CSIRO Publishing blank image blank image blank image blank imageBooksblank image blank image blank image blank imageJournalsblank image blank image blank image blank imageAbout Usblank image blank image blank image blank imageShopping Cartblank image blank image blank image You are here: Journals > Australian Journal of Botany   
Australian Journal of Botany
Journal Banner
  Southern Hemisphere Botanical Ecosystems
blank image Search
blank image blank image
blank image
  Advanced Search

Journal Home
About the Journal
Editorial Board
Online Early
Current Issue
Just Accepted
All Issues
Special Issues
Turner Review Series
Sample Issue
For Authors
General Information
Notice to Authors
Submit Article
Open Access
For Referees
Referee Guidelines
Review Article
Annual Referee Index
For Subscribers
Subscription Prices
Customer Service
Print Publication Dates

blue arrow e-Alerts
blank image
Subscribe to our Email Alert or RSS feeds for the latest journal papers.

red arrow Connect with us
blank image
facebook twitter youtube

red arrow PrometheusWiki
blank image
Protocols in ecological and environmental plant physiology


Article << Previous     |         Contents Vol 61(1)

Interactions between Callitris above-ground biomass, species density and plant form in north-eastern New South Wales

John T. Hunter

School of Behavioural, Cognitive and Social Sciences, University of New England, Armidale, NSW 2351, Australia. Email: jhunter8@bigpond.com

Australian Journal of Botany 61(1) 73-79 http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/BT12317
Submitted: 28 November 2012  Accepted: 16 January 2013   Published: 21 February 2013

 Full Text
 PDF (635 KB)
 Export Citation

Dense Callitris endlicheri (Parl.) F.M.Bailey (black cypress pine) and C. glaucophylla Joy Thomps. & L.A.S.Johnson (white cypress pine) stands are often viewed as problematic and thinning is often encouraged from a biodiversity perspective. In the present investigation, canonical correspondence analyses (CCAs) of 997 survey sites were undertaken within the public and private reserve network that contains a variety of above-ground biomass (AGB) of C. endlicheri and C. glaucophylla (as measured by diameter at breast height (DBH) and dispersion) and the evenness of the species distribution was undertaken. This was done to further dissect the effect of Callitris AGB on species density (richness per quadrat) of native and introduced species and on broad life-form groupings. Other landscape features such as altitude, physiography, drainage and soil depth were also included in analyses. C. endlicheri and C. glaucophylla grow in different biophysical locations in most instances and this was reflected in the results of the study. No level of AGB or clumping of C. endlicheri was found to affect species density of native or introduced taxa or the distribution of life-forms. Increasing AGB of C. glaucophylla had a positive effect on native species density. The species density of introduced taxa was also increased with an increase in C. glaucophylla AGB. The distribution of life-forms was significantly affected by an increase in Callitris AGB with a decrease in trees, shrubby taxa and hemi-parasites, although herbaceous species had a concomitant increase in number. There is no reason to thin dense Callitris stands to increase local species richness. However, because the distribution of life-form types is significantly affected by C. glaucophylla, there is a need to understand what is occurring in species replacements and what landscape mosaic of structural types is required for this species. It is likely that dense stands of Callitris are important, along with a variety of stand densities so as to maintain the highest regional diversity.


Andrews S (2003) ‘Regrowth white cypress pine and natural resource management.’ (Greening Australia: Armidale, NSW)

Bickel DJ, Tasker EM (2004) Tree trunk invertebrates in Australian forests: conserving unknown species and complex processes. In ‘Conservation of Australia’s forest fauna’. (Ed. D. Lunney) pp. 888-898. (Royal Zoological Society of NSW: Sydney)

Boland DJ, Brooker MIH, Chippendale GM, Hall N, Hyland BPM, Johnston RD, Kleinig DA, Turner JD (1984) ‘Forest trees of Australia.’ (Nelson CSIRO: Melbourne)

Clayton-Greene KA, Aston DA (1990) The dynamics of Callitris columellaris/Eucalyptus albens communities along the Snowy River and its tributaries in south-eastern Australia. Australian Journal of Botany 38, 403–432.
CrossRef |

Cleveland WS, Devlin SJ (1988) Locally-weighted regression: an approach to regression analysis by local fitting. Journal of the American Statistical Association 83, 596–610.
CrossRef |

Cohn JS, Lunt ID, Bradstock RA, Koen T (2012) Interactions between dense Callitris regeneration and Eucalyptus and Callitris canopy trees in semiarid woodlands. Australian Journal of Botany 60, 549–558.
CrossRef |

Croft PJ, Hoffmayer D, Hunter JT (2006) Fire response traits of four rare species at Gibraltar Range National park. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 127, 57–62.

Hammer O, Harper DAT, Ryan PD (2001) PAST: paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeontologia Electronica 4, 1–9.

Hunter JT (2003) Persistence on inselbergs: the role of obligate seeders and resprouters. Journal of Biogeography 30, 497–510.
CrossRef |

Hunter JT (2011) A broad brush-stroke test of an assumption: does increasing Callitris cover reduce native species richness (species density)? Cunninghamia 12, 115–118.

Lacey CJ (1973) Silvicultural characteristics of white cypress pine. Research note no. 26. Forestry Commission of New South Wales, Sydney.

Leps J, Smilauer P (2003) ‘Multivariate analysis of ecological data using CANOCO.’ (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK)

Lunt ID, Jones N, Spooner PG, Petrow M (2006) Effects of European colonization on indigenous ecosystems: post settlement changes in tree stand structures in Eucalyptus-Callitris woodlands in central New South Wales, Australia. Journal of Biogeography 33, 1102–1115.
CrossRef |

Majer JD, Recher HF, Heterick BE, Postle AC (2002) The canopy, bark, soil and litter invertebrate fauna of the Darling Plateau and adjacent woodland near Perth, Western Australia, with reference to the diversity of forest and woodland invertebrates. Pacific Conservation Biology 7, 229–239.

McElhinny C, Gibbons P, Brack C, Bauhus J (2006) Fauna–habitat relationships: a basis for identifying key stand structural attributes in temperate Australian eucalypt forests and woodlands. Pacific Conservation Biology 12, 89–110.

Noland A (1997) ‘Sustainable management strategy for travelling stock routes and reserves in central western New South Wales.’ (Rural Lands Protection board: Orange, NSW)

Oliver D (2011) To thin or not to thin? The value of dense native woody vegetation for birds. Woodland Wanderings Newsletter 8, 8–16.

ter Braak CJF, Smilauer P (1998) ‘CANOCO reference manual and users guide to Canoco for Windows: software for canonical community ordination (Version 4).’ (Microcomputer Power: Ithaca, NY)

Thompson WA, Eldridge DJ (2005a) Plant cover and composition in relation to density of Callitris glaucophylla (white cypress pine) along a rainfall gradient in eastern Australia. Australian Journal of Botany 53, 545–554.
CrossRef |

Thompson WA, Eldridge DJ (2005b) White cypress pine (Callitris glaucophylla): a review of its roles in landscape and ecological processes in eastern Australia. Australian Journal of Botany 53, 555–570.
CrossRef |

Walker J, Moore RM, Roberston JA (1972) Herbage response to tree and shrub thinning in Eucalyptus populnea shrub woodlands. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 23, 405–410.
CrossRef |

Westhoff V, Maarel VD (1978) The Braun–Blanquet approach. In ‘Classification of plant communities’. (Ed. RH Whittaker) pp. 617–726. (Junk: The Hague, The Netherlands)

Legal & Privacy | Contact Us | Help


© CSIRO 1996-2014