CSIRO Publishing blank image blank image blank image blank imageBooksblank image blank image blank image blank imageJournalsblank image blank image blank image blank imageAbout Usblank image blank image blank image blank imageShopping Cartblank image blank image blank image You are here: Journals > Australian Journal of Zoology   
Australian Journal of Zoology
Journal Banner
  Evolutionary, Molecular and Comparative Zoology
 
blank image Search
 
blank image blank image
blank image
 
  Advanced Search
   

Journal Home
About the Journal
Editorial Board
Contacts
Content
Online Early
Current Issue
Just Accepted
All Issues
Special Issues
Sample Issue
For Authors
General Information
Notice to Authors
Submit Article
Open Access
For Referees
Referee Guidelines
Review an Article
Annual Referee Index
For Subscribers
Subscription Prices
Customer Service
Print Publication Dates

blue arrow e-Alerts
blank image
Subscribe to our Email Alert or RSS feeds for the latest journal papers.

red arrow Connect with us
blank image
facebook twitter youtube

red arrow Supplementary Series
blank image
All volumes of the Australian Journal of Zoology Supplementary Series are online and available to subscribers of Australian Journal of Zoology.

 

Article << Previous     |     Next >>   Contents Vol 62(1)

New arthrodires (placoderm fishes) from the Aztec Siltstone (late Middle Devonian) of southern Victoria Land, Antarctica

Gavin C. Young A C and John A. Long B

A Research School of Earth Sciences, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia.
B School of Biological Sciences, Flinders University, PO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia.
C Corresponding author. Email: Gavin.Young@anu.edu.au

Australian Journal of Zoology 62(1) 44-62 http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/ZO13070
Submitted: 2 September 2013  Accepted: 30 December 2013   Published: 26 May 2014


 
PDF (2.4 MB) $25
 Export Citation
 Print
  
Abstract

A small collection of arthrodire remains is described from the Devonian Aztec Siltstone of southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Barwickosteus antarcticus, gen. et sp. nov., is a small phlyctaeniid arthrodire probably closely related to Barrydalaspis from the Bokkeveld Group of South Africa. Grifftaylor antarcticus, gen. et sp. nov., is a generalised phlyctaeniid resembling Phlyctaenius and Neophlyctaenius. New specimens of Boomeraspis show that it had a high-spired trunk-armour with a median dorsal plate of similar proportions to Tiaraspis, Mithakaspis, Turrisaspis or Africanaspis. Other fragmentary median dorsal plates are provisionally referred to Turrisaspis and Mulgaspis. With these new taxa the vertebrate assemblage from the Aztec Siltstone comprises at least 37 genera and 50 species, making it one of the most diverse of Middle–Late Devonian age.





References

Agassiz, L. (1844). ‘Monographie des Poissons Fossiles du Vieux Grès Rouge du Système Dévonien (Old Red Sandstone) des Îles Britanniques et de Russie.’ (Jent and Gassmann: Neuchâtel.) 171 pp.

Askin, R. A., Barrett, P. J., Kohn, B. P., and McPherson, J. G. (1971). Stratigraphic sections of the Beacon Supergroup (Devonian and older (?) to Jurassic) in South Victoria Land. Publication of the Geology Dept, Victoria University of Wellington, Antarctic Data Series, No. 2. 88 pp.

Barrett, P. J., and Webb, P. N. (eds.) (1973). Stratigraphic sections of the Beacon Supergroup (Devonian and older (?) to Jurassic) in South Victoria Land. Publication of the Geology Dept, Victoria University of Wellington, Antarctic Data Series, No. 3. 165 pp.

Bradshaw, M. A. (2013). The Taylor Group (Beacon Supergroup): the Devonian sediments of Antarctica. Geological Society of London, Special Publications 381, 67–97.
CrossRef |

Brazeau, M. (2009). The braincase and jaws of a Devonian ‘acanthodian’ and modern gnathostome origins. Nature 457, 305–308.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Burrow, C. J., Long, J. A., and Trinajstic, K. (2009). Disarticulated acanthodian and chondrichthyan remains from the upper Middle Devonian Aztec Siltstone, southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Antarctic Science 21, 71–88.
CrossRef |

Burrow, C. J., Turner, S., and Young, G. C. (2010). Middle Palaeozoic microvertebrate assemblages and biogeography of East Gondwana (Australasia, Antarctica). Palaeoworld 19, 37–54.
CrossRef |

Campbell, K. S. W., and Barwick, R. E. (1987). Paleozoic lungfishes – a review. Journal of Morphology (Supplement) 1, 93–131.

Chaloner, W. G., Forey, P. L., Gardiner, B. G., Hill, A. J., and Young, V. T. (1980). Devonian fish and plants from the Bokkeveld Series of South Africa. Annals of the South African Museum 81, 127–157.

Daeschler, E. B., Frumes, A. C., and Mullison, F. (2003). Groenlandaspid placoderm fishes from the Late Devonian of North America. Records of the Australian Museum 55, 45–60.
CrossRef |

David, T. W. E., and Priestley, R. E. (1914). Glaciology, physiography, stratigraphy, and tectonic geology of South Victoria Land. Reports of the British Antarctic Expedition 1907–9. Geology. No. 1. 319 pp.

Davis, S. P., Finarelli, J. A., and Coates, M. I. (2012). Acanthodes and shark-like conditions in the last common ancestor of modern gnathostomes. Nature 486, 247–250.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Debenham, F. (1921). The sandstone, etc., of the McMurdo Sound, Terra Nova Bay, and Beardmore glacier regions. British Antarctic (Terra Nova) Expedition, 1910. Natural History Report (Geology) 1, 101–119.

Denison, R. H. (1950). A new arthrodire from the New York State Devonian. American Journal of Science 248, 565–580.
CrossRef |

Denison, R. H. (1958). Early Devonian fishes from Utah. Part III. Arthrodira. Fieldiana Geology 11, 461–551.

Denison, R. H. (1978). ‘Placodermi.’ Handbook of Paleoichthyology Vol. 2. (Gustav Fischer Verlag: Stuttgart.)

Doumani, G. A., Boardman, R. S., Rowell, A., Boucot, A. J., Johnson, J. G., McAlester, A. L., Saul, J., Fisher, D. W., and Miles, R. S. (1965). Lower Devonian fauna of the Horlick Formation, Ohio Range, Antarctica. In ‘Geology and Paleontology of the Antarctic’. Antarctic Research Series 6, 241–281.

Forey, P. L., Young, V. T., and McClure, H. A. (1992). Lower Devonian fishes from Saudi Arabia. Bulletin of the British Museum of Natural History (Geology) 48, 25–43.

Fowler, H. W. (1947). New taxonomic names of fish-like vertebrates. Notulae Naturae 187, 1–16.

Goujet, D. (1975). Dicksonosteus, un nouvel arthrodire du Dévonien du Spitsberg. Colloque international. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 218, 81–99.

Goujet, D. (1984). ‘Les Poissons Placodermes du Spitsberg. Arthrodires Dolichothoraci de la Formation de Wood Bay (Dévonien Inférieur).’ Cahiers de Paléontologie, Section Vertebrés. Paris: Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique. 284 pp.

Gross, W. (1931). Asterolepis ornate Eichw. und das Antiarchi-Problem. Palaeontographica A 75, 1–62.

Gross, W. (1962). Neuuntersuchung der Dolichothoraci aus dem Unterdevon von Overath bei Koln. Palaontologischen Zeitschrift, H. Schmidt-Festband , 45–63.
CrossRef |

Gross, W. (1965). Uber die Placodermen-Gattungen Asterolepis und Tiaraspis aus dem Devon Belgiens und einen fraglichen Tiaraspis-Rest aus dem Devon Spitzbergens. Institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique Bulletin 41, 1–19.

Gunn, B. M., and Warren, G. (1962). Geology of Victoria Land between the Mawson and Mulock Glaciers, Antarctica. Trans-Antarctic Expedition 1955–1958. Scientific Reports. Geology 11, 1–157.

Hanley, W. S. (1978). ‘The Griffith Taylor Collection. Diaries and Letters of a Geographer in Antarctica.’ (Department of Geography, University of New England: Armidale.). 232 pp.

Heintz, A. (1933). Some remarks about the structure of Phlyctaenaspis acadica (Whiteaves). Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 14, 127–144.

Janvier, P., and Clément, G. (2005). A new groenlandaspidid Arthrodire (Vertebrata: Placodermi) from the Famennian of Belgium. Geologica Belgica 8, 51–67.

Johanson, Z. (2002). Vascularization of the osteostracan and antiarch (Placodermi) pectoral fin: similarities, and implications for placoderm relationships. Lethaia 35, 169–186.
CrossRef |

Long, J. A. (1989). Phyllolepid placoderms from the Late Devonian of eastern Victoria. In ‘Pathways in Geology: Essays in Honour of Edwin Sherbon Hills’. (Ed. R. W. Le Maitre.) pp. 52–58. (Blackwell Scientific Publications: Melbourne.)

Long, J. A. (1995). A new groenlandaspidid arthrodire (Pisces: Placodermi) from the Middle Devonian Aztec Siltstone, southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Records of the Western Australian Museum 17, 35–41.

Long, J. A., and Trinajstic, K. (2010). The Late Devonian Gogo Formation Lagerstatten of Western Australia: exceptional early vertebrate preservation and diversity. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 38, 255–279.
CrossRef | CAS |

Long, J. A., and Young, G. C. (1995). Sharks from the Middle–Late Devonian Aztec Siltstone, southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Records of the Western Australian Museum 17, 287–308.

Long, J. A., Anderson, M. E., Gess, R. W., and Hiller, N. (1997). New placoderm fishes from the Late Devonian of South Africa. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 17, 253–268.
CrossRef |

Long, J. A., Choo, B., and Young, G. C. (2008a). A new basal actinopterygian fish from the Middle Devonian Aztec Siltstone of Antarctica. Antarctic Science 20, 393–412.
CrossRef |

Long, J. A., Trinajstic, K., Young, G. C., and Senden, T. (2008b). Live birth in the Devonian Period. Nature 453, 650–652.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

McCoy, F. (1848). On some new fossil fishes of the Carboniferous period. Annals & Magazine of Natural History 2, 1–10.

McKelvey, B. C., Webb, P. N., Gorton, M. P., and Kohn, B. P. (1972). Stratigraphy of the Beacon Supergroup between the Olympus and Boomerang Ranges, Victoria Land. In ‘Antarctic Geology and Geophysics’. (Ed. R. J. Adie.) pp. 345–352. (Universitetsforlaget: Oslo.)

McPherson, J. G. (1978). Stratigraphy and sedimentology of the Upper Devonian Aztec Siltstone, southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics 21, 667–683.
CrossRef |

McPherson, J. G. (1979). Calcrete (caliche) palaeosols in fluvial redbeds of the Aztec Siltstone (Upper Devonian), southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Sedimentary Geology 22, 267–285.
CrossRef |

Obruchev, D. V. (1964). ‘Osnovy Paleontologii v. 11, Beschelyostni i Ribi.’ (Moscow) [English translation: ‘Fundamentals of Paleontology, Agnatha and Pisces’ Israel Program for Scientific Translation, 1967.]

Retallack, G. J. (1997). Early forest soils and their role in Devonian global change. Science 276, 583–585.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Ritchie, A. (1972). Appendix. Devonian fish. In ‘Antarctic Geology and Geophysics’. (Ed. R. J. Adie.) pp. 351–352. (Universitetsforlaget: Oslo.)

Ritchie, A. (1975). Groenlandaspis in Antarctica, Australia and Europe. Nature 254, 569–573.
CrossRef |

Ritchie, A. (2004). A new genus and two new species of groenlandaspidid arthrodire (Pisces: Placodermi) from the Early–Middle Devonian Mulga Downs Group of western New South Wales, Australia. Fossils and Strata 50, 56–81.

Schultze, H.-P. (1984). The head shield of Tiaraspis subtilis (Gross). Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 107, 355–365.

Schultze, H.-P., and Cloutier, R. (1996). Comparison of the Escuminac Formation ichthyofauna with other late Givetian/early Frasnian ichthyofaunas. In ‘Devonian Fishes and Plants of Miguasha, Quebec, Canada’. (Eds H.-P. Schultze and R. Cloutier.) pp. 348–368. (Verlag Dr Friedrich Pfeil: Munich.)

Stensiö, E. A. (1931). Upper Devonian vertebrates from East Greenland, collected by the Danish Greenland expedition in 1929 and 1930. Meddelelser om Grønland 86, 1–212.

Taylor, T. G. (1910). The Archaeocyathinae from the Cambrian ‘coral reefs’ of South Australia, with an account of the morphology and affinities of the whole class. Memoirs of the Royal Society of South Australia 2, 55–188.

Taylor, T. G. (1913). The western journeys. In ‘Scott’s Last Expedition. Vol. II’. (Ed. L. Huxley.) pp. 182–290. (Smith Elder: London.)

Taylor, T. G. (1914). Physiography and glacial geology of East Antarctica. The Geographical Journal 44, 365–382, 452–467, 553–571.

Taylor, T. G. (1916). ‘With Scott: The Silver Lining.’ (Smith Elder: London.) 464 pp.

Taylor, T. G. (1930). ‘Antarctic Adventure and Research.’ (Appleton and Co.) 245 pp.

Turner, S. (1997). Sequence of Devonian thelodont scale assemblages in East Gondwana. Geological Society of America - Special Publications 321, 295–315.

Turner, S., and Young, G. C. (1992). Thelodont scales from the Middle–Late Devonian Aztec Siltstone, southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Antarctic Science 4, 89–105.
CrossRef |

Turner, S., Jones, P. J., and Draper, J. J. (1981). Early Devonian thelodonts (Agnatha) from the Toko Syncline, western Queensland, and a review of other Australian discoveries. BMR Journal of Australian Geology and Geophysics 6, 51–69.

White, E. I. (1968). Devonian fishes of the Mawson–Mulock area, Victoria Land, Antarctica, Trans-Antarctic Expedition 1955–1958. Scientific Reports. Geology 16, 1–26.

Woodward, A. S. (1891). ‘Catalogue of Fossil Fishes. Part 2.’ (British Museum (Natural History): London.)

Woodward, A. S. (1916). On Devonian fish-remains from Australia and the Antarctic regions. Proceedings of the Geological Society of London 72, 79–80.

Woodward, A. S. (1921). Fish-remains from the Upper Old Red Sandstone of Granite Harbour, Antarctica. British Antarctic (Terra Nova) Expedition, 1910. Natural History Report (Geology) 1, 51–62.

Woolfe, K. J., Long, J. A., Bradshaw, M., Harmsen, F., and Kirkbride, M. (1990). Discovery of fish-bearing Aztec Siltstone (Devonian) in the Cook Mountains, Antarctica. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics 33, 511–514.
CrossRef |

Young, G. C. (1982). Devonian sharks from south-eastern Australia and Antarctica. Palaeontology 25, 817–843.

Young, G. C. (1983). A new asterolepidoid antiarch (Placodermi) from the Late Devonian of southeastern Australia. BMR Journal of Australian Geology and Geophysics 8, 71–81.

Young, G. C. (1988). Antiarchs (placoderm fishes) from the Devonian Aztec Siltstone, southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Palaeontographica A 202, 1–125.

Young, G. C. (1989a). The Aztec fish fauna of southern Victoria Land – evolutionary and biogeographic significance. In ‘Origins and Evolution of the Antarctic Biota’. (Ed. J. A. Crame.) Geological Society of London Special Publications 47, 43–62.

Young, G. C. (1989b). New occurrences of culmacanthid acanthodians (Pisces, Devonian) from Antarctica and southeastern Australia. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 111, 12–25.

Young, G. C. (1991). Fossil fishes from Antarctica. In ‘The Geology of Antarctica’. (Ed. R. J. Tingey.) pp. 538–567. (Oxford University Press: Oxford.)

Young, G. C. (1992). Description of the fish spine. In ‘Geology and Paleontology of the Ellsworth Mountains, West Antarctica’. (Eds G. F. Webers, C. Craddock, and J. F. Splettstoesser.) pp. 273–278. Geological Society of America, Memoir No. 170. xiii+459 pp.

Young, G. C. (1993). Middle Palaeozoic macrovertebrate biostratigraphy of eastern Gondwana. In ‘Palaeozoic Vertebrate Biostratigraphy and Biogeography’. (Ed. J. A. Long.) pp. 208–251. (Belhaven Press: London.)

Young, G. C. (1996). Devonian (Chart 4). In ‘An Australian Phanerozoic Timescale’. (Eds G.C.Young, and J. R.Laurie.) pp. 96–109. (Oxford University Press: Melbourne.)

Young, G. C. (2003). Did placoderm fish have teeth? Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23, 987–990.
CrossRef |

Young, G. C. (2005). New phyllolepids (placoderm fishes) from the Middle–Late Devonian of southeastern Australia. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 25, 261–273.
CrossRef |

Young, G. C. (2008a). Relationships of tristichopterids (osteolepiform lobe-finned fishes) from the Middle–Late Devonian of East Gondwana. Alcheringa 32, 321–336.
CrossRef |

Young, G. C. (2008b). The relationships of antiarchs (Devonian placoderm fishes) – evidence supporting placoderm monophyly. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 28, 626–636.
CrossRef |

Young, G. C. (2010a). Placoderms (armored fish): dominant vertebrates of the Devonian Period. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 38, 523–550.
CrossRef | CAS |

Young, G. C. (2010b). A new antiarch (placoderm fish: Devonian) from the south coast of New South Wales, Australia. In ‘Morphology, Phylogeny and Paleobiogeography of Fossil Fishes [in Honor of Meemann Chang]’. (Eds D. K. Elliott, J. G. Maisey, X. Yu, and D. Miao.) pp. 85–100. (Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil: München, Germany.)

Young, G. C. (2011). Wee Jasper–Lake Burrinjuck fossil fish sites: scientific background to National Heritage Nomination. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 132, 83–107.

Young, G. C., and Burrow, C. (2004). Diplacanthid acanthodians from the Aztec Siltstone (late Middle Devonian) of southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. In ‘Lower Vertebrates from the Palaeozoic’. (Ed. G. C. Young.) First International Palaeontological Congress (IPC 2002), Sydney, Australia, July 2002. Proceedings of Symposium 6 (Palaeozoic Vertebrates). Fossils and Strata 50, 23–43.

Young, G. C., and Gorter, J. D. (1981). A new fish fauna of Middle Devonian age from the Taemas/Wee Jasper region of New South Wales. Bureau of Mineral Resources Bulletin 209, 83–147.

Young, G. C., and Goujet, D. (2003). Devonian fish remains from the Dulcie Sandstone and Cravens Peak Beds, Georgina Basin, central Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum (Supplement) 65, 1–85.

Young, G. C., and Long, J. A. (2005). Phyllolepid placoderm fish remains from the Devonian Aztec Siltstone, southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Antarctic Science 17, 387–408.
CrossRef |

Young, G. C., and Moody, J. M. (2002). A Middle–Late Devonian fish fauna from the Sierra de Perijá, western Venezuela, South America. Mitteilungen aus dem Museum für Naturkunde in Berlin. Geowissenschaftliche Reihe 5, 153–204.

Young, G. C., Long, J. A., and Ritchie, A. (1992). Crossopterygian fishes from the Devonian of Antarctica: systematics, relationships and biogeographic significance. Records of the Australian Museum (Supplement) 14, 1–77.
CrossRef |

Young, G. C., Moody, J., and Casas, J. (2000). New discoveries of Devonian vertebrates from South America, and implications for Gondwana–Euramerica contact. Comptes Rendus de l’Academie des Sciences, Paris 331, 755–761.

Young, G. C., Burrow, C., Long, J. A., Turner, S., and Choo, B. (2010). Devonian macrovertebrate assemblages and biogeography of East Gondwana (Australasia, Antarctica). Palaeoworld 19, 55–74.
CrossRef |

Young, V. T. (1983). Taxonomy of the arthrodire Phlyctaenius from the Lower or Middle Devonian of Campbellton, New Brunswick, Canada. Bulletin of the British Museum of Natural History (Geology) 37, 1–35.

Young, V. T. (1986). Early Devonian fish material from the Horlick Formation, Ohio Range, Antarctica. Alcheringa 10, 35–44.
CrossRef |

Zhu, M., Yu, X., Choo, B., Wang, J., and Jia, L. (2012). An antiarch placoderm shows that pelvic girdles arose at the root of jawed vertebrates. Biology Letters , .
CrossRef | PubMed |

Zhu, M., Yu, X., Ahlberg, P. E., Choo, B., Lu, J., Qiao, T., Qu, Q., Zhao, W., Jia, L., Blom, H., and Zhu, Y. (2013). A Silurian placoderm with osteichthyan-like marginal jaw bones. Nature , .
CrossRef | PubMed |


   
Subscriber Login
Username:
Password:  

 
    
Legal & Privacy | Contact Us | Help

CSIRO

© CSIRO 1996-2014