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Animal Production Science is an international journal publishing original research and reviews on the production of food, fibre and pharmaceuticals from animals. More

Editor-in-Chief: Wayne Bryden

 
 
 

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Published online 23 September 2014
The Cooperative Research Centre for Beef Genetic Technologies: using the Impact Tool to evaluate realised and anticipated benefits, 2005/06–2020/21 
G. R. Griffith and H. M. Burrow

The Beef CRC operated for its third successive 7-year term from July 2005 to June 2012. The purpose of this paper is to determine how well the third-term Beef CRC met its objectives, at the end of its funding period, using the Impact Tool. Based on estimated NPVs and BCRs, investing in the Beef CRC is expected to have been profitable. The paper concludes with some lessons learnt from working with the Impact Tool.

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Published online 23 September 2014
Modelling the maximum potential of nitrogen deposition and requirements of lysine for broilers 
Juliano Cesar De Paula Dorigam, Nilva Kazue Sakomura, Edney Pereira Da Silva and João Batista Kochenborger Fernandes

Modelling nitrogen deposition based on a bird’s weight rather than age allows the estimation of amino acid requirements to achieve a specific weight that is desirable to poultry producers. In this study, we developed a dynamic model to predict nitrogen deposition that provides consistent estimates of lysine requirements to design nutritional strategies. This dynamic model opens an alternative way to study the bird’s potential for nitrogen deposition and amino acid requirements without the need to apply destructive methods.

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Published online 18 September 2014
The movement pattern of horses around race meetings in New Zealand 
S. M. Rosanowski, C. W. Rogers, C. F. Bolwell and N. Cogger

In New Zealand, the speed at which an infectious disease could spread through the horse population would be economically devastating, particularly for participants of the racing industry. In an outbreak, prior knowledge about the potential pathways of spread enables control to be one step ahead of disease. This descriptive study highlights the potential importance of racehorses in disease spread as a result of the frequency and distance associated with the movement of horses to race meetings.

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Published online 18 September 2014
Evaluation of fructosamine as a new biomarker for diagnosis of hepatic lipidosis in dairy cows 
Masoud Mostafavi, Hesam A. Seifi, Mehrdad Mohri and Abdullah Jamshidi

Fatty liver is a significant metabolic disorder in the dairy industry and a major risk factor for decreased average lifetime of cows. We investigated how the measurement of serum fructosamine, as a non-invasive diagnostic tool, could aid the early diagnosis of hepatic lipidosis. Our results indicate that the measurement of fructosamine could facilitate the diagnosis of fatty liver in dairy cows.

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Published online 17 September 2014
Comparison of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) with crossbred and purebred Brahman cattle for growth performance on savannah and slaughter traits at four ages in Venezuela 
A. Rodas-González, N. Huerta-Leidenz, A. Vidal, O. Colina, J. Lopez and R. Rodriguez

This trial provides a fair comparison between Murrah crossbred water buffalo and Brahman-influenced cattle, raised under savannah conditions, in growth and slaughter traits at four age endpoints (7, 17, 19 and 24 months). Buffalo had lower dressing yield but consistently outperformed cattle in growth and carcass traits. Buffalo may offer advantages for meat production under extensive tropical conditions.

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Published online 17 September 2014
A review of the genetic and non-genetic factors affecting extended lactation in pasture-based dairy systems 
Mary Abdelsayed, Peter C. Thomson and Herman W. Raadsma

Over the past 50 years, selection of cows with high milk production potential has increased, and with this increase has come decreases in reproductive performance. As a management option, superior-yielding cows that have failed to get into calf in a traditional 12-month calving system may be carried over and milked continuously for another 6 months (18–month calving system) instead of being culled. This review provides information and insight on what is currently known about extended lactation; examines the potential for genetic improvement; and details both genetic and non-genetic factors that need to be considered when selecting cows suitable for extended lactation, targeting especially Australian pastured systems. Such findings will help the dairy industry make better selection decisions when breeding for extended lactation and provide breeding tools to help achieve this.

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Published online 15 September 2014
Plane of nutrition of Corriedale ewe lambs from foetal life to the onset of breeding affects weight at service and reproductive outcome 
L. Piaggio, H. Deschenaux, F. Baldi, S. Fierro, G. Quintans and G. Banchero

Sheep managed on native pastures are exposed to heterogeneous species of grasses with different distribution and quality, which frequently render lambs unable to reproduce in their first year of age. This experiment evaluated differential nutrition at three different stages during female lambs’ first year of life. From the phases studied, growth rate after weaning and liveweight achieved at the onset of breeding better explained the successful pregnancy of ewe lambs.

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Published online 15 September 2014
A new simple method for estimating the pork carcass mass of primal cuts and lean meat content of the carcass 
Dariusz Lisiak, Kamil Duziński, Piotr Janiszewski, Karol Borzuta and Damian Knecht

There is no simple, affordable method to determine the size of primal cuts of lean meat using linear measurements. The aim of this study was the development of equations to predict lean meat content, and masses of ham, loin, shoulder and belly. Equations were developed for estimating meat content with greater accuracy than most classification devices. Based on simple measurements, these equations may obtain valuable information for the meat industry.

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Published online 15 September 2014
Lactoferrin gene variants, their expression in the udder and mastitis susceptibility in dairy cattle 
Adrianna Pawlik, Grażyna Sender, Magdalena Sobczyńska, Agnieszka Korwin-Kossakowska, Henryka Lassa and Jolanta Oprządek

One of the proposed methods of dairy cattle udder inflammation control is the selection of animals less prone to infection by using genetic markers. The study’s aim was to investigate the feasibility of two single nucleotide polymorphisms, placed in the 5′-flanking region and 3′-untranslated region of the bovine lactoferrin gene, to serve as mastitis markers. It was shown that both polymorphisms significantly influence lactoferrin content in milk, and that one of them (LF+32) is associated with the cow’s estimated breeding value for somatic cell count and could potentially be used as a molecular marker for mastitis resistance in dairy cows.

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Published online 15 September 2014
Effects of large or small furnished cages on performance, welfare and egg quality of laying hens 
Fanyu Meng, Donghua Chen, Xiang Li, Jianhong Li and Jun Bao

Furnished cage type is concerned with productivity, welfare and egg quality of lying hens. The effects of large and small furnished cages on layer hens were studied and the results showed that the hens in LFC had lower productivity, higher egg quality and better welfare than those in SFC and CC. The study provided further information for furnished cage design.

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Published online 15 September 2014
Dietary phosphate equivalence of four forms of Pi contrasted with a novel microbial phytase from Citrobacter braakii in broiler chickens 
A. J. Cowieson, F. Fru-Nji and O. Adeola

Broiler diets are typically formulated to either available or digestible phosphorus concentrations and in many cases these two terms are used synonymously. However, available phosphorus is a relative term that is dependent on a reference inorganic phosphorus source and so can vary. The present experiment assessed the relative digestibility of various inorganic phosphorus sources, observed differences in bioefficacy and provided contrasting information for diet design and phytase inclusion strategies.

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Published online 15 September 2014
Effect of fescue toxicosis on whole body energy and nitrogen balance, in situ degradation and ruminal passage rates in Holstein steers 
A. F. Koontz, D. H. Kim, K. R. McLeod, J. L. Klotz and D. L. Harmon

Fescue toxicosis results in decreased growth in livestock and is a major economic problem for producers. This study indicates that despite subtle changes in metabolism occurring feed intake and not feed utilisation is the major cause of the decreased growth that occurs during toxicosis. Factors that contribute to the decreased intake must be overcome to alleviate this syndrome.

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Published online 15 September 2014
Gossypol was not detected in the longissimus muscle of lambs fed several forms of cottonseed 
P. G. Viana, P. M. T. Lima, T. P. Paim, J. R. Souza, A. M. M. Dantas, E. F. Pereira, V. Gonçalves, C. McManus, A. L. Abdalla and H. Louvandini

Cottonseed by-products are alternative feedstuffs that may be successfully fed to ruminants; however, their use is limited by gossypol, a toxic compound present in the cottonseed plant that affects animals and humans. This study evaluated productive and health parameters, as well as the presence of gossypol residues in the meat of lambs fed cottonseed by-products. The results obtained were satisfactory and no gossypol residues were found in meat, demonstrating the potential of these by-products as feedstuffs for lambs.

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Published online 15 September 2014
Dietary supplementation with sunflower seeds and vitamin E for fattening lambs improves the fatty acid profile and oxidative stability of the Longissimus lumborum 
Fabiana Alves de Almeida, Américo Garcia da Silva Sobrinho, Gabriela Milani Manzi, Natália Ludmila Lins Lima, Viviane Endo and Nivea Maria Brancacci Lopes Zeola

The inclusion of oil seeds in the diet of ruminants can improve the health quality of their meat. This was verified when we supplemented fattening lambs with sunflower seeds and vitamin E; the lamb meat had a higher amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Considering the current demand for healthy food, inclusion of these ingredients in the lamb diet is advantageous.

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Published online 15 September 2014
Polymerisation effects of four microsatellites on litter size in Xinong Saanen goats 
J. X. Hou, J. G. Wang, X. P. An, G. Q. Zhu and B. Y. Cao

In the goat industry, litter size is extremely important. Polymerisation effects of four microsatellites (OarAE101, BM1329, BM143 and LSCV043) significantly affected litter size of goats. The four microsatellites could serve as a genetic marker for litter size in goat breeding.

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Published online 04 September 2014
Using a modelling approach to evaluate two options for improving animal nitrogen use efficiency and reducing nitrous oxide emissions on dairy farms in southern Australia 
K. M. Christie, R. P. Rawnsley, M. T. Harrison and R. J. Eckard

Modelling two options to improve the nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) to subsequently reduce nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions for three southern Australian dairy regions found that reducing the N concentration of supplementary feed, to better balance the overall diet N concentration, reduced N2O emissions by an order of magnitude greater than increasing the amount of N exported in milk.

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Published online 03 September 2014
Precision of estimating individual feed intake of grazing animals offered low, declining pasture availability 
Margaret Lukuyu, David R. Paull, William H. Johns, Dominic Niemeyer, Jessica McLeod, Bruce McCorkell, Darryl Savage, Ian W. Purvis and Paul L. Greenwood

The challenge of measuring intake of individual grazing animals may be overcome using wireless sensor networks (WSN). However, there is need for benchmark data to underpin the necessary algorithm development. Pasture disappearance and chemical marker-based techniques may be used to provide such data. This study showed the need for further refinement of these techniques, and studies over a wide range of pasture conditions, in order to understand the limits within which they will produce reliable results.

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Published online 03 September 2014
BeefSpecs fat calculator to assist decision making to increase compliance rates with beef carcass specifications: evaluation of inputs and outputs 
M. J. McPhee, B. J. Walmsley, D. G. Mayer and V. H. Oddy

This study evaluated the BeefSpecs fat calculator, a decision support system developed to assist the beef industry increase compliance rates with carcass specifications. BeefSpecs fat calculator accurately predicted final P8 fat in two datasets (Bos taurus and Bos taurus × Bos indicus steers). Sensitivity analysis indicated that increasing the accuracy of estimating frame score and P8 fat has the potential to significantly improve the profitability of the beef industry.

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Published online 03 September 2014
Predicting feed intake and liveweight gain of Ongole (Bos indicus) cattle in Indonesia 
D. E. Mayberry, T. M. Syahniar, R. Antari, G. P. Ningrum, Marsetyo, D. Pamungkas and D. P. Poppi

The beef industry uses animal models to formulate animal rations and predict animal performance. We evaluated the precision and accuracy of two models in predicting the feed intake and liveweight gain of Ongole (Bos indicus) cattle kept under Indonesian conditions. The Large Ruminant Nutrition System provided better predictions of animal performance, and it appears suitable for use in Indonesian production systems.

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Published online 02 September 2014
Development of the BeefSpecs fat calculator to assist decision making to increase compliance rates with beef carcass specifications 
B. J. Walmsley, M. J. McPhee and V. H. Oddy

The BeefSpecs fat calculator is a decision support system underpinned by a research model run in conjunction with a translation process that converts inputs recorded in live animal and carcass assessment language into research model parameters. The outputs produced by BeefSpecs include final live weight, final subcutaneous fat depth and hot standard carcass weight which are traits used to determine carcass value in the domestic and international markets.

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Published online 02 September 2014
Prediction of nitrogen use in dairy cattle: a multivariate Bayesian approach 
K. F. Reed, L. E. Moraes, J. G. Fadel, D. P. Casper, J. Dijkstra, J. France and E. Kebreab

There is no simple, affordable method to determine the size of primal cuts of lean meat using linear measurements. The aim of this study was the development of equations to predict lean meat content, and masses of ham, loin, shoulder and belly. Equations were developed for estimating meat content with greater accuracy than most classification devices. Based on simple measurements, these equations may obtain valuable information for the meat industry.

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Published online 02 September 2014
Development of mathematical models to predict volume and nutrient composition of fresh manure from lactating Holstein cows 
J. A. D. Ranga Niroshan Appuhamy, L. E. Moraes, C. Wagner-Riddle, D. P. Casper, J. France and E. Kebreab

Ammonia and methane emissions from dairy farms could be accurately predicted if volume and nutrient composition of manure are known. A set of empirical equations was developed for predicting nutrient excretions in faeces and urine from lactating Holstein cows. The equations could predict the nutrient excretions with appreciable accuracy, when evaluated with an independent set of observations.

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Published online 02 September 2014
The potential of diverse pastures to reduce nitrogen leaching on New Zealand dairy farms 
P. C. Beukes, P. Gregorini, A. J. Romera, S. L. Woodward, E. N. Khaembah, D. F. Chapman, F. Nobilly, R. H. Bryant, G. R. Edwards and D. A. Clark

We used models in an attempt to scale the results from component studies up to farm and over a full season to evaluate the potential of diverse pastures (mixtures of ryegrass, herbs and legumes) to reducing nitrogen leaching. The combined reduction in urinary nitrogen load and concentration in farm systems with 20% or 50% of the land in diverse pastures has the potential to reduce nitrogen leaching by 11% or 19%.

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Published online 01 September 2014
Brief history and future of animal simulation models for science and application 
J. L. Black

Future animal enterprises are envisaged to include simulation models for real-time control of management systems to optimise animal productivity, carcass quality, health, welfare and to maximise profit. Animal simulation models have evolved over the last 100 years to include detailed representation of nutrient metabolism under varying environments and include components necessary for enterprise decision making. Models require further development to better predict feed intake, methyl group requirements and health status, as well as real-time integration into practical farming operations.

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Published online 01 September 2014
Good science for improving policy: greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural manures 
Chris Pratt, Matthew Redding, Jaye Hill, Andrew Shilton, Matthew Chung and Benoit Guieysse

Agricultural manures have been thought to be a relatively minor greenhouse gas (GHG) emission source within Australasia’s agricultural sector. However, our review revealed omissions and assumptions in current manure emission GHG estimates that, when accounted for, could mean that manures are indeed a major GHG emission source. The encouraging news is that several ‘close-to-market’ options exist to mitigate these emissions.

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Published online 29 August 2014
The production of acetate, propionate and butyrate in the rumen of sheep: fitting models to 14C- or 13C-labelled tracer data to determine synthesis rates and interconversions 
J. V. Nolan, R. A. Leng, R. C. Dobos and R. C. Boston

Volatile fatty acids (VFA) produced in the rumen, e.g. acetic acid, are the major sources of energy for ruminants. We describe a modelling procedure that enables data obtained when tracer VFA are infused intraruminally to be used to quantify VFA production rates (and their interconversions) in the rumen. The results enhance our understanding of how resident microorganisms digest feeds in the rumen.

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Published online 29 August 2014
Comparison of in vivo and in silico growth performance and variability in pigs when applying a feeding strategy designed by simulation to control the variability of slaughter weight 
L. Brossard, B. Vautier, J. van Milgen, Y. Salaun and N. Quiniou

Variability of bodyweight among pigs complicates management decisions related to feeding and slaughter; growth models that account for variability can be used to test and to propose feeding strategies to control this variability. This study demonstrates this concept and confirms its applicability in an in vivo experiment. Decision support tools based on such a modelling approach can be developed to propose feeding strategies allowing reaching target levels of performance in many fields (growth rate, economy and environmental impact).

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Published online 29 August 2014
Development of a dynamic, mechanistic model of nutritional and reproductive processes in dairy cattle 
K. Huber, A. Kenez, J. P. McNamara and S. L. Shields

A biochemical, mechanistic, dynamic model of adipose tissue metabolism was developed and integrated with an existing metabolic model. The model of metabolism (Molly, UCDavis) was integrated with a model of estrous cyclicity explicitly through IGFI and steroid degradation in the liver. The model demonstrates the effects of changes in adipose tissue and liver metabolism during lactation on reproductive cyclicity.

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Published online 29 August 2014
Modelling the reduction in enteric methane from voluntary intake versus controlled individual animal intake of lipid or nitrate supplements 
David Cottle and Richard Eckard

This paper presents methane modelling results and tests the hypothesis that individual animal-controlled feeding of the supplement would result in higher enteric methane abatement than uncontrolled feeding or voluntary intake. Controlled feeding, with all animals either having the same average supplement intake or having a controlled maximum intake, resulted in higher herd- or flock-scale methane abatement than did voluntary intake feeding. Thus, supplementation aimed at reducing enteric methane is more effectively administered through some form of controlled feeding which will also be less likely to lead to excessive intake, wastage and adverse animal impacts.

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Published online 29 August 2014
Modelling pasture management and livestock genotype interventions to improve whole-farm productivity and reduce greenhouse gas emissions intensities 
Matthew T. Harrison, Karen M. Christie, Richard P. Rawnsley and Richard J. Eckard

Prima facie evidence suggests that both increasing agricultural food production and reducing greenhouse gas emissions is a polarised goal. We used a whole-farm modelling approach to investigate management and genetic interventions to prime lamb enterprises that might increase production and reduce or maintain net farm emissions. Strategies satisfying this aim were those that increased the proportion of juveniles to adults but did not alter annual average stocking rate. Such interventions hold promise for sustainably intensifying agricultural productivity.

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Published online 29 August 2014
The challenges and opportunities when integrating animal models into grazing system models for evaluating productivity and environmental impact 
R. J. Eckard, V. O. Snow, I. R. Johnson and A. D. Moore

Whole-farm systems modelling of livestock production systems should include appropriate consideration of the grazing animal. This raises challenges with modelling nutrients in dung and urine, grazing behaviour, dry matter intake and enteric methane loss, as examples. This paper discusses these challenges and opportunities when integrating animal models into grazing system models for evaluating productivity and environmental impact.

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Published online 12 August 2014
Effect of conception date and hind nutrition on fetal growth trajectory and gestation length of red deer (Cervus elaphus) 
I. C. Scott, G. W. Asher, N. Jopson, N. Cox, J. A. Archer, D. R. Stevens and G. K. Barrell

In farmed venison production systems in New Zealand, early summer calving often results in a misalignment between pasture availability and energy demand of the lactating hind. Attempts to achieve early calving by advancing conception date are partly mitigated by a negative association between conception date and gestation length. This study has demonstrated that gestation length is shortened in hinds that receive an ad libitum diet of high quality food during the third trimester of gestation.

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Published online 12 August 2014
A comparison of growth, carcass traits, and tissue composition of ‘Segureña’ lambs raised either in an extensive production system or an intensive one 
E. Armero and A. Falagán

Current society shows an increasing interest in traditional production systems: related to rural development, animal welfare and healthier products. The aim of this work was to raise ‘Segureña’ lambs on pasture with salt-tolerant forages, however lambs showed lower growth rate and carcasses with poorer conformation scores than those raised in an intensive system. Supplementation with concentrates in grazing systems seems to be necessary to improve lambs’ performance in semiarid regions.

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Published online 26 June 2014
Productivity results and physiological response of the gastrointestinal tract of rabbits fed diets containing rapeseed cake and wheat distillers dried grains with solubles 
A. Gugołek, J. Juśkiewicz, P. Wyczling, D. Kowalska, J. Strychalski, M. Konstantynowicz and C. Zwoliński

Biofuel industry generates vast amounts of plant by-products, including rapeseed cake (RC) and distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS). The aim of study was to determine whether RC and wheat DDGS can be used as components of diets for rabbits. Our study demonstrated that 5% RC can be incorporated into rabbit dietary as a substitute of soybean meal. Because the productivity of rabbits fed 2.5% of DDGS (with 2.5% RC) was comparable to the 5% RC, the incorporation of up to 2.5% wheat DDGS to a diet should also be taken as a dietary option. The higher content of DDGS (5%) in the diet deteriorated the growth of rabbits.

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Published online 26 June 2014
Impact of simulated heat stress on growth, physiological adaptability, blood metabolites and endocrine responses in Malpura ewes under semiarid tropical environment 
S. Indu, V. Sejian and S. M. K. Naqvi

The study was conducted to observe the impact of simulated heat-stress model on productive and adaptive capability of Malpura ewes. Compared with constant heat-stress models, the simulated model inflicts less severe physiological strain as evidenced by relatively lower changes in the heat-stress markers such as RR, RT and plasma cortisol. However, their growth and reproductive performance are compromised during the process of adaptation.

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Published online 26 June 2014
Source and frequency of dry season lipid supplementation of finishing grazing cattle 
Márcia Cristina Araújo Santana, Bruno Ramalho Vieira, Diogo Fleury Costa, Paulo Henrique Moura Dian, Giovani Fiorentini, Roberta Carrilho Canesin, Gener Tadeu Pereira, Ricardo Andrade Reis and Telma Teresinha Berchielli

This paper is about the inclusion of ingredients of soybean origin in supplements and the frequency of supplementation of grazing cattle during the drier periods of the year, evaluating the effects on animal performance. The main finding was that frequency of supplementation did not affect the weight gain of cattle, but suggested that supplementation could be done 3 days a week opposed to daily, and would decrease production costs.

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Published online 13 June 2014
Establishment of optimum regression model and determination of relationships between body measurements and slaughter traits in Japanese quails by path analysis 
Fatih Uckardes, Dogan Narinc and Hande Kucukonder

Path analysis was used to investigate effects of some morphological measurements on slaughter and carcass traits. The direct effect of bodyweight on carcass weight was the strongest and positively influenced (P < 0.01). Finally, the optimum multiple regression equation on carcass weight was found bodyweight as R2 of 0.7463.

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Published online 13 June 2014
Effects of weaning beef cattle in two stages or by abrupt separation on nasal abrasions, behaviour, and weight gain 
Christian Lambertz, Peter R. Bowen, Georg Erhardt and Matthias Gauly

As an alternative to traditional weaning by abrupt separation, weaning beef calves in two stages by fitting nose flaps to prevent nursing before the final separation might reduce the stress response. Although two-stage weaning positively influenced the post-weaning behaviour of the calves and cows, the devices caused heavy irritations of the nasal septum. Therefore, the design of the anti-suckling devices and the period the devices are fitted should be modified in order to minimise nasal abrasions.

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Published online 13 June 2014
Evaluating rates of technology adoption and milking practices on New Zealand dairy farms 
J. P. Edwards, B. T. Dela Rue and J. G. Jago

Milk harvesting is a fundamental component of dairy farming, requiring significant labour input. Consequently, with increasing herd sizes, there is a constant drive to improve milking efficiency. Explaining differences in milking efficiency by monitoring milking practices and the adoption of new technologies can, therefore, be beneficial to the industry. The results of this work indicate the use of technology was associated with greater labour efficiency but the potential benefits of each technology require careful evaluation to ensure appropriate selection decisions are made by farmers to meet their requirements.

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Published online 13 June 2014
Evaluation of the efficacy of sequential or continuous administration of probiotics and phytogenics in broiler diets 
K. C. Mountzouris, P. Tsirtsikos, G. Papadomichelakis, G. Schatzmayr and K. Fegeros

The search for solutions to safeguard animal performance and health while reducing antibiotic usage currently attracts worldwide interest. While certain feed additives such as probiotics and phytogenics show promising results, tailoring additive combinations as part of an overall efficacious dietary strategy is largely undeveloped. Our results support the concept of sequential or throughout probiotic and phytogenic administration as being beneficial for broiler performance and broiler antioxidant status, worth of further investigation.

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Published online 27 May 2014
Age and season effects on quality of diets selected by Criollo crossbred goats on rangeland 
Leticia Gaytán, Abdel-Fattah Z. M. Salem, Alvaro Rodríguez, Jose E. García, Jose R. Arévalo and Miguel Mellado

In the arid zones of Mexico young kids graze/browse together with their mothers on rangeland. It is unknown if goat kids discern between forages, therefore the aim was to find out if 4-week-old goat kids display an efficient foraging behavior. Kids ingested a diet richer in nutrients than mature goats; thus, herbage selection seems to be shaped by physiological effort.

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Published online 27 May 2014
Effects of feeding various levels of full fat soybean extruded at high temperature on performance, serum components and intestinal morphology of broiler chickens 
Safa Zhaleh, Abolghasem Golian, Seyed Ali Mirghelenj, Avisa Akhavan and Abdollah Akbarian

The present paper reports on application of extruded full fat soybean (EFFSB) in broiler diet to identify its potential toward improving production performance criteria. The FFSB extruded at 170°C had acceptable protein solubility in KOH, indicating a good EFFSB. The latter in turn indicates an optimum balance between degradation of ANFs and maintaining the bioavailability of essential amino acids, hence having the potential to exert positive effect on blood metabolites and intestinal morphology of broilers at market age.

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Published online 20 May 2014
Effects of black seed oil and Ferula elaeochytris supplementation on ruminal fermentation as tested in vitro with the rumen simulation technique (Rusitec) 
F. Klevenhusen, K. Deckardt, Ö. Sizmaz, S. Wimmer, A. Muro-Reyes, R. Khiaosa-ard, R. Chizzola and Q. Zebeli

Plant extracts in ruminant diets might have beneficial effects on nutrient degradation in the rumen while mitigating methane production. In this study the main bioactive components of black seed (Nigella sativa) oil and of the root powder of Ferula elaeochytris were identified and their effects were investigated in an incubation system. No significant changes on nutrient degradation and methane formation were observed, possibly depending on the low dosages tested.

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Published online 20 May 2014
Welfare of recently weaned piglets transported on unpaved roads: the effect of age and the use of straw bedding 
P. Roldan-Santiago, D. Mota-Rojas, H. Orozco-Gregorio, F. Borderas-Tordesillas, R. Martínez-Rodríguez, P. Mora-Medina, S. Flores-Peinado, M. Sánchez-Hernández and M. E. Trujillo-Ortega

At weaning, the welfare of piglets may decrease because they are exposed to several stressors.

The objective was to assess the physiological response of piglets weaned at three different ages under two different trip conditions. Piglets transported immediately after weaning at Ages 8, 15 and 22 days present significant metabolic, hydric and gas exchange imbalances.

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Published online 20 May 2014
Effect of different concentrations of trehalose and glycerol on the freezability of ram semen using soybean lecithin-based diluents 
Zh. Bohlool, M. Mohammadi, M. Roostaei-Ali Mehr and N. Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh

To improve the spermatozoa fertility, cryodamages must be decreased by using suitable diluents and cryopreservation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different levels of trehalose and glycerol on the freezing process of ram semen, when lecithin is used as cryoprotectant. It was concluded that simultaneous use of glycerol and trehalose had a desirable effect on motility of ram frozen–thawed sperm.

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Published online 20 May 2014
Re-used progesterone devices efficiently synchronise oestrus and ovulation after autoclaving process in Toggenburg goats during the breeding season 
J. M. G. Souza-Fabjan, C. A. A. Torres, A. L. R. S. Maia, F. Z. Brandão, E. Oba, M. J. Bertoldo and J. F. Fonseca

As protocols for oestrus synchronisation shortened the time of exposure to progesterone, CIDR devices were able to be reused; however, they can be a health risk. This study demonstrated that new and previously used (and autoclaved) devices are equally effective for synchronisation of oestrus and ovulation during the breeding season in goats. This approach decreases the cost of oestrus synchronisation program and makes it more economically feasible for producers.

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Published online 20 May 2014
Possible involvement of myo-inositol in the physiological response of broilers to high doses of microbial phytase 
A. J. Cowieson, R. Aureli, P. Guggenbuhl and F. Fru-Nji

Although myo-inositol is proportionately equivalent to phosphorus in phytic acid, its contribution to the observed beneficial effects of phytase in poultry and swine nutrition is obscure. Evidence is presented herein to show substantial increases in myo-inositol concentrations in the plasma of poultry in response to phytase addition. As myo-inositol has recently been shown to be an insulin-mimetic, links between insulin pathways, glucose uptake, protein accretion and exogenous phytase are drawn.

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Published online 20 May 2014
Effect of soybean roasting and monensin on microbial protein synthesis, ruminal parameters and plasma metabolites of lactating dairy cows 
E. Abdi, F. Fatahnia, M. Dehghan Banadaki, A. Azarfar and S. G. Mosavi

Rumen degradation of dietary proteins should be minimised using appropriate feed additives and/or technological processing. We hypothesised that supplementing dairy cow ration with monensin and roasting whole soybean seed improves microbial protein synthesized in the rumen; however, such an effect was not observed in the present study. Interactions between the type of technological processing and monensin supplementation should be further investigated

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Published online 20 May 2014
Mediterranean river buffalo CSN1S1 gene: search for polymorphisms and association studies 
G. Cosenza, A. Pauciullo, N. P. P. Macciotta, E. Apicella, R. Steri, A. La Battaglia, L. Jemma, A. Coletta, D. Di Berardino and L. Ramunno

The αs1-casein is the most polymorphic milk protein and its genetic variants influence the quali-quantitative characteristics and the technological properties of the milk. This study investigates the genetic variability at the CSN1S1 in the Mediterranean buffalo. A significant association between the c.628C>T SNP and the protein percentage was found. This result offers useful indications for future applications of marker-assisted selection programmes.

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Published online 15 May 2014
Effects of two different forage sources on mammary gland growth, mammary cell turnover and activity in early lactation dairy cows 
Tong Qin, Haoyu Wang, Dengpan Bu, Haisheng Hao, Dong Wang and Huabin Zhu

The forage system is critically important to lactation performance in dairy cows. Our results suggested that the expression of IGF-1R in the mammary glands and the number of mammary cells is significantly affected by forage system, and this is closely related to the milk production in early lactation cows. This research provided the basis for better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of lactation regulation.

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Published online 15 May 2014
Micro-encapsulated sodium butyrate attenuates oxidative stress induced by corticosterone exposure and modulates apoptosis in intestinal mucosa of broiler chickens 

Under the conditions of intensive farming, it is very important to improve poultry health. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of micro-encapsulated sodium butyrate (MSB)on oxidative stress and apoptosis in the intestinal mucosa of broilers and the main discovery was that dietary MSB can partially attenuate oxidative stress induced by corticosterone treatment and inhibit apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells. This could confirm again that nutritional regulation of pre-slaughter stress through feed additives may provide a simple way to improve poultry health.

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Published online 08 May 2014
Dietary chromium picolinate of varying particle size improves carcass characteristics and insulin sensitivity in finishing pigs fed low- and high-fat diets 
A. T. Hung, B. J. Leury, M. A. Sabin, T. F. Lien and F. R. Dunshea

The effects of Cr in pigs have been equivocal. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different-sized particles of CrPic in gilts; the results showed that small-sized particles CrPic improves carcass characteristics when pigs fed a high fat diet. Dietary supplement with small-sized particle CrPic can provide beneficial effects, particularly in high-fat diets.

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Published online 08 May 2014
The effects of chronic nitrate supplementation on erythrocytic methaemoglobin reduction in cattle 
I. Godwin, L. Li, K. Luijben, N. Oelbrandt, J. Velazco, J. Miller and R. Hegarty

Cattle fed nitrate risk methaemoglobinaemia, but with chronic feeding their red cells increase their ability to reduce methaemoglobin. In vitro studies suggest that phosphate plays a role in aiding the reduction of methaemoglobin and that the metabolic endpoint of red cells changes to maximise substrate availability for methaemoglobin reduction. It appears that both the animal and its rumen microbes adapt to nitrate feeding.

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Published online 08 May 2014
Association of carcass weight with quality and functional properties of beef from Hanwoo steers 
Dinesh D. Jayasena, Ki Chang Nam, Jong Ju Kim, Hyeonju Ahn and Cheorun Jo

Beef producers in Korea try to increase marbling in beef muscles due to higher consumer demand towards such meat. Increasing marbling through extended feeding eventually burdens stakeholders of the beef industry and this study showed that medium (375–425 kg) carcass weight was optimal for achieving superior beef quality. Medium carcasses provide more health benefits at lower cost.

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Published online 08 May 2014
Effects of duration of salt supplementation of sheep on rumen metabolism and the accumulation of elements 
Clive J. C. Phillips, Mohamed O. Mohamed and Paul C. Chiy

Excess salt in the sheep’s diet can impair digestion, but they may adapt to high concentrations in plants by reducing absorption. We found no evidence of adaptation, in fact their rumen developed a reduced ability to maintain a normal pH over time, with implications for accumulation of some elements in the brain and kidney. Thus farmers should beware exposing their sheep to high salt in their feed for prolonged periods.

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Published online 08 May 2014
An animal house study on utilisation of fresh tedera (Bituminaria bituminosa var. albomarginata and crassiuscula) by Merino wethers 
C. M. Oldham, D. Wood, J. Milton, D. Real, P. Vercoe and A. J. van Burgel

Bituminaria bituminosa is a drought-tolerant, perennial legume that has been used for centuries as a part of the mixed sward in grazing systems around the Mediterranean sea and ‘cut and carried’ to feed as hay to dairy goats in the Canary Islands; varieties albomarginata and crassiuscula, commonly known as tedera, are native only to the Canary Islands. In south-western Australia, tedera will likely be directly grazed as green plants to help fill the feed gap in summer–autumn, due to its drought tolerance and capacity to retain green leaves. . Sheep fed fresh tedera exclusively for 34 days readily consumed the forage and remained in good health, they maintained their liveweight (42.5 kg) and body condition (condition score 3) throughout the experiment.

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Published online 05 May 2014
Selection for residual feed intake affects appetite and body composition rather than energetic efficiency 
D. S. Lines, W. S. Pitchford, C. D. K. Bottema, R. M. Herd and V. H. Oddy

Feed costs are the largest single cost in any animal production enterprise with improvements in feed efficiency able to reduce feed costs. This study aimed to understand the basis for feed efficiency measured by residual feed intake and variation in maintenance requirements. The results obtained suggest that body composition, specifically fat deposition, is affected through inherent differences in feed intake or appetite rather than maintenance requirements.

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Published online 01 April 2014
Correlations among various blood parameters at exsanguination and their relationships to pork quality traits 
J. H. Choe, M. H. Choi, Y. C. Ryu, K. S. Lim, E. A. Lee, J. H. Kang, K. C. Hong, S. K. Lee, Y. T. Kim, S. S. Moon, K. W. Lee, M. S. Rhee and B. C. Kim

Measuring blood stress indicators could be useful for improving animal welfare and meat quality. The current study measured various blood parameters from pigs under the standard pre-slaughter conditions using a portable analyser. Higher levels of blood lactate and glucose correlated with decreased pork quality. Therefore, measuring blood lactate and glucose could easily and quickly provide information about pork quality.

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Published online 28 March 2014
Whole-grain feeding for chicken-meat production: possible mechanisms driving enhanced energy utilisation and feed conversion 
Sonia Yun Liu, Ha H. Truong and Peter H. Selle

Whole-grain feeding regimes for chicken-meat production provide economic advantages by reducing feed costs while generating improvements in energy utilisation and feed conversion efficiency; however, the genesis of the performance improvements are not defined. The present paper considers the contexts in which these responses may be best realised. Identifying the drivers will enable the most appropriate WGF strategies to be adopted.

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Published online 28 March 2014
Monthly metabolisable energy feed requirements of crossbred ewes in accelerated and traditional lamb production systems 
N. M. Fogarty

Accelerated lambing potentially increases biological efficiency of lamb production and affects seasonal patterns of feed requirements. Metabolisable energy requirements were used to calculate dry sheep equivalents (DSE) and showed that crossbred ewes in accelerated lambing weaned 16–47% greater weight of lamb per DSE over 4 years than ewes in traditional systems. The increased efficiency of accelerated lambing requires a more consistent feed supply throughout the year.

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Published online 25 March 2014
Furanocoumarins in tedera do not affect ruminal fermentation in continuous culture 
M. H. Ghaffari, Z. Durmic, D. Real, P. Vercoe, G. Smith and C. Oldham

Tedera is a perennial pasture containing secondary compounds that has the potential to be utilised in the farm systems during the summer-autumn feed gap and reducing supplementary feeding. In our study, we showed that tedera was fermented without any adverse effects on digestibility or fermentability. These findings give further support for pursuing tedera as a fodder for growing regions of Australia.

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Published online 20 March 2014
Combining wavelet and linear-regression methods to model the effect of available forage on daily grazing and lying activity of mature Bos indicus cows during summer months 
M. S. Gadberry, W. Whitworth and G. Montgomery

Wavelet and linear regression methods were used to model time-of-day changes in behaviour due to available forage. The study concluded decreasing forage availability resulted in greater lying activity from 1000 to 1300 and greater grazing activity from 1300 to 2100. Understanding the dynamics between forage supply and behaviour could provide decision tools incorporating behaviour into drought management decisions.

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Published online 07 March 2014
Genetic and phenotypic parameter estimates for growth traits of Hainan Black goat in southern China 
Han-Lin Zhou, Li-Hong Gu, Yan-Yan Sun, Tie-Shan Xu and Guang Rong

Knowledge of genetic parameters of economic traits is very crucial to breeding plans. However, there is no information on genetic parameter estimates for many traits of Hainan Black goats. In this study, we estimated the genetic parameters of growth traits of Hainan Black goats using two different animal models of MTDFREML software. The results would greatly improve the breeding plans of Hainan Black goats.

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Published online 07 March 2014
Influence of method of wheat inclusion and pellet diameter on performance, nutrient utilisation, digestive tract measurements and carcass characteristics of broilers 
Y. Singh and V. Ravindran

The influence of pellet diameter and whole wheat inclusion on gizzard development and performance of broilers was investigated. Whole wheat and larger diameter pellets increased the energy utilisation and starch digestibility, but gizzard weights differed depending on the method of whole wheat inclusion. The data showed that improvements associated with whole wheat feeding cannot always be explained on the basis of gizzard development.

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Published online 07 March 2014
Influence of dietary flavours on sheep feeding behaviour and nutrient digestibility 
J. J. Villalba, A. Mereu and I. R. Ipharraguerre

Ruminants ingest a diversity of forages, but in intensive feeding systems they are commonly fed single rations or pastures. The present study suggests that a diversity of flavours presented in the same ration has the potential to stimulate intake and alter eating behaviour in sheep. These effects may in turn contribute to enhance animal production and welfare.

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Published online 25 February 2014
Genetic divergence in residual feed intake affects growth, feed efficiency, carcass and meat quality characteristics of Angus steers in a large commercial feedlot 
R. M. Herd, P. F. Arthur, C. D. K. Bottema, A. R. Egarr, G. H. Geesink, D. S. Lines, S. Piper, J. P. Siddell, J. M. Thompson and W. S. Pitchford

The cost of feed is the largest recurring cost of producing beef. Inherited variation in feed efficiency is known and this experiment was to demonstrate the benefit in a large commercial feedlot of breeding cattle for improved feed efficiency. The results obtained confirm the feed saving advantages of inherited superior feed efficiency and that previously reported trade-offs in carcass traits, while confirmed, were minor.

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Published online 25 February 2014
Assessing the efficiency of using a modern hybrid rye cultivar for pig fattening, with emphasis on production costs and carcass quality 
Tomasz Schwarz, Wiktor Kuleta, Artur Turek, Ryszard Tuz, Jacek Nowicki, Bartosz Rudzki and Pawel M. Bartlewski

The primary goal of this study was to assess the usefulness of rye-containing dry mixes (modern rye cv. Visello) for pig fattening. Feeding the mixes in which a proportion of barley was replaced with the rye grain has yielded significantly better results than barley-containing diets in terms of carcass quality and price. These observations warrant further studies of different rye cultivars to determine their utility in intensive pig farming.

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Published online 21 February 2014
The association between polymorphism of the GH1 gene and changes in protein structure and carcass traits in Mehraban sheep (Ovis aries) 
A. Bahrami, S. R. Miraei-Ashtiani, H. Mehrabani-Yeganeh, H. Banani-Rad and Sh. Behzadi

We report the identification of five SSCP patterns in the sheep GH1 gene. The present study suggests a positive effect of SSCP patterns with carcass traits. We report the identification of two different protein structures in the GH1 protein. The identified SNPs in the GH1 gene could be used as molecular markers.

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Published online 21 February 2014
Comparison of the meat quality, post-mortem muscle energy metabolism, and the expression of glycogen synthesis-related genes in three pig crossbreeds 
H. G. Lei, L. Y. Shen, S. H. Zhang, Z. H. Wu, J. Shen, G. Q. Tang, Y. Z. Jiang, M. Z. Li, L. Bai, X. W. Li and L. Zhu

Pork makes a major contribution to worldwide meat consumption, and ways of improving meat quality are imperative. Variation in the rate of post-mortem pH decline is an important reason for variation in meat quality, but the mechanisms involved are not clear. In our research, we found that post-mortem energy status and metabolism might be important factors in the conversion of muscle to meat and might be important determinants of ultimate meat quality.

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Published online 18 February 2014
Mineral supplementation of lambing ewes grazing dual-purpose wheat 
S. R. McGrath, M. S. Bhanugopan, H. Dove, E. H. Clayton, J. M. Virgona and M. A. Friend

Dual-purpose wheat may be grazed by late-pregnant and lactating ewes during the winter in southern Australia. Results from two experiments with ewes grazing wheat crops during the lambing period identified that wheat forage may contain insufficient calcium, magnesium and sodium to meet ewe requirements. Providing a loose-lick mineral supplement to ewes can increase liveweight gain in twin-born suckling lambs.

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Published online 18 February 2014
Industry benefits from using genomic information in two- and three-tier sheep breeding systems 
B. J. Horton, R. G. Banks and J. H. J. van der Werf

A model of the sheep breeding industry examined the value of genomic information in sheep breeding programs. Benefits can be obtained by both the traditional three-tiered wool industry structure and studs using genomic information and selling directly to commercial producers, with most of the benefits retained by the commercial producers. The proportion of nucleus rams that use genetic tests must be optimised to achieve the maximum economic benefit.

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Published online 18 February 2014
Influence of cardamom essential oils and seeds on growth performance, blood characteristics and immunity of broilers 
Mosa Omidi, Kamran Taherpour, Javad Cheraghi and Hossein A. Ghasemi

The application of herbs and spice products as alternatives to antibiotics in raising broilers is receiving attention. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of cardamom seed and its essential oils on broilers and the results suggested that high levels of cardamom essential oils benefited feed efficiency and cholesterol metabolism. This could meet consumer demand for a safe feed additive.

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Published online 14 February 2014
Bio-economic modelling of decisions under yield and price risk for suckler cow farms 
Simon Briner, Niklaus Lehmann and Robert Finger

The use of maize as a switch crop or the use of markets for roughage are the most efficient strategies to reduce financial risk of suckler cow farming. Applying a bio-economic optimization model we find that these strategies cause only low reductions of average gross margin. Our results also indicate that gross margin insurance is not attractive for farmers.

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Published online 14 February 2014
Spirulina (Spirulina platensis) algae supplementation increases microbial protein production and feed intake and decreases retention time of digesta in the rumen of cattle 
T. Panjaitan, S. P. Quigley, S. R. McLennan, A. J. Swain and D. P. Poppi

Algae are a novel protein source which could be grown on farm to provide a cheap protein supplement to cattle. Algae were compared to urea and sulfur as a nitrogen supplement and markedly increased intake and microbial protein production in cattle, more so than a simple urea and sulfur supplement. Algae are thus a new protein supplement which has the potential to markedly increase liveweight gain of cattle.

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Published online 11 February 2014
Effects of low protein diets on performance of pigs with a lean genotype between 40 and 115 kg liveweight 
L. Bunger, N. R. Lambe, K. McLean, G. Cesaro, G. A. Walling, H. Whitney, S. Jagger, P. Fullarton, C. A. Maltin and J. D. Wood

Effects of reduced dietary protein on performance and nitrogen (N) excretion were assessed to reduce the environmental impact of pig production. Pigs were given a control diet or a diet with reduced protein content, either with (LP1) or without (LP2) amino-acid supplementation. Compared with the control, N excretion was reduced (~18%) in LP1 and LP2, but the feed-conversion ratio was poorer, as was growth in LP2, but not LP1. This indicates the difficulty in maintaining consistently high performance when dietary protein levels are reduced.

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Published online 11 February 2014
Ewe lamb diet selection on plantain (Plantago lanceolata) and on a herb and legume mix, including plantain, chicory (Cichorium intybus), red clover (Trifolium pratense) and white clover (Trifolium repens) 
L. M. Cave, P. R. Kenyon, S. T. Morris, N. Lopez-Villalobos and P. D. Kemp

Within mixed swards containing herbs and legumes, little is known about ewe grazing preference. Ewe diet selection and grazing preference was found to be intrinsically affected by species availability, access and palatability across seasons. Overall, a herb and legume sward may allow livestock to preferentially select specific plants to meet their nutritional requirements at a given time point.

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Published online 11 February 2014
Effect of dietary inclusion level of a multi-species probiotic on broiler performance and two biomarkers of their caecal ecology 
Konstantinos C. Mountzouris, Irida Palamidi, Panagiotis Tsirtsikos, Michaela Mohnl, Gerd Schatzmayr and Konstantinos Fegeros

Nutritional approaches targeting improvement of animal performance and disease prevention are currently warranted and in this respect the dietary intake of beneficial microbes termed probiotics is being actively researched. The level of probiotic inclusion in broiler diets was shown to be relevant for benefits in performance, nutrient digestibility, gut microbiota composition and metabolic activities. Generally, this study supports further the role of probiotics for an improved gut function and as effective alternatives to dietary antibiotic growth promoters used in broilers.

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Published online 11 February 2014
Comparison of objective measures of pork colour traits during ageing of the longissimus muscle from pigs housed organically and conventionally 
J. Álvarez-Rodríguez, M. Tor, D. Cubiló, G. Ripoll, D. Babot and D. Villalba

Pork meat colour stability may differ between conventional and organic (not free-ranging) pig husbandry systems due to on-farm differences in feed ingredients and space allowance. Most objective measures of pork colour during ageing differed between husbandry systems, but canonical discrimination between conventional and organic pork based on colour was not possible. Three days of storage combined the best pork meat colour and haeminic pigment balance.

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Published online 11 February 2014
Monitoring liveweight in sheep is a valuable management strategy: a review of available technologies 
D. J. Brown, D. B. Savage, G. N. Hinch and S. Hatcher

Monitoring ewe liveweight may help farmers make more profitable decisions with regard to the management of their sheep flock. This review brings together the relevant literature demonstrating why sheep liveweight is important, and identifies and assesses available technologies for monitoring sheep liveweight. The findings suggest that walk-over weighing, an emerging liveweight monitoring technology, offers considerable potential to provide sufficiently timely and accurate flock average liveweight data to aid farmer decision making.

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Published online 29 January 2014
Effects of different concentrations of ground oak acorn on growth performance, blood parameters and carcass characteristics of goat kids 
E. Froutan, O. Azizi, G. Sadeghi, F. Fatehi and S. Lashkari

Oak acorns have some adverse effects on animal production, which arise from the presence of some anti-nutritional factors such as tannins and phenolic compounds. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of ground oak acorn as source of hydrolysable tannin on growth performance of goat kids. The levels used had no adverse effect on growth performance.

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Published online 28 January 2014
Effect of dietary potassium supplementation on the calcium absorption capacity in the rumen and abomasum and fractional excretion of urinary minerals in sheep 
M. S. Bhanugopan, W. J. Fulkerson, M. Hyde and D. R. Fraser

High potassium (K) in the diet of sheep and cattle has been implicated in the incidence of milk fever and grass tetany (hypomagnesaemia). The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a high K diet on calcium (Ca) absorption in sheep. The results demonstrate that increased dietary K decreased Ca absorption and decreased magnesium (Mg) status of the sheep. Therefore, levels of both Ca and Mg should be considered when feeding high-K diets to ruminants, to reduce the risk of hypomagnesaemia and hypocalcaemia and to improve livestock health and productivity.

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Published online 28 January 2014
Outcomes of gestation length in relation to farrowing performance in sows and daily weight gain and metabolic profiles in piglets 
D. Mota-Rojas, R. Fierro, P. Roldan-Santiago, H. Orozco-Gregorio, M. González-Lozano, H. Bonilla, R. Martínez-Rodríguez, R. García-Herrera, P. Mora-Medina, S. Flores-Peinado, M. Sánchez and R. Ramírez-Necoechea

Little is known about the length of gestation in sows and its consequences for the health of neonate piglets. The aim of this study was to evaluate uterine activity at farrowing in sows with different gestation lengths, and its effect on the metabolic profile of neonates. Piglets born prematurely had lower birthweights and a higher incidence of apnoea, with severe physiometabolic alterations.

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Published online 14 January 2014
An integrative assay to quantify the nutritional quality of the selected diet of two Mediterranean free-living deer by faecal-FT-NIRS 
S. Tellado and C. Azorit

The cell wall digestibility (CWD) index is a suitable method for diet quality and fibre digestibility estimation. This manuscript provides a detailed description of fecal-NIRS calibrations for CWD ratio determination, which is a useful, non-invasive tool for monitoring variations in the diet quality of Mediterranean deer in their natural environment.

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Published online 14 January 2014
A comparison of deterministic and stochastic models for predicting the impacts of different sheep body lice (Bovicola ovis) management practices 
Brian J. Horton and Anna L. Carew

Models of louse prevalence in sheep were used to identify the management activities most likely to reduce costs associated with lice. The greatest predicted benefits were from improving the efficacy of treatment at shearing, and by greater attention to quarantine against lice entering on purchases or strays. A 25% increase in annual quarantine efficacy was predicted to reduce costs by one-third within 10 years of implementation.

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Published online 14 January 2014
Influence of cereal type and fat source on the performance and fat utilisation of broiler starters 
P. Tancharoenrat, V. Ravindran and G. Ravindran

The influence of cereal type (wheat, maize or sorghum) and fat source (soybean oil or tallow) on the performance and utilisation of fat in young broiler chickens was investigated. The effect of fat source on weight gain of broiler starters differed depending on the cereal base used. It was found that the feed efficiency and fat utilisation were better in birds fed soybean oil diets compared to those fed tallow supplemented diets.

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Published online 14 January 2014
A genetic study on sexual dimorphism of bodyweight in sheep 
Farhad Ghafouri-Kesbi, Ghodratollah Rahimi Mianji, Zarbakht Ansari Pirsaraei, Seyed Hasan Hafezian, Hasan Baneh and Bijan Soleimani

The genetic basis of sexual dimorphism of bodyweight in Zandi sheep was investigated. Except for birthweight, for which estimates of variance components and genetic parameters were higher in females, for other traits, estimates were higher in males. However, regarding direct and maternal effects, none of the differences between the sexes was significant, indicating no need for sex-specific selection strategies.

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Published online 14 January 2014
Prediction of diet quality for sheep from faecal characteristics: comparison of near-infrared spectroscopy and conventional chemistry predictive models 
D. G. Kneebone and G. McL. Dryden

This study evaluated the ability of equations developed from the analysis of faecal material by conventional chemistry, and by near-infrared spectroscopy, to predict intake and digestibility of forages fed with or without supplements. Good agreement between the conventional chemistry and near-infrared spectroscopy methods was evident (according to a 95% limits-of-agreement test), and both predicted the reference values precisely and with small bias.

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Published online 14 January 2014
Flow cytometric and microscopic evaluation of post-thawed ram semen cryopreserved in chemically defined home-made or commercial extenders 
M. Emamverdi, M. Zhandi, A. Zare Shahneh, M. Sharafi, A. Akhlaghi, M. Khodaei Motlagh, F. Dadkhah and N. Dadashpour Davachi

New approaches to improve post-thawed sperm quality in rams are needed. The results of this study showed that Tris-based extender containing 1.5% (w/v) soybean lecithin can maintain post-thawed sperm quality better than other commercial extenders investigated. The findings may be beneficial to improve artificial insemination efficiency in sheep industry.

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Published online 13 January 2014
Factors affecting reproductive performance of dairy cows in a pasture-based, automatic milking system research farm: a retrospective, single-cohort study 
S. Talukder, P. Celi, K. L. Kerrisk, S. C. Garcia and N. K. Dhand

The aim of this study was to highlight the potential risk factors that influence the reproductive outcome in automatic milking systems under pasture based condition. At the reported production levels and milking frequencies for Australian pastured cows, milk yield and milking frequency during 100 days in milk had no effect on reproductive measures. This type of study is important to minimise the reproductive losses by reviewing management strategies in automatic milking systems.

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Published online 13 January 2014
A 'protein bank' of Lotus uliginosus cv. Maku as an alternative to conventional protein supplements for weaned lambs grazing on natural pastures during summer and autumn 
L. Piaggio, M. de J. Marichal and A. Pastorín

Lambs born in spring were weaned in summer when they began to graze natural pastures. In summer, natural pastures commonly present low protein content. Restricted grazing of natural pastures improved with legumes resulted in similar or better performance than supplementation with soybean meal. Including in the feeding plan natural pastures improved with high-protein forage species is an alternative as effective as the supply of soybean meal.

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Published online 13 January 2014
Effect of processing time on the quality of dry-cured ham obtained from a native pig breed (Chato Murciano) 
Eva Salazar, Adela Abellán, José M. Cayuela, Ángel Poto, Francisco Girón, Pilar Zafrilla and Luis Tejada

Dry-cured ham derived from native pig breeds is a highly valued product. The biochemical changes that take place during the processing are responsible of the final sensory characteristics. The effect of a short and a long ripening time on Chato Murciano dry-cured ham quality was studied. Results suggest that an appropriate time of processing is 22 months.

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Published online 13 January 2014
Does producing more product over a lifetime reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase profitability in dairy and wool enterprises? 
Natalie A. Browne, Ralph Behrendt, Ross S. Kingwell and Richard J. Eckard

Greenhouse gas emissions from Australian agriculture are currently at 15% of national emissions and mitigation research is an important way of showing farmers how they might reduce their agricultural emissions. This research uses farm management practices to examine if producing more product across an animal’s lifetime affects emissions and profitability on farm enterprises. The results show that the potential for greater profitability on farm enterprises is driven more by increasing production than from claiming carbon offsets.

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Published online 06 January 2014
Effect of replacing dietary corn with beet pulp on energy partitioning, substrate oxidation and methane production in lactating dairy goats 
C. Ibáñez, M. C. López, P. Criscioni and C. Fernández

Substitution of corn with fibrous by-product into the diets of lactating dairy goats was studied. The fibrous by-product was beet pulp, and higher methane emission was observed than corn diet. Replacing corn with beet pulp did not compromise milk performance in dairy goats.

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Published online 06 January 2014
Effect of varying the proportion of molasses in the diet on intake, digestion and microbial protein production by steers 
D. V. Tuyen, X. M. Tolosa, D. P. Poppi and S. R. McLennan

Molasses is a widely used energy source for cattle in the tropics but the extent to which it supports microbial protein production in the rumen is unclear. This study investigated the effect of increasing the molasses content in the diet of steers on protein synthesis in the rumen and on intake of the animals. Protein synthesis was within expected limits but low intake remains a limitation to cattle production from molasses-based diets.

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Published online 19 December 2013
Milking permission and milking intervals in a pasture-based automatic milking system 
N. A. Lyons, K. L. Kerrisk and S. C. Garcia

Extended milking intervals have a negative effect on milk yield and udder health. Analysis of cow traffic data from an automatic milking system found that previous milking refusal was not the main cause of extended milking intervals. These cows could be sorted to an area close to the dairy; however, management should focus on reducing time cows spend between milkings in any one pasture allocation.

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Published online 16 December 2013
Effect of inulin and mannan-oligosaccharides compared with zinc-bacitracin on growing performance, nutrient digestibility and hematological profiles of growing rabbits 
Y. A. Attia, R. S. Hamed, A. E. Abd El-Hamid, H. A. Shahba and F. Bovera

It is important to identify valuable alternative to antibiotics in rabbit production to control the problem of antibiotic resistance of bacteria. Mannanoligosaccharides and inulin are able to effect similar results to antibiotics in rabbit growth. Mannanoligosaccharides were more effective than inulin at improving rabbit performance during growing.

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Published online 12 December 2013
Effect of dietary ellagic acid supplementation on semen quality parameters in chickens 
M. Shanmugam and S. V. Rama Rao

Ellagic acid present in fruits and nuts has been shown to have antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties. This study aimed to evaluate dietary supplementation of ellagic acid on rooster semen quality. The levels used had no effect on gross semen parameters.

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blank image Animal Production Science
Volume 54 Number 10 2014
Harnessing the Ecology and Physiology of Herbivores

 
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Table of Contents 
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Drives and limits to feed intake in ruminants 
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Michael S. Allen
pp. 1513-1524

The control of energy intake includes mechanisms that act independently, as well as interacting factors that likely affect feeding via their effects on hepatic oxidation. Mechanisms controlling energy intake and partitioning are entwined and inseparable and are affected by type and availability of fuels determined by diet and physiological state. The conceptual model presented in this article might help improve our understanding of control of feeding in ruminant animals.

 
  
 

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Antioxidant dynamics in the live animal and implications for ruminant health and product (meat/milk) quality: role of vitamin E and selenium 
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Surinder S. Chauhan , Pietro Celi , Eric N. Ponnampalam , Brian J. Leury , Fan Liu and Frank R. Dunshea
pp. 1525-1536

Antioxidant dynamics in live animal has implications on ruminant health and product quality. This review article presents the recent developments in understanding the changing dynamics of vitamin E and selenium and their role to improve ruminant production under various metabolic and environmental challenges.The evidence suggest that their role extend beyond the antioxidant functions, when given on higher levels than recommended.

 
  
 

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Win–win strategies for high beef quality, consumer satisfaction, and farm efficiency, low environmental impacts and improved animal welfare 
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J. F. Hocquette , R. Botreau , I. Legrand , R. Polkinghorne , D. W. Pethick , M. Lherm , B. Picard , M. Doreau and E. M. C. Terlouw
pp. 1537-1548

A relevant combination of indicators related to intrinsic and extrinsic quality traits in a prediction model will achieve a global evaluation of overall beef quality. It may also identify win–win strategies between sensory and nutritional quality, farm economic efficiency and social and environmental considerations (such as e.g. carbon footprint, animal welfare, grassland biodiversity, rural development).

 
  
 

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Recent developments in lipid metabolism in ruminants – the role of fat in maintaining animal health and performance 
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Beate Hiller
pp. 1549-1560

The article reviews the current knowledge regarding associations between ruminant lipid metabolism and economically relevant animal health/performance traits. Established concepts to tailor animal lipid metabolism are summarised, and novel analytical/experimental strategies are highlighted that expand traditional application-oriented approaches via improved analysis tools, omics-approaches, cell model systems and systems biology methods.

 
  
 

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Stress, acute phase proteins and immune modulation in calves 
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Cheol-Heui Yun , Peter Wynn and Jong K. Ha
pp. 1561-1568

Accurate characterisation of responses to specific stressors encountered by production animals requires an analysis of key indicators of endocrine, immune and cellular adjustments as the animal strives to sustain homeostasis. Acute phase proteins can provide an important initial indication of the nature of a stressor; when combined with cytokine and cellular immune analyses, the severity of the consequences of a specific stress can be diagnosed. Responses to physical, infectious, metabolic and psychological stressors encountered by calves during their development have been reviewed herein. No single class of molecules or cells has been identified as a definitive diagnostic for any of these stressors, but rather a multi-factorial analysis is required.

 
  
 

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A need for generating sound quantitative data at national levels for feed-efficient animal production 
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Harinder P. S. Makkar and Philippe Ankers
pp. 1569-1574

For enhancing efficiency of feed utilisation at a national level it is imperative to estimate feed resource availability, assess the manner of their utilisation, and generate reliable data on their chemical composition and nutritional value. Approaches and methodologies for achieving these objectives are discussed. Generation of sound data on feed resources is vital for feed-efficient sustainable livestock production.

 
  
 

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Ruminant glycogen metabolism 
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G. E. Gardner , P. McGilchrist and D. W. Pethick
pp. 1575-1583

Glycogen metabolism has commercial relevance within ruminant production systems given its link to dark cutting and other physiological disorders. This paper contrasts ruminant glycogen metabolism in liver and muscle to that of simple stomached species, highlighting differences in their tissue prioritisation for glycogen storage during the post-prandial/post-exercise state. We also demonstrate recent advances in understanding the impacts of genotype, age, and temperament.

 
  
 

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Livestock water productivity: feed resourcing, feeding and coupled feed-water resource data bases 
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Michael Blümmel , Amare Haileslassie , Anandan Samireddypalle , Vincent Vadez and An Notenbaert
pp. 1584-1593

On a daily basis, about 100 times more water is required for livestock feed production than for drinking water. Water requirement for feed production can be reduced four-fold by choosing agricultural byproducts, breeding water-use efficient crops and forages and by closing yield gasp in crop and livestock production. Since feed production results in substantial demand for water it should be linked with water demand estimates.

 
  
 

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NutriPhysioGenomics applications to identify adaptations of cattle to consumption of ergot alkaloids and inorganic versus organic forms of selenium: altered nutritional, physiological and health states? 
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J. C. Matthews and P. J. Bridges
pp. 1594-1604

Two prevalent health challenges of forage-based beef cattle production in south-eastern USA are fescue toxicosis and selenium (Se) deficiency. Using a combination of nutriphysiogenomic and targeted gene approaches our research has characterized tissue-level genomic and protein changes in response to these physiological challenges. Consequently, potential biochemical targets for amelioration by nutritional regimens have been identified.

 
  
 

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Effects of cloprostenol and flurogestone acetate sponge on embryo yields and quality in indigenous ewes in Bangladesh 
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B. F. Zohara , Azizunnesa , M. F. Islam , M. G. S. Alam and F. Y. Bari
pp. 1605-1608

The effects of two doses of cloprostenol and two doses of flurogestone acetate sponge on the onset of oestrus, and embryo recovery and quality in indigenous ewes in Bangladesh were evaluated. The best synchronisation protocol for the recovery of acceptable numbers of normal embryos was a combination of 45 mg FGA with 600 IU PMSG.

 
  
 

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Application of the Wood model to analyse lactation curves of organic dairy sheep farming 
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Juan Carlos Ángeles Hernández , Octavio Castelán Ortega , Benito Albarrán Portillo , Hugo H. Montaldo and Manuel González Ronquillo
pp. 1609-1614

The study was conducted to evaluate the performance of the Wood model to describe the characteristics of lactation curves of dairy ewes under organic management. The Wood model detected that 52.06% of lactation curves had a continuously decreasing shape (atypical curves). A reasonable fit of lactation curve was showed by Wood model, but presented deficiencies of fit in atypical curves.

 
  
 

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Long-term growth of male and female Bali cattle fed Sesbania grandiflora 
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Dahlanuddin , B. S. Ningsih , D. P. Poppi , S. T. Anderson and S. P. Quigley
pp. 1615-1619

The live weight gain (LWG) of male Bali cattle (Bos javanicus) remained relatively constant at ~0.4 kg/day from 12 to 27 months of age, whereas there was a sharp decrease in LWG of females after 18 months of age compared with LWG from 6 to 18 months of age. This demonstrates the sexually dimorphic control of post-pubertal growth in Bali cattle.

 
  
 

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Forage growing as an incentive to improve smallholder beef production in Cambodia 
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R. D. Bush , J. R. Young , S. Suon , M. S. Ngim and P. A. Windsor
pp. 1620-1624

Smallholder large ruminant improvement requires farmer engagement that promotes the value of knowledge and intervention adoption. Growing introduced forages facilitated farmer engagement in southern Cambodia, expanding from 52 to 1306 plots in 4 years. Forage quality at 30 days post first harvest was comparable to published values, improving average daily liveweight gain of cattle and saving farmers up to 2 h labour per day.

 
  
 

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Modelling the effect on stocking rate and lamb production of allowing ewes to graze a dual-purpose wheat crop in southern New South Wales 
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S. R. McGrath , J. M. Virgona and M. A. Friend
pp. 1625-1630

Grazing dual-purpose wheat provides high quality feed for livestock at a time of year when pasture growth rates in southern Australia may be slow, and farmers may therefore consider changing their time of lambing to exploit this. Simulation modelling of a Merino ewe flock producing first-cross lambs and grazing lucerne-based pastures identified that the optimal time of lambing, in terms of highest median gross margin over the long-term, was not changed by inclusion of crop grazing in winter. Allowing ewes to graze a wheat crop in winter increased producer returns and reduced supplementary feeding requirements and the variability of returns.

 
  
 

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Using partial records to identify productive older ewes to retain in the breeding flock to increase the flock net reproduction rate 
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G. J. Lee , M. A. Sladek , S. Hatcher and J. S. Richards
pp. 1631-1634

Identifying and retaining older ewes with high lifetime reproductive performance can increase flock productivity and profitability. However, collecting data on lifetime reproductive performance is difficult. This study has shown that pregnancy scanning information at 2 and 3 years of age combined with udder examination at marking can identify ewes likely to have high lifetime reproductive performance.

 
  
 

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Limited application of irrigation water does not affect the nutritive characteristics of lucerne 
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M. E. Rogers , A. R. Lawson , S. Chandra and K. B. Kelly
pp. 1635-1640

A large-scale field experiment was conducted to determine the effect of limiting and non-limiting irrigation treatments on the dry matter production and nutritive characteristics of lucerne. Dry matter production generally increased as the total water supply increased; however, neither mean dry matter digestibility concentration nor mean crude protein concentration were affected by irrigation treatment. There was no consistent effect of restricted irrigation on the neutral detergent fibre concentration of the lucerne plants.

 
  
 

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Effects of crossbreeding on milk production and composition in dairy sheep under organic management 
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Juan C. Angeles Hernandez , Octavio A. Castelan Ortega , Aurora H. Ramirez Perez and Manuel González Ronquillo
pp. 1641-1645

Crossbreeding of local sheep breeds with dairy breeds is an option to improve dairy production parameters. We evaluate the effect of crossing local sheep breeds with a specialised dairy sheep breed (East Friesian) on milk production chemical composition and characteristics of the lactation curve. East Friesian × Suffolk is an option of crossbreeding in dairy sheep systems under organic management.

 
  
 

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Nutrient selection by dairy cows grazing chicory or perennial ryegrass during spring 
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S. K. Muir , G. N. Ward and J. L. Jacobs
pp. 1646-1650

Chicory, a summer-active forage crop, is an alternative herbage source to perennial ryegrass for dairy cows in southern Australia. However, there is limited understanding of nutrient selection from chicory by grazing dairy cows. Nutrient selection, the difference between nutrients in herbage offered and consumed, was measured in chicory during spring 2012. Preferential grazing for leaf rather than stem from chicory may affect nutrient selection in a way that differs from perennial grass species.

 
  
 

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Nitrogen partitioning, energy use efficiency and isotopic fractionation measurements from cows differing in genetic merit fed low-quality pasture in late lactation 
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L. Cheng , S. L. Woodward , R. J. Dewhurst , H. Zhou and G. R. Edwards
pp. 1651-1656

No information is available regarding nitrogen and energy use efficiency in relation to nitrogen isotopic fractionation measured from cows with different genetic merit. Eight high and eight low breeding worth cows were used to conduct a nitrogen balance study, and the results showed nitrogen isotopic fractionation and breeding worth were useful indicators of dry matter intake and nitrogen use efficiency of individual cows, respectively. Both indicators are easy to obtain on farm and could be further developed for dairy cow breeding programmes.

 
  
 

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Effect of feeding a balanced ration on milk production, microbial nitrogen supply and methane emissions in field animals 
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M. R. Garg , P. L. Sherasia , B. T. Phondba and S. A. Hossain
pp. 1657-1661

Dairy farmers in developing countries should be aware of the benefits of balanced feeding to their milch animals. Application of balanced nutrition approach, using locally available feed resources and area-specific mineral mixtures, in small-holder dairy systems of India improved nutrient utilisation, milk production, microbial nitrogen supply, and reduced methane emissions in field animals.

 
  
 

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Ruminal inoculum activity in cattle supplemented with corn grain at different daily frequencies: evaluation using the in vitro gas-production technique 
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G. Antúnez , C. Cajarville , A. Britos , A. González and J. L. Repetto
pp. 1662-1664

This study evaluated rumen fermentation activity of heifers fed pasture supplemented with corn at different daily frequencies. Increasing supplementation frequency did not show benefits, at least with this type of pasture (9% of crude protein, 60% of neutral detergent fiber) at this supplementation rate (1% BW) with corn.

 
  
 

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Effects of site of assessment and variation in wool quality traits on the tactile assessment of textural greasy wool handle 
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J. W. V. Preston , S. Hatcher and B. A. McGregor
pp. 1665-1670

Textural greasy wool handle varies across the fleece. This study quantifies the variation that is observed when assessing textural greasy wool handle and highlights the importance of selecting a common site for the assessment of textural greasy wool handle.

 
  
 

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Pattern of partitioning of aflatoxins from feed to urine and its effect on serum chemistry in Nili-Ravi buffalo heifers 
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N. Aslam , Z. M. Iqbal , H. M. Warriach and P. C. Wynn
pp. 1671-1675

Pakistan is the second largest producer of buffalo milk (22.96 million tonnes) and meat (0.775 million tonnes) in the world, with production worth US$8.698 and 2.087 billion, respectively. The concentrate feed base available to these animals is often contaminated with fungal mycotoxins, which when ingested alter the animal’s metabolism, health status and reproductive potential. Changes in serum chemistry and urinary output as a measure of metabolic adjustment are detailed in this study.

 
  
 

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A pilot study into the use of global navigation satellite system technology to quantify the behavioural responses of sheep during simulated dog predation events 
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Jaime K. Manning , Eloise S. Fogarty , Mark G. Trotter , Derek A. Schneider , Peter C. Thomson , Russell D. Bush and Greg M. Cronin
pp. 1676-1681

With welfare concerns and questions over the sustainability of the Australian sheep industry in some regions due to the devastating effects of dog attacks, new innovative technologies are being investigated to manage this issue. The aim of this study was to determine if the behaviour and speed of movement of sheep changed following an attack. Sheep exhibited higher speeds of movement in conjunction with a variety of behavioural changes during this event, highlighting the potential use of remote sensing technologies to alert producers of a predation event.

 
  
 

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What is the best additive to use at the ensiling of sugarcane SP81-3250? 
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C. H. S. Rabelo , A. P. Costa , A. V. Rezende , C. J. Härter , L. A. Florentino and F. H. S. Rabelo
pp. 1682-1686

Chemical and biological additives should be used to improve the quality of sugarcane silages. We evaluated some additives and our study showed that applying 1.0 kg of quicklime to each 100 kg of sugarcane improves the nutritional characteristics of sugarcane silage SP81-3250. This study may help farmers and feedlots to optimise the use of this roughage.

 
  
 

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Wireless sensor networks to study, monitor and manage cattle in grazing systems 
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L. A. González , G. Bishop-Hurley , D. Henry and E. Charmley
pp. 1687-1693

Remote monitoring can enable precise management of livestock production systems to improve productivity and sustainability. The aim of this study was to explore the value of frequently collected live weight, and animal location and behaviour. These new technologies captured changes in live weight and performance, and landscape utilisation by animals reflecting the effects of environmental and management factors in near real-time.

 
  
 

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Modelling the risk of different joining times and lamb sale policies 
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S. M. Robertson , A. F. Southwell and M. A. Friend
pp. 1694-1698

The month of joining and lamb sale strategy have the potential to impact on the profitability of lamb production. Simulation modelling showed that differences in gross margins between lamb sale strategies were small if the optimum stocking rate for month of joining was used, but a flexible sale policy used the least feed resources. The results suggest the most advantageous lamb sale strategy varies with both the month of joining and stocking rate used.

 
  
 

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Effects of calcium salts of medium-chain fatty acids on plasma metabolite and hormone concentrations in early lactating dairy cows 
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T. Sugino , A. Tateno , G. Ueno , K. Kawashima , T. Okimura , H. Hirabayashi , A. Suzuki , S. Asakuma , H. Kobayashi , N. Isobe , T. Obitsu and S. Kushibiki
pp. 1699-1702

In dairy cows, medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) can be used as an energy source, while their calcium salts (MCFA-Ca) increase plasma ghrelin levels, stimulating the appetite of animals. We investigated the effects of MCFA-Ca on milk production, plasma metabolite levels and hormone concentrations in early lactating dairy cows. MCFA-Ca supplementation did not affect feed intake or milk production, but influenced plasma metabolite and hormone concentrations. Our results suggest that MCFA-Ca supplementation in early lactating cows may result in enhanced catabolism, mediated by changes in the endocrine system and nutrient metabolism.

 
  
 

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The effect of silage plant species, concentrate proportion and sugar beet pulp supplementation on the performance of growing and finishing crossbred bulls 
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M. Pesonen , E. Joki-Tokola and A. Huuskonen
pp. 1703-1708

The present study examined the effects of silage plant species, concentrate proportion and sugar beet pulp supplementation on the performance of growing and finishing crossbred bulls. Bulls fed either pure timothy grass or mixed timothy grass and red clover silages performed similarly. Molassed sugar beet pulp is a suitable energy supplement for bulls when feeding barley grain and silage-based diets.

 
  
 

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Effect of type and inclusion level of cold-pressed oilseed cakes on in vitro rumen fermentation 
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H. Benhissi , A. García-Rodríguez and I. Beltrán de Heredia
pp. 1709-1713

The high lipid content of cold-pressed oilseed cakes (CPOC) make them an effective energetic feed stuffs for beef cattle, but may also alter the rumen fermentation if the type and level inclusion of CPOC are not adequately chosen. This study evaluated the effects of different type and level inclusion of CPOC on in vitro rumen fermentation. No effect has been observed when either palm fat or cold-pressed rapeseed cake were added but cold-pressed sunflower cake altered microbial fermentation at a total fat level of 60 g/kg of dry matter.

 
  
 

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Ensiling characteristics of rice whole stillage inoculated with or without Amylomyces rouxii and evaluation of the feeding value for growing Japanese black steers 
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Badee Ghlailat , Yongchao Liu and Hidaka Satoshi
pp. 1714-1721

Rice whole stillage (RWS) is disposed to aerobic spoilage when stored for a prolonged period. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the fermentation characteristics of ensiled RWS and their feeding impact on Japanese black steers. Results revealed that RWS can be stored by ensiling for a prolonged period without spoilage, and was successfully used for feeding steers. Collectively, ensiling RWS provides a promising nutritional feedstuff for beef producers.

 
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The use of GNSS technology to identify lambing behaviour in pregnant grazing Merino ewes 
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R. C. Dobos , S. Dickson , D. W. Bailey and M. G. Trotter
pp. 1722-1727

The Australian sheep industry is concerned about lamb mortality. GPS collars were placed on pregnant ewes to test if changes in pre-lambing behaviour could be used to identify lambing. The mean daily and hourly speeds and mean distance from peers were calculated. From these metrics only the day of lambing, not the actual time, could be identified.

 
  
 

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Effect of cold exposure on plasma glucose and acetate turnover rates in sheep 
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M. Al-Mamun , Y. Sako and H. Sano
pp. 1728-1731

Isotopic dilution methodology of [U-13C]glucose and [1-13C]Na-acetate were performed simultaneously as primed continuous infusions to determine plasma glucose and acetate metabolism in sheep during thermoneutral and cold exposure (CE, 2–4°C). The present findings suggested that plasma acetate turnover rate tended to be elevated during CE, with further, more extensive, studies required to clarify the significance.

 
  
 

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Effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 and ghrelin on liver metabolites in steers 
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M. El-Sabagh , D. Taniguchi , T. Sugino , T. Obitsu and K. Taniguchi
pp. 1732-1736

This study was designed to address the GLP-1 and ghrelin-induced metabolic changes in the liver of steers using a metabolomics approach. Metabolomics analysis showed that GLP-1 is involved in glycolysis/gluconeogesis, lipogenesis and lipid export from the liver, oxidative stress defense and protein turnover pathways. Ghrelin was shown to be involved in pathways related to glycolysis, protein anabolism and phospholipid biosynthesis.

 
  
 

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Methane emissions and feeding behaviour of feedlot cattle supplemented with nitrate or urea 
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J. I. Velazco , D. J. Cottle and R. S. Hegarty
pp. 1737-1740

Short-term methane emission measurements were adequate to show dietary nitrate tended to reduce emission and change the feeding pattern of feedlot cattle. The significant diet effect on the interval between feed consumption and methane measurement may have confounded the ability of short-term methane measurements to provide data suitable for accurately estimating methane per unit feed intake. Caution is needed in extrapolating short-term emission measures into daily emission rates when evaluating quick-acting rumen modifiers.

 
  
 

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Grazing alternative herbages in lactation increases the liveweight of both ewe lambs and their progeny at weaning 
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R. A. Corner-Thomas , P. D. Kemp , S. T. Morris and P. R. Kenyon
pp. 1741-1746

These studies were designed to determine the impact of offering pregnant ewe lambs either lucerne or a herb mix containing chicory, plantain and red clover and white clover in late pregnancy and lactation. It was found that these alternative herbages increased both the liveweight of the young dam and her progeny at weaning in comparison to a ryegrass and white clover sward.

 
  
 

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Estimation of dry matter intake by n-alkanes in dairy cows fed TMR: effect of dosing technique and faecal collection time 
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P. Bani , F. Piccioli Cappelli , A. Minuti , V. Ficuciello , V. Lopreiato , P. C. Garnsworthy and E. Trevisi
pp. 1747-1751

To select dairy cows according to efficiency of milk production it would be beneficial to estimate individual intakes, which can be predicted using n-alkanes as inert markers. A simplified procedure based on once-daily dosing of C32 alkane and spot sampling of faeces was tested. Dosing the marker in a top-fed concentrate and collecting faeces at morning feeding time represents a valuable protocol to accurately estimate individual feed intake on a large number of animals.

 
  
 

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Meal pattern analysis for effects of compound feed formulation in mid to late lactating dairy cows fed hay and compound feed both ad libitum 
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F. Leen , A. Navarro-Villa , R. Fowers , J. Martín-Tereso and W. F. Pellikaan
pp. 1752-1756

Meal pattern analysis was conducted to determine the effect of compound feed formulation on feed intake behavior of dairy cows with ad libitum access to compound feeds and forage. Twenty Holstein-Friesian lactation dairy cows received grass hay and one of two compound feeds, contrasting in neutral detergent fibre and starch content. Neither feed intake nor intake behavior were affected by compound feed formulation.

 
  
 

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Methane emissions of dairy cows cannot be predicted by the concentrations of C8:0 and total C18 fatty acids in milk 
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S. R. O. Williams , P. J. Moate , M. H. Deighton , M. C. Hannah and W. J. Wales
pp. 1757-1761

Methane emissions from ruminants are difficult and expensive to measure. We investigated whether we could predict methane emissions from dairy cows from the concentrations of C8:0 or total C18 fatty acids in milk because of evidence for this in the literature. It was concluded that methane emissions cannot be accurately predicted based solely on the concentrations of these fatty acids in milk.

 
  
 

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Estimation of genetic parameters for litter traits in grasscutters (Thryonomys swinderianus) 
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A. J. Henry , S. N. Ibe and B. O. Asuquo
pp. 1762-1764

Data were obtained from 209 progeny generated using an unbalanced nested design, with three does mated to each of six bucks to estimate genetic parameters for litter traits of grasscutters. Heritability values of 0.56 ± 0.21 and 0.22 ± 0.22 were obtained for litter weight at birth from dam component and both sire and dam components, respectively. For litter weight at weaning, h2 estimate was 0.66 ± 0.22 using the dam component of variance. Genetic correlation between litter weight at birth and litter weight at weaning was 0.59, revealing a positive relationship between both traits.

 
  
 

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The incidence of dark cutting in southern Australian beef production systems fluctuates between months 
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P. McGilchrist , J. L. Perovic , G. E. Gardner , D. W. Pethick and C. G. Jose
pp. 1765-1769

Dark cutting reduces beef quality significantly and is a financial burden on the industry. The incidence of dark cutting is affected by glycogen concentration and therefore pasture quality. This study has identified that in southern Australia, the risk of dark cutting is highest in late summer through to early winter.

 
  
 

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Influence of supplementation of tropical plant feed additives on in vitro rumen fermentation and methanogenesis 
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P. N. Chatterjee , D. N. Kamra , N. Agarwal and A. K. Patra
pp. 1770-1774

Suitable strategies and policies are needed to curtail the rumen methane emission that contributes substantially to global warming. On screening some tropical plants, Psidium guajava leaves were found to decrease rumen methane production without affecting nutrient degradability in vitro. These leaves have a potential to be used as feed additive for sustainable eco-friendly livestock production.

 
  
 

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Nutritional characteristics and in vitro digestibility by near-infrared spectroscopy of local and hybrid napiergrass varieties grown in rain-fed and irrigated conditions 
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U. P. Tiwari , B. Turano and R. Jha
pp. 1775-1778

Napiergrass yield large biomass and have positive impact on animal production but its productivity in limited by drought stress. Hybrid napiergrasses were developed and some of those were found to be reasonably high in nutrient profile and well digestible when characterised by NIRS, even in low irrigation/rain-fed condition. Thus, some hybrid napiergrasses can be grown in rain-fed farming condition.

 
  
 

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Effect of temperature and pre-incubation time of fibrolytic enzymes on in vitro degradability of Brachiaria (Brachiaria decumbens) 
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D. Dineshkumar , A. L. Abdalla , S. C. M. L. Silva , R. C. Lucas , S. E. A. S. Cavalcante , G. D. Souza , P. P. dos Santos , J. E. M. dos Santos and H. Louvandini
pp. 1779-1783

Ruminant production in Brazil is based on grazing that provides forage for ~250 million cattle. Use of exogenous fibrolytic enzymes has shown increases in forage utilisation and efficiency of ruminants. Our findings highlight that Brachiaria grass may respond well to exogenous application of cellulase at all environmental conditions studied. Enhancement on forage utilisation may improve the efficiency to convert grass to meat.

 
  
 

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Effect of low light intensity at night on cow traffic in automatic milking systems 
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Fanny Hjalmarsson , Ingemar Olsson , Sabine Ferneborg , Sigrid Agenäs and Emma Ternman
pp. 1784-1786

Regulations often require night-time lighting in dairy barns but night-lights may interfere with cows’ rest. The aim was to test low night-light intensities on cow activity and milk production in automatic milking systems and it was shown that 11 lx can be used at night without reducing activity, but milk yield decreased 1 kg/day. Legislation requiring night-light supports productivity rather than animal welfare.

 
  
 

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Carbon precursors of methane synthesis in the rumen of sheep dosed with ionophores 
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M. L. Loughnan , J. V. Nolan and R. A. Leng
pp. 1787-1790

When ruminants belch, they release the greenhouse gas, methane into the atmosphere. Scientists are searching for ways to reduce ruminants’ contribution to greenhouse gases and our study aimed to provide a better understanding of methane formation in the rumen. Our results indicate that the accepted view that carbon dioxide in rumen fluid is the main carbon source for methane synthesis needs re-evaluation.

 
  
 

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Nutritive value for ruminants of winter oats–legume intercrops in organic cultivation 
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Alexey Díaz , María Dolores Carro , Carlos Palacios , Iván Mateos , Cristina Saro , María Luisa Tejido and María José Ranilla
pp. 1791-1795

Organic farming is increasing over the world and it is necessary to produce animal feeds of high nutritive value. This study analysed forage yield and quality of several winter oats–legume intercrops and results showed that intercropping with bard vetch was the best alternative. These results should be confirmed in multi-year studies before drawing up guidelines for organic farmers.

 
  
 

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New ways of measuring intake, efficiency and behaviour of grazing livestock 
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Paul L. Greenwood , Philip Valencia , Leslie Overs , David R. Paull and Ian W. Purvis
pp. 1796-1804

Wireless sensor networks (WSN) offer novel methods for measuring livestock phenotypes in commercial grazing environments. We have established a program of research to measure intake, efficiency and behaviour of grazing livestock using WSN. This paper details the concepts, methods and technical challenges associated with establishing these WSN based methods, and some initial results from our program of research.

 
  
 

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Identification of bioactive grassland plants for reducing enteric methane production and rumen proteolysis using an in vitro screening assay 
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V. Niderkorn and D. Macheboeuf
pp. 1805-1809

A total of 156 plant species collected in French Massif Central were screened by measuring several parameters, including digestibility, methane production and ammonia using an in vitro rumen fermentation assay. We observed that the fermentation of several plants severely decreased methane per unit of organic matter truly digested and the ratio between ammonia and plant N content compared with perennial ryegrass.

 
  
 

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Pasture intake and milk production of dairy cows grazing annual ryegrass with or without corn silage supplementation 
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Marcolino Frederico Miguel , Henrique Mendonça Nunes Ribeiro-Filho , Ederson Américo de Andrade , Teresa Cristina Moraes Genro and Rémy Delagarde
pp. 1810-1816

Three supplementation levels of corn silage (0, 4 and 8 kg DM/day) were compared on a Latin square design with 9 dairy cows strip-grazing annual ryegrass at a medium pasture allowance (35 kg DM/cow). Pasture intake was similar for all treatments and total DM intake and milk production increased linearly with supplementation level.

 
  
 

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Effects of including olive cake in the diet on performance and rumen function of beef cattle 
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J. Estaún , J. Dosil , A. Al Alami , A. Gimeno and A. de Vega
pp. 1817-1821

Inclusion of olive cake in the diet of beef steers might reduce feeding costs without affecting animal performance. The present work was carried out to check for this hypothesis, and the results showed that inclusion of up to 20% second-extraction pitted and dehydrated olive cake in the diet did not affect performance of beef steers. Inclusion of those ingredients in the ration might be suitable depending on their market price.

 
  
 

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Relationships of both urine nitrogen output and plasma urea concentration with rumen protein balance in lactating goats 
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S. Giger-Reverdin and D. Sauvant
pp. 1822-1825

In the updated INRA system, rumen protein balance (RPB) was proposed to better fit feed evaluation, animal requirements and responses to diets. This study tested the relationships between RPB and N urinary outputs or plasma urea concentration in a large data set obtained from lactating goats. Due to high correlations, RPB can be used to estimate the urinary nitrogen outputs.

 
  
 

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Bioactive forage legumes as a strategy to improve silage quality and minimise nitrogenous losses 
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G. Copani , C. Ginane , A. Le Morvan and V. Niderkorn
pp. 1826-1829

One key issue for livestock breeding systems to reach out towards sustainability is to use feeding resources satisfying both nutritional and environmental concerns. We focused on bioactive legumes and showed that their inclusion in grass silages improved their conservation and quality via lower protein degradation. This could reduce nitrogen losses with potential beneficial effects for both ruminants nitrogen efficiency and the environment.

 
  
 

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Effects of different doses of sodium monensin on rumen papillae and tissue histology of feedlot Nellore cattle 
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Murillo C. S. Pereira , Tássia V. B. Carrara , Juliana da Silva , Ana Carolina J. Pinto , Daniel V. F. Vicari , Flavia T. V. Pereira , Mário D. B. Arrigoni and Danilo D. Millen
pp. 1830-1833

This study aimed to test the potential as feed additive of a new formula of sodium monensin. Effects of doses of sodium monensin on rumen epithelium of feedlot cattle were studied, and doses of 9 or 36 ppm promoted better development of rumen epithelium. An alternative formula of sodium monensin at cheaper cost has the potential to be used as feed additive in diets for feedlot cattle.

 
  
 

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Effect of supplementation with saponins from Yucca schidigera on ruminal methane production by Pelibuey sheep fed Pennisetum purpureum grass 
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J. R. Canul-Solis , A. T. Piñeiro-Vázquez , E. G. Briceño-Poot , A. J. Chay-Canul , J. A. Alayón-Gamboa , A. J. Ayala-Burgos , C. F. Aguilar-Pérez , F. J. Solorio-Sánchez , O. A. Castelán-Ortega and J. C. Ku-Vera
pp. 1834-1837

Methane is the main greenhouse gas emitted by ruminants and could be reduced throughout the use of plant secondary metabolites. In this research, saponins from Yucca schidigera were supplemented to Pelibuey sheep fed tropical grass and the ruminal methane production was unaffected. This result was due to the lack of effect on intake and rumen fermentation in sheep under tropical conditions.

 
  
 

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Effects of cooked molasses licking block supplementation pre- and post-partum on feed intake, suckling lamb performance, milk yield and milk quality in dairy sheep. Part 1 
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A. Cabiddu , E. Trevisi , G. Molle , G. Lovotti , C. Manca , G. Epifani and M. Dattena
pp. 1838-1842

Nutrition during late pregnancy is crucial to optimise the performance of dairy sheep. Cooked molasses licking blocks were offered freely to dairy ewes from Day -60 to Day 60 after lambing resulting in trends to milder prepartum decrease of body condition score, heavier litter size and higher milk fat content than unsupplemented ewes. Results suggest an effect of block supplementation at the digestive and/or metabolic level.

 
  
 

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The effect of maternal arginine supplementation on the development of the thermogenic program in the ovine fetus 
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S. McCoard , N. Wards , J. Koolaard and M. Senna Salerno
pp. 1843-1847

The results provide new insights into the regulation of brown adipose tissue development in the ovine fetus and indicate that maternal arginine-supplementation during mid-to-late gestation may increase lamb survival through enhanced thermoregulatory ability. These findings highlight the potential of specific nutrient supplementation in early life to improve the welfare and economic outcomes of lamb production on NZ sheep farms.

 
  
 

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New approach to improve the calibration of main fatty acids by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy in ruminant meat 
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B. P. Mourot , D. Gruffat , D. Durand , G. Chesneau , S. Prache , G. Mairesse and D. Andueza
pp. 1848-1852

Determination of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) composition, which has a great nutritional interest in meat, is a great challenge for consumers and industry. Safe, environmentally, friendly and simple routine methods, like near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) are required. However, NIRS models for predicting PUFA of beef meat are not precise enough. Our study shows that models developed from beef + lamb meat spectra databases yielded more precise prediction of main fatty acids of meat than the models based only on the beef meat spectra database.

 
  
 

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Factors influencing the occurrence of high ultimate pH in three muscles of lamb carcasses in Australia 
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N. G. McPhail , J. L. Stark , A. J. Ball and R. D. Warner
pp. 1853-1859

Greening during meat storage is usually caused by high pH. The occurrence of high ultimate pH (pHu) in the rack, blade and knuckle cuts was investigated using 1614 lamb carcases. The pHu of the knuckle, rack and blade was 6.06, 5.79 and 6.12, respectively. Lighter carcass weights, Merinos, electrical stimulation and autumn (vs spring) increased the pHu in these muscles.

 
  
 

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Use of nitrate and Propionibacterium acidipropionici to reduce methane emissions and increase wool growth of Merino sheep 
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V. de Raphélis-Soissan , L. Li , I. R. Godwin , M. C. Barnett , H. B. Perdok and R. S. Hegarty
pp. 1860-1866

Supplementing sheep with 2% dietary nitrate and Propionibacterium acidipropionici (PA) confirmed the beneficial effects of nitrate on net greenhouse gas reduction and wool growth. However, PA supplementation was not effective in reducing methaemoglobinaemia and it appears that methaemoglobinaemia risks may be higher when diets are fed at a restricted level and contain only low levels of readily fermented carbohydrate.

 
  
 

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Comparison of the growth and meat tenderness of Brahman and F1 Senepol × Brahman steers 
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T. J. Schatz , S. Thomas and G. Geesink
pp. 1867-1870

Brahman (BRAH) and F1 Senepol × Brahman (F1 SEN) steers were compared for growth grazing pasture in the NT, growth in a feedlot in Queensland, carcass characteristics and meat tenderness. On average growth was 10 kg higher in F1 SEN during grazing in the 9 months following weaning, there was no significant difference in feedlot growth, F1 SEN carcasses graded 2 boning groups lower in the Meat Standards Australia (MSA) grading system, and M. longissimus samples from F1 SEN were found to be significantly more tender than BRAH by shear force testing. These results indicate that crossbreeding with a tropically adapted Bos Taurus breed, such as the Senepol, may be a viable method for cattle producers with Brahman herds in northern Australia to improve the meat quality of the cattle they produce.

 
  
 

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The effect of lipid sources on intake, rumen fermentation parameters and microbial protein synthesis in Nellore steers supplemented with glycerol 
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Arturo Samuel Gomez Insuasti , Yury Tatiana Granja Salcedo , Pablo de Souza Castagnino , Bruno Ramalho Vieira , Euclides Braga Malheiros and Telma T. Berchielli
pp. 1871-1876

This study was to investigate the effect of glycerol and fat sources on Nellore steers. The combined use of this sources resulted in no changes in rumen pH, DM intake, microbial protein production, and acetate. The molar proportion for propionate increased. These results suggest that combined use of lipid with glycerol could be used in dietary strategies without adverse effects.

 
  
 

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Thermoregulatory differences in lactating dairy cattle classed as efficient or inefficient based on residual feed intake 
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K. DiGiacomo , L. C. Marett , W. J. Wales , B. J. Hayes , F. R. Dunshea and B. J. Leury
pp. 1877-1881

Understanding the physiological phenotype that underpins efficiency is important to facilitate improvements in production. This project examined measures of thermoregulation in dairy cattle classed as efficient or inefficient based on residual feed intake (RFI) and found inefficient cows tended to have higher skin temperatures than efficient cows. This study suggests that aspects of efficiency are attributed to differences in thermoregulation.

 
  
 

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These articles have been peer reviewed and accepted for publication. They are still in production and have not been edited, so may differ from the final published form.

    AN14111  Accepted 19 September 2014
    Egg quality and production performance of laying hens injected with growth hormone and testosterone in the late phase of production
    Hamed Mohammadi, Zarbakht Ansari-Pirsaraei, Seyed Naser Mousavi, Mehrdad Bouyeh, Abolfazl Gholibeikifard, Parviz Nouri, Ali Hatefi, Mohammadreza Rahmani
    Abstract


    AN14444  Accepted 19 September 2014
    Effect of fitting sheep covers and injection of a mineral supplement on the brightness, clean colour and photostability of wool grown by grazing Merino sheep
    Sue Hatcher, James Preston
    Abstract


    AN14645  Accepted 10 September 2014
    Genetic importance of fat and eye muscle depth in Merino breeding programs
    Daniel Brown, Andrew Swan
    Abstract


    AN14612  Accepted 10 September 2014
    Genetic variability detected at the lactoferrin locus (LTF) in the Italian Mediterranean river buffalo
    Alfredo Pauciullo, Luigi Ramunno, Niccolò Pietro Paolo Macciotta, Giustino Gaspa, Angelo Coletta, Elisa Apicella, Daniela Gallo, Gianfranco Cosenza
    Abstract


    AN14560  Accepted 10 September 2014
    Genetic variation within and between sub-populations of the Australian Merino breed
    Andrew Swan, Daniel Brown, Julius van der Werf
    Abstract


    AN14622  Accepted 08 September 2014
    Evaluating vitamin D with graded levels of strontium supplementation on broiler chicken performance and mineral composition
    Linda Browning, Aaron Cowieson
    Abstract


    AN14481  Accepted 08 September 2014
    Feeding behaviour in ruminants: a consequence of interactions between a reward system and the regulation of metabolic homeostasis
    Cecile Ginane, Muriel Bonnet, René Baumont, Dean Revell
    Abstract


    AN14474  Accepted 08 September 2014
    A regional model of sheep lice management practices for predicting the impact of treatment for lice when no lice are detected
    Brian Horton, Andrew Bailey, Anna Carew
    Abstract


    AN13443  Accepted 08 September 2014
    Descriptive statistics and the pattern of horse racing in New Zealand: Part Two Harness Racing
    Charlotte Bolwell, Chris Rogers, Erica Gee, Sarah Rosanowski
    Abstract


    AN13442  Accepted 08 September 2014
    Descriptive statistics and the pattern of horse racing in New Zealand: Part One Thoroughbred Racing
    Charlotte Bolwell, Chris Rogers, Erica Gee, Sarah Rosanowski
    Abstract


    AN14550  Accepted 03 September 2014
    Correlations of methane and carbon dioxide concentrations from feedlot cattle as a predictor of methane emissions
    Mei Bai, David Griffith, Frances Phillips, Travis Naylor, Stephanie Muir, Sean McGinn, Deli Chen
    Abstract


    AN14526  Accepted 03 September 2014
    Integrated animal and cropping systems in single and multi-objective frameworks for enhancing the livelihood security of farmers and agricultural sustainability in Northern India
    James France, Umakant Behera, Harald Kaechele
    Abstract


    AN14426  Accepted 03 September 2014
    Effects of long wool insecticide treatments on lice numbers and wool damage on sheep
    Noel Campbell, Peter James, Brian Horton
    Abstract


    AN14007  Accepted 03 September 2014
    Relationship between the concentration of bone morphogenetic protein-15 (BMP-15) and growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9) in pre-ovulatory follicles, ovarian cysts, and serum in sows
    Tomasz Stankiewicz, Barbara BÅ‚aszczyk
    Abstract


    AN13378  Accepted 03 September 2014
    Biochemical profiles and physiochemical parameters of beef from cattle raised under contrasting feeding systems and pre-slaughter management
    Dario Pighin, Patricio Davies, Adriana Pazos, Irene Ceconi, Sebastian Cunzolo, Daniel Mendez, Miguel Buffarini, Gabriela Grigioni
    Abstract


    AN14331  Accepted 01 September 2014
    Is ruminal trans-11-18:1 accumulation a prerequisite for trans-10-18:1 production? [= LATE ISNH/ISRP PAPER]
    Bruno Vlaeminck, Wasseem Khattab, Veerle Fievez
    Abstract


    AN13505  Accepted 02 September 2014
    Growth performance, and carcass and meat quality traits in progeny of Poll Nellore, Angus and Brahman sires under tropical conditions
    Angélica Pereira, Fernando Baldi, Roberto Sainz, Bruno Utembergue, Hermenegildo Chiaia, Claudio Magnabosco, Fernando Manicardi, Fabiano Araújo, Camila Guedes, Regina Margarido, Paulo Leme, Paulo Sobral
    Abstract


    AN14657  Accepted 28 August 2014
    A combination of xylanase, amylase and protease influences growth performance, nutrient utilization, starch and protein digestive dynamics in broiler chickens offered maize-, sorghum-, and wheat-based diets
    Sonia Liu, David Cadogan, Alex Peron, Ha Truong, Peter Selle
    Abstract


    AN14440  Accepted 27 August 2014
    The influence of season on lambs' feeding preference for plantain, chicory and red clover
    Sarah Pain, Jennifer Corkran, Paul Kenyon, Peter Kemp, Steve Morris
    Abstract


    AN13453  Accepted 27 August 2014
    Changes in behaviour, milk production and body weight in beef cows subjected to two-step or abrupt weaning
    Rodolfo Ungerfeld, Maria Jose Hotzel, Graciela Quintans
    Abstract


    AN14137  Accepted 12 August 2014
    Biological defleecing: intravenous infusion of amino acid mixtures lacking lysine and methionine create a weakened zone in the wool staple which is amenable to mechanical wool harvesting
    Phil Hynd, Natasha Edwards, Sarah Weaver, Kylie Chenoweth, Robert Stobart, Nicole Heberle
    Abstract


    AN14032  Accepted 12 August 2014
    GNSS technology and its application for improved reproductive management in extensive sheep systems
    Eloise Fogarty, Jaime Manning, Mark Trotter, Dereck Schneider, Peter Thomson, Russell Bush, Greg Cronin
    Abstract


    AN14684  Accepted 08 August 2014
    Effects of supplementary bee pollen and its polysaccharides on nutrient digestibility and serum biochemical parameters in Holstein calves
    Yan Tu, Guo-Feng Zhang, Kai-Dong Deng, Nai-Feng Zhang, Qi-Yu Diao
    Abstract


    AN14517  Accepted 08 August 2014
    Grazing crops – implications for reproducing sheep
    David Masters, Andrew Thompson
    Abstract


    AN14093  Accepted 08 August 2014
    Heart rate variability: a biomarker of dairy calf welfare
    Jim Clapp, Sinead Croarkin, Sally Lyons, Charlotte Dolphin
    Abstract


    AN14516  Accepted 08 August 2014
    Effect of hypothyroidism on growth performance, carcass composition and meat quality of fat-tailed Lori-Bakhtiari lambs
    Yousef Baghchghi, Ahmad Zare Shahneh, M. Gangkhanlou, Ali Reza Yousefi
    Abstract


    AN14091  Accepted 07 August 2014
    Determination and prediction of the net energy content of seven feed ingredients fed to growing pigs based on chemical composition
    Liu Dewen, Ling Liu, Defa Li, Fenglai Wang
    Abstract


    AN14050  Accepted 07 August 2014
    Influence of maize particle size on the kinetics of starch digestion in the small intestine of growing pigs
    Nikolas Amaral, Leticia Amaral, Vinícius Cantarelli, Elias Fialho, Márcio Zangeronimo, Paulo Rodrigues
    Abstract


    AN13556  Accepted 07 August 2014
    Processing and storage of ratite oils affects primary oxidation status and radical scavenging ability
    Suzanne Mashtoub, Darin Bennett, Cuong Tran, Gordon Howarth
    Abstract


    AN14543  Accepted 04 August 2014
    Modelling of the nitrogen deposition and dietary lysine requirements of Redbro broilers
    Priscil Antao dos Santos, Carlos Rabello, N Sakomura, Edney Silva, Juliano Dorigam, Marcos Santos, Izaura Lorena-Rezende
    Abstract


    AN14147  Accepted 05 August 2014
    Performance of beef Guzerat and Guzerat-cross bulls during the feedlot, and carcass traits of Guzerat-cross groups
    Frederico Diniz, Severino Delmar Villela, Mário Henrique Mourthé, Pedro Veiga Paulino, Aldrin Pires, Ricardo Sousa, Laurita Oliveira, Paulo Gustavo Martins
    Abstract


    AN14034  Accepted 04 August 2014
    Divergent breeding values for fatness or residual feed intake in Angus cattle 5: Cow genotype affects feed efficiency and maternal productivity
    Michelle Hebart, Jeisane Accioly, Katrina Copping, Michael Deland, Robert Herd, Fiona Jones, Michael Laurence, Stephen Lee, David Lines, Jane Speijers, Brad Walmsley, Wayne Pitchford
    Abstract


    AN14613  Accepted 01 August 2014
    The case for and against perennial forages in the Australian sheep-wheat zone: modelling livestock production, business risk and environmental interactions
    Andrew Moore
    Abstract


    AN14569  Accepted 01 August 2014
    Northern Australian pasture and beef systems. 2. Validation and use of the Sustainable Grazing Systems (SGS) whole-farm biophysical model
    Natalie Doran-Browne, Steven Bray, Ian Johnson, Peter O'Reagain, Richard Eckard
    Abstract


    AN14542  Accepted 01 August 2014
    Mechanistic model of intake of tropical pasture, depending on the growth and morphology of forage at a vegetative stage
    Maryline Boval, Ode Coppry, Daniel Sauvant
    Abstract


    AN14505  Accepted 01 August 2014
    Native Australian shrub legume species may provide an alternative feed source for livestock
    Patricia O'Keeffe, David Orchard, Beverley Orchard, John Piltz, Edward Clayton
    Abstract


    AN14509  Accepted 01 August 2014
    Strategic early treatment for control of sheep flystrike: Potential economic benefits examined using a weather-driven model of flystrike risk
    Brian Horton
    Abstract


    AN14602  Accepted 31 July 2014
    Managing the herbage utilization and intake by cattle grazing rangelands
    James Oltjen, Stacey Gunter
    Abstract


    AN14568  Accepted 30 July 2014
    Potential integration of multi-fitting, inverse problem and mechanistic modeling approaches to applied research in animal science: a review
    Luis Manuel Vargas Villamil, Luis Tedeschi
    Abstract


    AN14530  Accepted 31 July 2014
    Prediction of nutrient flows with potential impacts on the environment in a rabbit farm: a modelling approach
    Bertrand Meda, Laurence Fortun-Lamothe, Mélynda Hassouna
    Abstract


    AN14425  Accepted 22 April 2014
    The catastrophe of meal eating
    John Forbes, Pablo Gregorini
    Abstract


    AN14604  Accepted 27 July 2014
    Northern Australian pasture and beef systems. 1. Net carbon position
    Steven Bray, Natalie Doran-Browne, Peter O'Reagain
    Abstract


    AN13543  Accepted 28 July 2014
    Modelling the potential of birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) to reduce methane emissions and increase production on wool and prime lamb farm enterprises
    Natalie Doran-Browne, Ralph Behrendt, Ross Kingwell, Richard Eckard
    Abstract


    AN14528  Accepted 26 July 2014
    Development of a mechanistic model of intake, chewing and digestion in cattle in connection with updated feed units
    Daniel Sauvant, Pierre Noziere, René Baumont
    Abstract


    AN14620  Accepted 25 July 2014
    The evolution and evaluation of dairy cattle models for predicting milk production: An agricultural model intercomparison and improvement project (AgMIP) for livestock
    Luis Tedeschi, Luigi Cavalcanti, Mozart Fonseca, Mario Herrero, Phillip Thornton
    Abstract


    AN14615  Accepted 26 July 2014
    Modelling methane emissions from remotely collected live weight data and faecal Near Infrared Spectroscopy
    Luciano Gonzalez, Ed Charmley, Beverly Henry
    Abstract


    AN14536  Accepted 25 July 2014
    Modelling the maximum potential of nitrogen deposition and requirements of lysine for broilers
    Juliano Dorigam, N Sakomura, Edney Silva, João Batista Fernandes
    Abstract


    AN14535  Accepted 24 July 2014
    Bayesian analysis of energy balance data from growing cattle using parametric and nonparametric modelling
    Luis Moraes, Ermias Kebreab, Anders Strathe, James France, Jan Dijkstra, David Casper, James Fadel
    Abstract


    AN14288  Accepted 23 July 2014
    The effect of dietary magnesium supplementation in alleviating stress associated with road transportation in weaned lambs
    Jannah Pye, Rebecca Doyle, Michael Friend, Marie Bhanugopan
    Abstract


    AN13440  Accepted 21 July 2014
    Effect of high temperatures on breeding rabbit behaviour
    Antoni Dalmau, Bernardo Catanese, Oriol Rafel, Pedro Rodriguez, Carmen Fuentes, Pol Llonch, Eva Mainau, Antonio Velarde, Josep Ramon, Ester Taberner, Manel Lopez-Bejar, Miriam Piles
    Abstract


    AN13307  Accepted 21 July 2014
    Viability analyses of a donkey breed endangered of extinction: the case of the Asinina de Miranda (Equus asinus).
    Miguel Quaresma, Angela Martins, João Rodrigues, Jorge Colaço, Rita Payan Carreira
    Abstract


    AN14605  Accepted 16 July 2014
    SNPs included in candidate genes involved in muscle, lipid and energy metabolism behave like neutral markers
    Natalia Sevane, Javier Cañon, Jonh Williams, Hubert Levéziel, Alessio Valentini, Susana Dunner
    Abstract


    AN14493  Accepted 15 July 2014
    Effect of climate variability on pasture-based dairy feeding systems in south-east Australia
    Seyda Ozkan, Julian Hill, Brendan Cullen
    Abstract


    AN14096  Accepted 16 July 2014
    Transcriptome profiling of muscle by RNA-Seq reveals significant digital gene expression profiling differences between Angus and Luxi Cattle
    Liu Guifen, Cheng Haijian, Wei You, Song Enliang, Liu Xiaomu, Wan Fachun
    Abstract


    AN14023  Accepted 15 July 2014
    Associative effects of poor quality forages combined with food industry by-products determined in vitro with an automated gas production system
    Franco Tagliapietra, Mirko Cattani, Matteo Guadagnin, Mohamed-Laid Haddi, Leonardo Sulas, Rosella Muresu, Andrea Squartini, Stefano Schiavon, Lucia Bailoni
    Abstract


    AN14484  Accepted 15 July 2014
    Behavioural adaptation of grazing dairy cows to changes in feeding management: do they follow a predictable pattern?
    Pablo Chilibroste, Malcom Gibb, Pablo Soca, Diego Mattiauda
    Abstract


    AN14472  Accepted 09 July 2014
    Modelling preference and diet selection patterns by grazing ruminants
    Pablo Gregorini, Juan Villalba, Frederick Provenza, Pierre Beukes, John Forbes
    Abstract


    AN14304  Accepted 09 July 2014
    Beef longissimus eating quality increases up to 20 weeks storage and is unrelated to meat colour at carcase grading
    Joanne Hughes, Neil McPhail, Gavin Kearney, Frank Clarke, Robyn Warner
    Abstract


    AN14204  Accepted 09 July 2014
    Impact of rumen emptying on rumen fermentation and animal welfare in cannulated sheep
    Mathieu Silberberg, Alain Boissy, Moufida Rira, Eric Delval, Hervé Chandèze, Michel Doreau
    Abstract


    AN14384  Accepted 07 July 2014
    Effect of body mass index at parturition on goat milk quality and yield
    Ã…shild Randby, Svetlana Borodina, Ingjerd Dønnem
    Abstract


    AN14203  Accepted 07 July 2014
    Myogenesis in small and large ovine fetuses at three stages of pregnancy
    Simon Quigley, Paul Greenwood, David Kleemann, Julie Owens, Simon Bawden, Greg Nattrass
    Abstract


    AN13439  Accepted 08 July 2014
    Evaluation of predictive equations developed to assess body composition of F1 Nellore × Angus bulls and steers
    Mozart Fonseca, Sebastião Valadares Filho, Luis Tedeschi, Mario Chizzotti, Marcelo Machado, Daniel Abreu
    Abstract


    AN14416  Accepted 04 July 2014
    Quality and sensory characteristics of Culatello dry cured product obtained from the Italian autochthonous pig Suino Nero Lucano and from a modern crossbred pig
    Annamaria Perna, Amalia Simonetti, Immacolata Intaglietta, Emilio Gambacorta
    Abstract


    AN14306  Accepted 03 July 2014
    Effects of different doses of sodium monensin on feeding behavior, dry matter intake variation and selective consumption of feedlot Nellore cattle
    Murillo Pereira, Tassia Carrara, Juliana Silva, Diego Silva, Daniel Watanabe, Lais Tomaz, Mario Arrigoni, Danilo Millen
    Abstract


    AN14059  Accepted 03 July 2014
    Effect of sex and slaughter weight on meat and fat quality of the KrÅ¡kopolje pig reared in an enriched environment
    Marjeta Žemva, Tania Ngapo, Å pela Malovrh, Alenka Levart, Milena Kovač
    Abstract


    AN14287  Accepted 01 July 2014
    Supplementary feeding options to alleviate the impacts of decreased water availability on dairy farm economic performance in northern Victoria
    Christie Ho, Bill Malcolm, Peter Doyle
    Abstract


    AN14138  Accepted 01 July 2014
    Pre-partum supplementation increases first lactation heifer re-conception rates in the Victoria River District, NT
    Tim Schatz
    Abstract


    AN14400  Accepted 25 June 2014
    Vibrational spectroscopic investigation of heat-induced changes in functional groups related to protein structural conformation in camelina seeds and their relationship to digestion in dairy cows
    Nazir Ahmad Khan, Q Peng, Hangshu Xin, Peiqiang Yu
    Abstract


    AN14142  Accepted 19 June 2014
    Secondary compounds attenuation in Acacia macracantha leaves and its effect on intake, digestibility, plasma and productive variables by incorporating them in rations for rabbits
    Miguel Espejo, Gustavo Nouel-Borges
    Abstract


    AN13253  Accepted 18 June 2014
    Effect of calcium salt of fatty acids supplementation on performance of Malpura lambs
    Randhir Bhatt, Artabandhu Sahoo, A Shinde, S Karim
    Abstract


    AN14254  Accepted 17 June 2014
    Evaluation of Dried Stoned Olive Pomace as Supplementation for Lactating Holstein Cattle: Effect on Milk Production and Quality
    David Meo Zilio, Settimio Bartocci, Sabrina Di Giovanni, Maurizio Servili, Antonella Chiariotti, Stefano Terramoccia
    Abstract


    AN14063  Accepted 12 June 2014
    Body condition score is a critical factor determining the onset of puberty in Blanca Andaluza female goat kids
    Lourdes Gallego-Calvo, María Carolina Gatica, Irma Celi, José Luis Guzmán, Luis Zarazaga
    Abstract


    AN13060  Accepted 06 June 2014
    Maternal body composition in Australian seedstock herds: 1. Grazing management strategy influences perspectives on optimal balance of production traits and maternal productivity
    Stephen Lee, Ian Nuberg, Wayne Pitchford
    Abstract


    AN14467  Accepted 05 June 2014
    Potential of epigenetics (application) for animal production
    Takafumi Gotoh
    Abstract


    AN14008  Accepted 04 June 2014
    Detection of chromosomal segments underlying scrotal circumference in ram lambs and age at onset of puberty in ewe lambs
    Ali Esmailizadeh
    Abstract


    AN13237  Accepted 30 May 2014
    Effects of crude protein level in the concentrate and time allotment on pasture on milk yield, urinary nitrogen, and purine derivative excretion in lactating Latxa ewes.
    Raul Fernandez, Ahmad Reza Seradj, Luis Maria Oregui, Aser Garcia-Rodriguez, Joaquim Balcells
    Abstract


    AN14036  Accepted 28 May 2014
    Fatty acids composition, cholesterol and vitamin E contents of Longissimus dorsi and Semitendinosus muscles of Suino Nero Lucano pigs slaughtered at two different weights
    Annamaria Perna, Amalia Simonetti, Immacolata Intaglietta, Emilio Gambacorta
    Abstract


    AN13351  Accepted 27 May 2014
    The Cooperative Research Centre for Beef Genetic Technologies: Using the Impact Tool to Evaluate Realised and Anticipated Benefits, 2005/06-2020/21
    Garry Griffith, Heather Burrow
    Abstract


    AN14449  Accepted 19 May 2014
    Understanding and Manipulating Diet Choice in Grazing Animals
    Juan Villalba, Frederick Provenza, Francisco Catanese, Roberto Distel
    Abstract


    AN14424  Accepted 19 May 2014
    Optimising the interrelationship between intake per cow and intake per hectare
    Alvaro Romera, Graeme Doole
    Abstract


    AN14169  Accepted 17 May 2014
    Nutritive value of wheat concentrated distillers solubles in diets for growing pigs
    Pia Rosenfelder, Meike Eklund, Hanna Spindler, Ulrike Messerschmidt, Christine Potthast, R Mosenthin
    Abstract


    AN13447  Accepted 17 May 2014
    Estimation of Dietary Selenium Requirement for Chinese Egg-laying Ducks
    Wei Chen, Xing Zhang, Shuang Wang, Dong Ruan, Zhen Xie, Qian Yu, Cai Lin
    Abstract


    AN14415  Accepted 02 May 2014
    How French shepherds create meal sequences to stimulate intake and optimize use of forage diversity on rangeland
    Michel Meuret, Frederick Provenza
    Abstract


    AN14428  Accepted 13 May 2014
    Temporal dynamics in the foraging decisions of large herbivores
    Daniel Fortin, Jerod Merkle, Marie Sigaud, Seth Cherry, Sabrina Plante, Amélie Drolet, Myriam Labrecque
    Abstract


    AN14429  Accepted 24 April 2014
    The comparison between feeding rumen-protected choline and vitamin E on milk yield and blood metabolites in early lactating dairy cows
    Mohammadreza Rahmani, Mehdi Dehghan-Banadaky, Romic Kamalyan
    Abstract


    AN13258  Accepted 10 February 2014
    Genetic parameters for body composition of Angus and Hereford cows
    Kath Donoghue, Stephen Lee, Peter Parnell, Wayne Pitchford
    Abstract


    AN13533  Accepted 20 December 2013
    Maternal body composition in seedstock herds. 1. Relationships between cow body composition and BREEDPLAN EBVs for Angus and Hereford cows
    Stephen Lee, Kath Donoghue, Wayne Pitchford
    Abstract


    AN13295  Accepted 08 November 2013
    Divergent genotypes for fatness or residual feed intake in Angus cattle: 3. Performance of mature cows.
    Katrina Copping, Jeisane Accioly, Michael Deland, Nick Edwards, John Graham, Michelle Hebart, Robert Herd, Fiona Jones, Michael Laurence, Stephen Lee, Jane Speijers, Wayne Pitchford
    Abstract


    AN13218  Accepted 24 October 2013
    Divergent genotypes for fatness or residual feed intake in Angus cattle. 2. Body composition but not reproduction was affected in first-parity cows on both low and high levels of nutrition.
    Michael Laurence, Jeisane Accioloy, Katrina Copping, Michael Deland, John Graham, Michelle Hebart, Robert Herd, Fiona Jones, Stephen Lee, Jane Speijers, Wayne Pitchford
    Abstract


    AN13054  Accepted 17 September 2013
    Genesis, design and methods of the Beef CRC Maternal Productivity Project
    Wayne Pitchford, Jeisane Accioly, Rob Banks, Anne Barnes, Stephen Barwick, Katrina Copping, Michael Deland, Kath Donoghue, Nick Edwards, Michelle Hebart, Robert Herd, Fiona Jones, Michael Laurence, Stephen Lee, Bill McKiernan, Peter Parnell, Jane Speijers, Geoff Tudor, John Graham
    Abstract




The Most Read ranking is based on the number of downloads from the CSIRO PUBLISHING website of articles published in the previous 12 months. Usage statistics are updated daily.

Rank Paper Details
1. Published 1 May 2014
Lamb survival in Australian flocks: a review

G. N. Hinch and F. Brien

2. Published 2 January 2014
Climate change and broadacre livestock production across southern Australia. 3. Adaptation options via livestock genetic improvement

Andrew D. Moore and Afshin Ghahramani

3. Published 26 September 2013
The trials and tribulations of estimating the pasture intake of grazing animals

David J. Cottle

4. Published 2 June 2014
Should animal fats be back on the table? A critical review of the human health effects of animal fat

William Barendse

5. Published 26 September 2013
Human evolution and diet: a modern conundrum of health versus meat consumption, or is it?

N. Mann

6. Published 26 September 2013
Use of partial mixed rations in pasture-based dairying in temperate regions of Australia

W. J. Wales, L. C. Marett, J. S. Greenwood, M. M. Wright, J. B. Thornhill, J. L. Jacobs, C. K. M. Ho and M. J. Auldist

7. Published 2 December 2013
Genetics of early and lifetime annual reproductive performance in cows of two tropical beef genotypes in northern Australia

D. J. Johnston, S. A. Barwick, G. Fordyce, R. G. Holroyd, P. J. Williams, N. J. Corbet and T. Grant

8. Published 6 August 2014
Decreasing methane emissions from ruminants grazing forages: a fit with productive and financial realities?

David Pacheco, Garry Waghorn and Peter H. Janssen

9. Published 3 February 2014
Increasing home-grown forage consumption and profit in non-irrigated dairy systems. 1. Rationale, systems design and management

D. F. Chapman, J. Hill, J. Tharmaraj, D. Beca, S. N. Kenny and J. L. Jacobs

10. Published 26 September 2013
Range use and pasture consumption in free-range poultry production

M. Singh and A. J. Cowieson

11. Published 2 December 2013
Genomic selection for female reproduction in Australian tropically adapted beef cattle

Y. D. Zhang, D. J. Johnston, S. Bolormaa, R. J. Hawken and B. Tier

12. Published 1 May 2014
The critical control points for increasing reproductive performance can be used to inform research priorities

J. M. Young, J. Trompf and A. N. Thompson

13. Published 26 September 2013
Effect of added dietary nitrate and elemental sulfur on wool growth and methane emission of Merino lambs

L. Li, C. I. Silveira, J. V. Nolan, I. R. Godwin, R. A. Leng and R. S. Hegarty

14. Published 17 March 2014
Influence of high pre-rigor temperature and fast pH fall on muscle proteins and meat quality: a review

Yuan H. Brad Kim, Robyn D. Warner and Katja Rosenvold

15. Published 26 September 2013
Effects of retailer pressure on the efficiency of agricultural industries

Ian J. Lean

16. Published 26 September 2013
Enhancing the productivity of dairy cows using amino acids

Y. G. Liu, H. H. Peng and C. G. Schwab

17. Published 1 April 2014
Interactions between microbial consortia in biofilms: a paradigm shift in rumen microbial ecology and enteric methane mitigation

R. A. Leng

18. Published 1 April 2014
Genomic prediction of weight and wool traits in a multi-breed sheep population

N. Moghaddar, A. A. Swan and J. H. J. van der Werf

19. Published 1 April 2014
Hormonal growth implants affect feed efficiency and expression of residual feed intake-associated genes in beef cattle

W. Al-Husseini, C. Gondro, K. Quinn, L. M. Cafe, R. M. Herd, J. P. Gibson, P. L. Greenwood and Y. Chen

20. Published 1 May 2014
A review of the genetic and epigenetic factors affecting lamb survival

F. D. Brien, S. W. P. Cloete, N. M. Fogarty, J. C. Greeff, M. L. Hebart, S. Hiendleder, J. E. Hocking Edwards, J. M. Kelly, K. L. Kind, D. O. Kleemann, K. L. Plush and D. R. Miller


      
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