Fang Peng, Lu Wan
    Abstract


    AN14833  Accepted 12 April 2015
    Breaking through the feed barrier: options for improving forage genetics
    Brent Barrett, Marty Faville, Shirley Nichols, Wayne Simpson, Greg Bryan, Tony Conner
    Abstract


    AN15056  Accepted 06 April 2015
    Starch utilisation in chicken-meat production: the foremost influential factors
    Ha Truong, Sonia Liu, Peter Selle
    Abstract


    AN15048  Accepted 07 April 2015
    Bioacoustic cues and their relations to dominance rank in Père David′s deer stags
    Ni Liu, Zhigang Jiang, Linyuan Zhang, Zhenyu Zhong, Xiaoge Ping, Huailiang Xu, Chunwang Li
    Abstract


    AN14770  Accepted 07 April 2015
    Dietary supplementation of a novel phytogenic feed additive: effects on nutrient metabolism, antioxidant status and immune response of goat
    Mahipal Choubey, Ashok Pattanaik, Shalini Baliyan, Narayan Dutta, Sunil Jadhav, Kusumakar Sharma
    Abstract


    AN14700  Accepted 06 April 2015
    Effect of residual feed intake phenotype–nutritional treatment interaction on the growth performance, plasma metabolic variables and somatotropic axis gene expression of growing ewes
    Haitao Nie, ZiYu Wang, Shan Lan, Yongjie Wan, Yixuan Fan, Yanli Zhang, Feng Wang, Hao Zhang
    Abstract


    AN14698  Accepted 06 April 2015
    Effect of concentrate supplementation on performance and ingestive behaviour of lambs grazing tropical Aruana grass (Panicum maximum)
    Neuza Fajardo, Cesar Poli, Carolina Bremm, Jalise Tontini, Zélia Castilhos, Concepta Margaret Pimentel, Bruna Sarout, Juliane Castro, Alda Lucia Monteiro
    Abstract


    AN15055  Accepted 02 April 2015
    Comparison of banana flower powder and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on rumen fermentation and milk production in dairy cows
    Sungchhang Kang, Metha Wanapat, Anusorn Cherdthong, Kampanat Phesatcha
    Abstract


    AN14834  Accepted 30 March 2015
    The effects of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) seed supplementation of diets containing different levels of metabolizable energy on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profile, fecal gas emission, and meat quality of broiler chickens
    Jae-Hong Park, In Kim
    Abstract


    AN14886  Accepted 30 March 2015
    The effect of feeding frequency and dose rate of nitrate supplements on blood haemoglobin fractions in Bos indicus cattle fed Flinders grass (Iseilemia spp.) hay
    Imanuel Benu, Matthew Callaghan, Nigel Tomkins, Graham Hepworth, Lee Fitzpatrick, Anthony Parker
    Abstract


    AN13497  Accepted 26 March 2015
    Cloning and expression of caprine KIT gene and associations of polymorphisms with litter size
    Binyun Cao, Xiaopeng An, Jinxing Hou, Teyang Gao
    Abstract


    AN14882  Accepted 24 March 2015
    Empowering farmers for increased resilience in uncertain times
    Ruth Nettle, Margaret Ayre, Ruth Beilin, Steven Waller, Lydia Turner, Lesley Irvine, Alison Hall, Geoff Taylor
    Abstract


    AN14632  Accepted 25 March 2015
    Treating Bos indicus bulls with rumen transfauation after 24 hours of transportation does not replete muscle glycogen
    Cardial Leo-Penu, Lee Fitzpatrick, Henry Zerby, Anthony Parker
    Abstract


    AN14988  Accepted 24 March 2015
    Methane production and in vitro digestibility of low quality forages treated with a protease or a cellulase
    Juan Cantet, D Colombatto, Gustavo Jaurena
    Abstract


    AN14895  Accepted 21 March 2015
    The economic, environmental and welfare implications of alternative systems of accommodating dairy cows during the winter months
    Padraig French, Laurence Shalloo, Keelin O Driscoll, Brendan Horan
    Abstract


    AN14881  Accepted 21 March 2015
    Parasite control – are we at the edge of a precipice?
    Ian Sutherland, S L Bullen
    Abstract


    AN15022  Accepted 17 March 2015
    Effect of fresh pasture forage quality, feeding level and supplementation on methane emissions from growing beef cattle
    Arjan Jonker, Stefan Muetzel, German Molano, David Pacheco
    Abstract


    AN14796  Accepted 12 March 2015
    Effect of herb-clover mixes of plantain and chicory on yearling lamb production in the early spring period
    Sharini Somasiri, Paul Kenyon, Peter Kemp, Patrick Morel, Steve Morris
    Abstract


    AN14902  Accepted 10 March 2015
    Deer antler: a unique model for studying mammalian organ morphogenesis
    Haiping Zhao, Wenhui Chu, Zhen Liu, Chunyi Li
    Abstract


    AN14856  Accepted 11 March 2015
    Microbial phytase improves performance and bone traits in broilers fed diets based on soybean meal and containing lupin meal
    Sebastian Kaczmarek, Aaron Cowieson, Marcin Hejdysz, Andrzej Rutkowski
    Abstract


    AN14855  Accepted 11 March 2015
    Limitations and potential for individualised feeding of concentrate supplements to grazing dairy cows
    James Hills, Sergio Garcia, Brian Dela Rue, Cameron Clark
    Abstract


    AN14545  Accepted 09 March 2015
    Effect of cut type and postmortem ageing on the technological quality, textural profile and sensory characteristics of horse meat
    Pilnam Seong, KuyngMi Park, SooHyun Cho, Geun Ho Kang, Chae Hyun Seok, Beom Young Park, Hoa Van BA
    Abstract


    AN14450  Accepted 06 March 2015
    INVITED: The role and potential advantages of Vitamin D metabolites in maintaining calcium status in high producing dairy herds.
    Joseph McGrath, Darryl Savage, Ian Godwin
    Abstract


    AN14909  Accepted 06 March 2015
    Transfer of aflatoxins from highly contaminated feed to milk and effect of mycotoxin binder on transfer rate in Nili-Ravi buffaloes
    Naveed Aslam, Peter Wynn, Inês Rodrigues, Hassan Warriach, David McGill, Ann Cowling, Ahsan ul Haque
    Abstract


    AN14579  Accepted 01 March 2015
    The impact of selecting for increased ewe fat levels on reproduction and its potential to reduce supplementary feeding in a commercial composite flock
    Samuel Walkom, Forbes Brien, Michelle Hebart, Wayne Pitchford
    Abstract


    AN14890  Accepted 24 February 2015
    Crude protein requirements of free-range laying hens
    Monica Brainer, Carlos Rabello, Marcos Santos, Jorge Ludke, Cláudia Lopes, Waleska Medeiros, Fernando Costa
    Abstract


    AN14781  Accepted 20 February 2015
    Reducing calcium and phosphorus in crossbred beef cattle diets: Impacts on productive performance during the growing and finishing phase
    Laura Prados, Sebastião Valadares Filho, Stefanie Santos, Diego Zanetti, Ariel Nunes, Douglas Costa, Lays Mariz, Edenio Detmann, Paloma Amaral, Felipe Rodrigues, Rilene Valadares
    Abstract


    AN14788  Accepted 18 February 2015
    Genetic parameters for body weight, wool and worm resistance traits in multi-breed Australian meat sheep: 2. Genetic relationships between traits
    Daniel Brown, Andrew Swan
    Abstract


    AN14787  Accepted 18 February 2015
    Genetic parameters for body weight, wool and worm resistance traits in multi-breed Australian meat sheep: 1. Description of traits, fixed effects, variance components and their ratios
    Daniel Brown, Andrew Swan, John Gill, Alexander Ball, Rob Banks
    Abstract


    AN14012  Accepted 15 February 2015
    Evaluating the efficacy of a topical anaesthetic formulation and ketoprofen, alone and in combination, on the pain sensitivity of dehorning wounds in Holstein-Friesian calves
    Crystal Espinoza, Dominique McCarthy, Peter White, Peter Windsor, Sabrina Lomax
    Abstract


    AN14793  Accepted 13 February 2015
    A survey of the meat goat industry in Queensland and New South Wales. 1. General property information, goat and pasture management
    Daniel Nogueira, Christopher Gardiner, Bruce Gummow, John Cavalieri, Lee Fitzpatrick, Anthony Parker
    Abstract


    AN14870  Accepted 09 February 2015
    Managing the grazing dairy cow through the transition period: A review
    Jane Kay, Juan Loor, Axel Heiser, Jac McGowan, John Roche
    Abstract


    AN14771  Accepted 28 January 2015
    A promising and simple method to quantify soil/manure mixing on beef feedlot pens
    Chris Pratt, Matt Redding, Jaye Hill
    Abstract


    AN14838  Accepted 19 January 2015
    Valuing forages for genetic selection: what traits should we focus on?
    David Chapman, Grant Edwards, Alan Stewart, Mary McEvoy, Michael O'Donovan, Garry Waghorn
    Abstract


    AN14841  Accepted 20 January 2015
    Addition of sodium metabisulphite and microbial phytase, individually and in combination, to a sorghum-based diet for broiler chickens from 7 to 28 days post-hatch
    Ha Truong, David Cadogan, Sonia Liu, Peter Selle
    Abstract


    AN14594  Accepted 13 January 2015
    Divergent breeding values for fatness or residual feed intake in Angus cattle.6.Dam line impacts steer carcass compliance
    Michael Deland, Jeisane Accioly, Katrina Copping, John Graham, Stephen Lee, Peter McGilchrist, Wayne Pitchford
    Abstract


    AN14880  Accepted 07 January 2015
    Growth targets and rearing strategies for replacement heifers in pasture-based systems: a review
    John Roche, Kevin MacDonald, Nicola Dennis, Claire Phyn, Peter Amer, Robin White, Jim Drackley
    Abstract


    AN14835  Accepted 07 January 2015
    Breeding the dairy cow of the future – what do we need?
    Donagh Berry
    Abstract


    AN14874  Accepted 05 January 2015
    Modelling systems to describe maternal productivity with the aim of improving beef production efficiency by eliciting practice change
    Brad Walmsley, Hutton Oddy
    Abstract


    AN14583  Accepted 13 November 2014
    Divergent breeding values for fatness or residual feed intake in Angus cattle. 1. Pregnancy rates of heifers differed between fat lines and were affected by weight and fat.
    Fiona Jones, Jeisane Accioly, Katrina Copping, Michael Deland, John Graham, Michelle Hebart, Robert Herd, Michael Laurence, Stephen Lee, Jane Speijers, Wayne Pitchford
    Abstract


    AN14630  Accepted 03 November 2014
    Pregnancy scanning can be used as a source of data for genetic evaluation of reproductive traits of ewes
    Kim Bunter, Andrew Swan, Ian Purvis, Daniel Brown
    Abstract


    AN14743  Accepted 27 October 2014
    Effect of dietary ALA on growth rate, feed conversion ratio, mortality rate and breast meat omega-3 LCPUFA content in broiler chickens
    John Carragher, Beverly Muhlhausler, Mark Geier, John House, Bob Hughes, Robert Gibson
    Abstract


    AN14183  Accepted 25 September 2014
    The effect of slaughter weight on the carcass characteristics of pork with sex type as co-variable
    Elsje Pieterse, Louw Hoffman, Francois Siebrits, Elaine Gloy, Ewa Polawska
    Abstract


    AN14645  Accepted 10 September 2014
    Genetic importance of fat and eye muscle depth in Merino breeding programs
    Daniel Brown, Andrew Swan
    Abstract


    AN14034  Accepted 04 August 2014
    Divergent breeding values for fatness or residual feed intake in Angus cattle 5: Cow genotype affects feed efficiency and maternal productivity
    Michelle Hebart, Jeisane Accioly, Katrina Copping, Michael Deland, Robert Herd, Fiona Jones, Michael Laurence, Stephen Lee, David Lines, Jane Speijers, Brad Walmsley, Wayne Pitchford
    Abstract


    AN13060  Accepted 06 June 2014
    Maternal body composition in Australian seedstock herds: 1. Grazing management strategy influences perspectives on optimal balance of production traits and maternal productivity
    Stephen Lee, Ian Nuberg, Wayne Pitchford
    Abstract


    AN13258  Accepted 10 February 2014
    Genetic parameters for body composition of Angus and Hereford cows
    Kath Donoghue, Stephen Lee, Peter Parnell, Wayne Pitchford
    Abstract


    AN13533  Accepted 20 December 2013
    Maternal body composition in seedstock herds. 1. Relationships between cow body composition and BREEDPLAN EBVs for Angus and Hereford cows
    Stephen Lee, Kath Donoghue, Wayne Pitchford
    Abstract


    AN13295  Accepted 08 November 2013
    Divergent genotypes for fatness or residual feed intake in Angus cattle: 3. Performance of mature cows.
    Katrina Copping, Jeisane Accioly, Michael Deland, Nick Edwards, John Graham, Michelle Hebart, Robert Herd, Fiona Jones, Michael Laurence, Stephen Lee, Jane Speijers, Wayne Pitchford
    Abstract


    AN13218  Accepted 24 October 2013
    Divergent genotypes for fatness or residual feed intake in Angus cattle. 2. Body composition but not reproduction was affected in first-parity cows on both low and high levels of nutrition.
    Michael Laurence, Jeisane Accioloy, Katrina Copping, Michael Deland, John Graham, Michelle Hebart, Robert Herd, Fiona Jones, Stephen Lee, Jane Speijers, Wayne Pitchford
    Abstract


    AN13054  Accepted 17 September 2013
    Genesis, design and methods of the Beef CRC Maternal Productivity Project
    Wayne Pitchford, Jeisane Accioly, Rob Banks, Anne Barnes, Stephen Barwick, Katrina Copping, Michael Deland, Kath Donoghue, Nick Edwards, Michelle Hebart, Robert Herd, Fiona Jones, Michael Laurence, Stephen Lee, Bill McKiernan, Peter Parnell, Jane Speijers, Geoff Tudor, John Graham
    Abstract


57


The Most Read ranking is based on the number of downloads from the CSIRO PUBLISHING website of articles published in the previous 12 months. Usage statistics are updated daily.

Rank Paper Details
1. Published 1 May 2014
Lamb survival in Australian flocks: a review

G. N. Hinch and F. Brien

2. Published 6 August 2014
Decreasing methane emissions from ruminants grazing forages: a fit with productive and financial realities?

David Pacheco, Garry Waghorn and Peter H. Janssen

3. Published 19 August 2014
Drives and limits to feed intake in ruminants

Michael S. Allen

4. Published 2 June 2014
Should animal fats be back on the table? A critical review of the human health effects of animal fat

William Barendse

5. Published 1 May 2014
The critical control points for increasing reproductive performance can be used to inform research priorities

J. M. Young, J. Trompf and A. N. Thompson

6. Published 6 August 2014
Challenges in ration formulation in pasture-based milk production systems

J. L. Jacobs

7. Published 6 August 2014
Consequences of nutrition during gestation, and the challenge to better understand and enhance livestock productivity and efficiency in pastoral ecosystems

Paul L. Greenwood and Alan W. Bell

8. Published 29 October 2014
The challenges and opportunities when integrating animal models into grazing system models for evaluating productivity and environmental impact

R. J. Eckard, V. O. Snow, I. R. Johnson and A. D. Moore

9. Published 1 May 2014
A review of the genetic and epigenetic factors affecting lamb survival

F. D. Brien, S. W. P. Cloete, N. M. Fogarty, J. C. Greeff, M. L. Hebart, S. Hiendleder, J. E. Hocking Edwards, J. M. Kelly, K. L. Kind, D. O. Kleemann, K. L. Plush and D. R. Miller

10. Published 1 April 2014
Interactions between microbial consortia in biofilms: a paradigm shift in rumen microbial ecology and enteric methane mitigation

R. A. Leng

11. Published 2 March 2015
Monitoring liveweight in sheep is a valuable management strategy: a review of available technologies

D. J. Brown, D. B. Savage, G. N. Hinch and S. Hatcher

12. Published 19 August 2014
Recent developments in lipid metabolism in ruminants – the role of fat in maintaining animal health and performance

Beate Hiller

13. Published 19 August 2014
Antioxidant dynamics in the live animal and implications for ruminant health and product (meat/milk) quality: role of vitamin E and selenium

Surinder S. Chauhan, Pietro Celi, Eric N. Ponnampalam, Brian J. Leury, Fan Liu and Frank R. Dunshea

14. Published 1 May 2014
Increasing weight gain during pregnancy results in similar increases in lamb birthweights and weaning weights in Merino and non-Merino ewes regardless of sire type

B. L. Paganoni, M. B. Ferguson, G. A. Kearney and A. N. Thompson

15. Published 6 August 2014
How feasible is it to replace urea with nitrates to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from extensively managed beef cattle?

M. J. Callaghan, N. W. Tomkins, I. Benu and A. J. Parker

16. Published 6 August 2014
The nexus between nutrient metabolism, oxidative stress and inflammation in transition cows

L. M. Sordillo and V. Mavangira

17. Published 19 August 2014
Win–win strategies for high beef quality, consumer satisfaction, and farm efficiency, low environmental impacts and improved animal welfare

J. F. Hocquette, R. Botreau, I. Legrand, R. Polkinghorne, D. W. Pethick, M. Lherm, B. Picard, M. Doreau and E. M. C. Terlouw

18. Published 29 October 2014
Prediction of nitrogen use in dairy cattle: a multivariate Bayesian approach

K. F. Reed, L. E. Moraes, J. G. Fadel, D. P. Casper, J. Dijkstra, J. France and E. Kebreab

19. Published 19 August 2014
New ways of measuring intake, efficiency and behaviour of grazing livestock

Paul L. Greenwood, Philip Valencia, Leslie Overs, David R. Paull and Ian W. Purvis

20. Age and season effects on quality of diets selected by Criollo crossbred goats on rangeland

Leticia Gaytán, Abdel-Fattah Z. M. Salem, Alvaro Rodríguez, Jose E. García, Jose R. Arévalo and Miguel Mellado


      
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