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Author Instructions

All manuscripts should be submitted via ScholarOne Manuscripts.

Licence to publish
For details regarding copyright, please see Copyright/Licence to Publish.

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Open access
Authors may choose to publish their paper Open Access on payment of a publication fee. See Open Access for more details.

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Journal editorial policy
Emu publishes original research papers, reviews and short communications on the ornithology of the Southern Hemisphere. All papers are refereed.

Manuscripts are accepted on the understanding that they are being offered only to Emu. Abstracts and posters from conferences, where the full data set is not presented and the interpretation of results is not developed, would not normally be regarded as publications but where material has been widely disseminated in report form the Editor should be consulted.

Review papers are approved for refereeing by the Editorial Board, and should indicate fruitful areas of further research and be original and innovative. If new experimental data are included in the review, sufficient detail about methods should be included so that other investigators can repeat the work.

Short communications are no longer than four printed pages (max 3500 words, including figures and tables) and may report results from a preliminary or brief but well-designed study. They should contain all sections including a short abstract, although results and discussion may be combined.

The journal requires that all authors of a multi-authored paper agree to its submission. The journal will use its best endeavours to ensure that work published is that of the named authors except where acknowledged and, through its reviewing procedures, that any published results and conclusions are consistent with the primary data. It takes no responsibility for fraud or inaccuracy on the part of the contributors.

Authors of accepted papers will be asked to provide a 150-200-word lay summary of the paper for interested non-experts, such as journalists, teachers, government workers, etc. It will be provided to BirdLife Australia for their website and for press release purposes. The purpose of the text is to convince readers of the significance of the work and the main motivation for doing it. The first sentence should engage the reader, convincing them that this is an important area. The second sentence should introduce the problem addressed in the paper, the third the main discovery. The final sentence should describe how the results fit into the bigger picture. Overall the summary should be free from scientific jargon.

Animal experimentation. Papers reporting work with animals must include a reference to the code of practice adopted for the reported experimentation. The Editor will take account of animal welfare issues and reserves the right not to publish.

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Submission and preparation of manuscripts
To submit your paper, please use our online journal management system ScholarOne Manuscripts, which can be reached directly through this link or from the link on the journal´s homepage. If a first-time user, register via the ´Register here´ link, or use your existing username and password to log in. Then click on the ´Author Centre´ link and proceed.

A covering letter must accompany the submission and should include the name, address, fax and telephone numbers, and email address of the corresponding author. The letter should also contain a statement justifying why the work should be considered for publication in the journal, and that the manuscript has not been published or simultaneously submitted for publication elsewhere. Please list at least 4 potential referees for your paper, which the Editors may take into consideration if sending your manuscript out for peer review. Do not include any names of current or recent collaborators, members of your own research institution/group or other people who could be viewed as not impartial to your research outputs. Potential reviewers should be expert in some aspect of your research, which should be highlighted in your submission.

If you encounter any difficulties, or you have any queries, please contact:
Emu - Austral Ornithology
CSIRO Publishing
Locked Bag 10
Clayton South, Vic. 3169
Telephone +61 3 9545 8526
Fax +61 3 9545 8578
Email publishing.emu@csiro.au

Authors are advised to read recent issues of the journal to note details of the scope of papers, headings, tables, illustrations, style, and general form. Observance of these and the following details will shorten the time between submission and publication. Poorly prepared and unnecessarily lengthy manuscripts have less chance of being accepted.

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Checklist for preparation of manuscripts

  1. Type the manuscript double- or 1.5-line-spaced throughout, including references, figure captions, and tables, which should be placed at the end of the document. Clearly numbered figures should also be included at the end of the document at submission stage (see presentation of figures). Pages must be numbered and line numbers must be included.
  2. Type the title and all headings aligned left, with only the first letter of the first word and of any proper name capitalised. Type the text unjustified and without end-of-line hyphenation, except in the case of compound words.
  3. Main headings (Introduction, Materials and methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgments, References) are set in bold roman (not italic) type. Minor headings are set in light italic type.
  4. Do not indent paragraphs or use a hard return (Enter) at the end of lines within a paragraph.
  5. Use ´s´ not ´z´ in words such as ´recognise´, ´analyse´ and ´organisation´.
  6. Use the conventions ´from ... to´, ´between ... and´, ´range x-y´.
  7. Use single quotation marks.
  8. Check carefully that all references mentioned in the text are in the References, and vice versa.
  9. List references in the text in chronological order, separated by semi-colons. List references in the References list in alphabetical order. In the text, do not use a comma between the author´s name and the date.
  10. Give journal and book titles in full in the References list.
  11. Do not use tabs to create hanging indents within the References.
  12. Spell out numbers less than 10 unless with a unit. Type a space between a numeral and its unit.
  13. Prepare figures with symbols and letters appropriate for the reduction intended. Use Helvetica or another sans-serif font in figures.
  14. Type tables with the title as a separate paragraph. Put explanatory matter referring to the table as a whole in a headnote, which should be in a separate paragraph from the title, and directly under the heading.
  15. Check that figures and tables are numbered in the order in which they are discussed in the text.
  16. Suggest a running head for the paper of not more than 50 characters (including spaces).
  17. Provide a postal address, telephone number and email address for the corresponding author.

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Guidelines for the preparation of manuscripts

General presentation. The work should be presented in concise and clear English. The Introduction should not exceed what is necessary to indicate the reason for the work and its essential background. Sufficient experimental detail should be given to enable the work to be repeated. The Discussion should focus attention on the significance of the results.

Supplementary material of a detailed nature that may be useful to other workers but which is not essential to the printed paper may be lodged as Supplementary Material with the Journal, provided that it is submitted with the manuscript for inspection by the referees. Such material will be made available through the Emu website and a note to this effect should be included in the paper.

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Title. The title should be concise, interesting and appropriately informative with respect to the main subject of the paper. It should contain sufficient keywords to facilitate retrieval by modern searching techniques. Place names should be avoided unless the geographic location is critical to the point of the paper. An abridged title suitable for use as a running head at the top of the printed page and not exceeding 50 letter spaces should also be supplied.

If the paper is one of a numbered series, a reference to the previous part should be given as a footnote on the first page. If a part not yet published needs to be consulted for a proper understanding of the paper, a copy of that manuscript should be supplied to assist the referees.

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Abstract. The Abstract (no more than 200 words) should state concisely the scope of the work and give the principal findings. It should be complete enough for direct use by abstracting services. Acronyms and references should be avoided in the Abstract.

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Footnotes in text should be used only when essential. They should be placed within horizontal rules immediately under the lines to which they refer.

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Scientific names of species and genera (but not of families) should be typed in italics or underlined. They should appear after the first mention of a species by its vernacular name, enclosed in parentheses. Only one of the names need appear thereafter. In systematic lists the scientific name should be written first, followed by the vernacular name. Nomenclature must be based on a recognised taxonomy, which should be cited and explained in the text. The BirdLife International Taxonomy website provides useful information and lists reputable taxonomic texts by region: http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/species/taxonomy.html. Collective terms (e.g. fairy-wrens) do not need capitals, whereas specific names (e.g. Splendid Fairy-wren) do. Authors of scientific names should not be cited, nor trinomials used, unless the arguments demand it.

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References are cited chronologically in the text by author and date and are not numbered. All references in the text must be listed at the end of the paper, arranged alphabetically; all entries in this list must correspond to references in the text. In the text the names of two coauthors are linked by ´and´; for three or more the first author´s name is followed by ´et al.´. No editorial responsibility can be taken for the accuracy of the references; authors are requested to check these with special care.

Papers that have not been accepted for publication may not be included in the list of references and must be cited either as ´unpublished data´ or as ´personal communication´; the use of such citations is discouraged. The Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds (HANZAB) should only be cited with justification when it is used for species´ ranges, plumage descriptions, descriptions of calls or other descriptions specifically researched for HANZAB, or in the context of a literature review. Titles must be included for all references. Titles of periodicals must not be abbreviated.

EndNote and Reference Manager provide output styles for Emu - Austral Ornithology. References should be in the following formats:

  • Journal paper
    Ford, H. A., and Trémont, S. (2000). Life history characteristics of two Australian honeyeaters (Meliphagidae). Australian Journal of Zoology 48, 21-32.
  • Chapter in a book
    Serventy, D. L. (1971). Biology of desert birds. In ´Avian Biology. Vol. 1´. (Eds D. S. Farner and J. R. King.) pp. 287-339. (Academic Press: New York.)
  • Whole book
    Christidis, L., and Boles, W. E. (2008). ´Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds.´ (CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.)
    Sinclair, I., and Ryan, P. (2004). ´Birds of Africa South of the Sahara.´ (Princeton University Press: Princeton, NJ.)
    Turbott, E. G. (Ed.) (1990). ´Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica.´ (Random Century: Auckland, NZ.)
  • Thesis
    Briggs, S. V. (1990). Breeding ecology of Maned Ducks. Ph.D. Thesis, Australian National University, Canberra.
  • Report or bulletin
    Stokes, T. (1988). A review of the birds of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Occasional Paper No. 16. Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service, Canberra.

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Units. Authors are requested to use the International System of Units (Système International d´Unités) for exact measurements of physical quantities and where appropriate elsewhere. The double solidus must not be used in complex groupings of units; the negative index form (e.g. g kg-1 h-1) is preferred.

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Mathematical formulae should be carefully typed with symbols in correct alignment and adequately spaced. If special symbols must be hand-written, they should be inserted with care and identified by pencilled notes in the margin. Judicious use should be made of the solidus to avoid two-line mathematical expressions wherever possible and especially in the running text. Each long formula should be displayed on a separate line with at least two lines of space above and below. Complex mathematics should be set up using an equation editor.

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Enzyme nomenclature. The names of enzymes should conform to the Recommendations of the Nomenclature Committee of the IUB on the Nomenclature and Classification of Enzymes as published in ´Enzyme Nomenclature 1984´ (Academic Press, New York, 1984). If there is good reason to use a name other than the recommended name, at the first mention of the alternative name in the text it should be identified by the recommended name and EC number. The Editor should be advised of the reasons for using the alternative name.

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Chemical nomenclature. The nomenclature of compounds such as amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids, steroids, vitamins, etc. should follow the recommendations of the IUPAC-IUB Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature. Other biologically active compounds, such as metabolic inhibitors, plant growth regulators, buffers, etc., should be referred to once by their correct chemical name (which is in accordance with IUPAC rules of Chemical Nomenclature) and then by their most widely accepted common name. For pesticides, the latest issue of ´Pesticides - Synonyms and Chemical Names´ (Australian Government Publishing Service) should be followed. Where there is no common name, trade names or letter abbreviations of the chemical may be used.

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Statistical evaluation of results. The tests should be described briefly and, if necessary, supported by references. Numbers of individuals, mean values and measures of variability should be stated. It should be made clear whether the standard deviation or the standard error of the mean has been given.

The design and conduct of experiments must be sufficiently explained that readers can judge for themselves the validity of the results. Authors should describe how measurements were made and indicate how treatments were assigned to units or blocks, and the number of replicates. When common experimental designs are used a reference is not necessary, but it is appropriate to cite a reference for little-used methods or designs, in which case the use of these methods should be justified. The experimental design dictates the proper method of statistical analysis and the basis of assessing the precision of treatment means. The precision achieved should be reported by a standard error of the treatment mean or a coefficient of variation. Wherever possible, the assumptions implicit in the analysis should be checked. Treatment comparisons such as the least significant difference (l.s.d.) may be made when the variance ratio (F value) is significant, but authors must be aware of the limitations to the use of multiple comparisons. Ultimately, the statistical analyses should highlight the biological principles embodied in the results.

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Tables must be numbered with arabic numerals and each must be accompanied by a title. A headnote containing material relevant to the whole table should start on a new line as it will be set in a different font. Tables should be arranged with regard to the dimensions of the printed page (17.5 by 22 cm) and the number of columns kept to a minimum. Excessive subdivision of column headings is undesirable and long headings should be avoided by the use of explanatory notes, which should be incorporated into the headnote. The first letter only of headings to rows and vertical columns should be capitalised. The symbol for the unit of measurement should be placed in parentheses beneath the column heading. Prefixes for units should be chosen to avoid an excessive number of digits in the body of the table or scaling factors in the headings. When scaling factors cannot be avoided, the quantity expressed should be preceded by the power of 10 by which the value has been multiplied. For example, the value 0.05 would appear as 5 under the heading 102 × N and the value 500 would appear as 5 under the heading 10-2 × N. Horizontal rules should be inserted only above and below column headings and at the foot of the table. Vertical rules must not be used. Each table must be referred to in the text. Only in exceptional circumstances will the presentation of essentially the same data in both tabular and graphical form be permitted; where adequate, the graphical form should be used. Short tables can frequently be incorporated into the text as a sentence or as a brief untitled tabulation. Footnotes in tables should be reserved for specific items in columns.

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Line drawings and graphs. Line illustrations prepared using either a draw or chart/graph program should be saved in the following formats: Adobe Illustrator (.ai) (preferred format); encapsulated postscript (.eps); or Excel. Illustrations created using Powerpoint should be saved in PowerPoint or as Windows metafiles (.wmf); CorelDraw files should be saved as .eps or .ai files; charts created on a Macintosh computer should be saved as .eps, .ps or PICT files; SigmaPlot files should be saved in eps format or pasted into a Word document. In all cases they should be editable vector graphic files. Avoid using 3D surface area charts because print quality is often poor. Remove colours from all charts and graphs.

Line illustrations must be of high quality and should be created with regard to the size of the printed page (17.5 by 22 cm). Lettering should be in sans-serif type (Helvetica preferred) with the first letter of the first word and any proper names capitalised. The x-height of inscriptions at final size should be 1.2-1.3 mm (capitals 2 mm). Symbols and grid marks should be the same respective sizes, and curves and axes should be 0.5-1.0 point thick. The following symbols should be used: . The symbols + and × should be avoided. Explanations of symbols should be given in the caption to the figure. Lettering of graphs should be kept to a minimum as excessive lettering within the frame of a graph can make the lines difficult to decipher. Grid marks should point inwards; legends to axes should state the quantity being measured and be followed by the appropriate SI units in parentheses. Unsatisfactory artwork will be returned for correction.

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Photographs. Digital images should be prepared and photographs scanned at a resolution of at least 300 dpi at final size and saved in greyscale format as TIFF or Photoshop files. It is preferable for labels to be applied electronically to the scanned images in Photoshop, rather than scanning manually labeled figures. Electronic files of colour figures or photographs should be saved in CMYK colour not in RGB colour, because the CMYK format is required for printing. Authors should note that colours change when converted to CMYK from RGB and when printed from different types of printer; hence, when colour accuracy is important, authors should provide a hard copy that is correct so that colour reproduction during printing can be matched to an accurate original. Note that the journal does not cover the cost of printing colour pages, so please speak to the Editor if you wish to publish photographs in colour.

Photographs must be of the highest quality with sharp focus, a full range of tones and of good contrast. They must be trimmed squarely to exclude features not relevant to the paper and, in figures with multiple panels, each image should be separated from adjacent images by uniform spaces that will be 2 mm wide. Lettering should be in a sans-serif type and contrast with its background; thus, white lettering should be used on darker backgrounds. The size of lettering should be such that the final height after reduction is 1.5-2.0 mm. Important features to which attention has been drawn in the text should be indicated.

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Page proofs and corrections
Copyedited manuscripts and subsequently page proofs are sent to the corresponding author for checking prior to publication. At these stages only essential alterations and correction of publisher errors may be undertaken. Excessive author alterations at page proof stage will be charged back to the author at $5 per item.

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A PDF file will be supplied to the corresponding author on publication of the article. Paper reprints may also be ordered before publication. An order form is sent to the corresponding author with the final page proofs.

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