CSIRO Publishing blank image blank image blank image blank imageBooksblank image blank image blank image blank imageJournalsblank image blank image blank image blank imageAbout Usblank image blank image blank image blank imageShopping Cartblank image blank image blank image You are here: Journals > Environmental Chemistry   
Environmental Chemistry
Journal Banner
  Environmental problems - Chemical approaches
 
blank image Search
 
blank image blank image
blank image
 
  Advanced Search
   

Journal Home
About the Journal
Editorial Boards
Contacts
Content
Online Early
Current Issue
Just Accepted
All Issues
Virtual Issues
Special Issues
Research Fronts
Sample Issue
Call for Papers
For Authors
General Information
Notice to Authors
Submit Article
Open Access
For Referees
Referee Guidelines
Review an Article
For Subscribers
Subscription Prices
Customer Service

blue arrow e-Alerts
blank image
Subscribe to our Email Alert or RSS feeds for the latest journal papers.

red arrow Connect with us
blank image
facebook twitter youtube

 

Article << Previous     |     Next >>   Contents Vol 7(6)

Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM) – a review of performed application and validation studies, and future prospects

Konstantinos E. Kakosimos A D , Ole Hertel B C , Matthias Ketzel B and Ruwim Berkowicz B

A Laboratory of Thermophysical Properties and Environmental Processes, Chemical Engineering Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Box 453, Egnatia Street, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece.
B National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, PO Box 358, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark.
C Institute for Environmental, Social and Spatial Change, Roskilde University, Universitetsvej 1, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark.
D Corresponding author. Email: kkakosim@cheng.auth.gr

Environmental Chemistry 7(6) 485-503 http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/EN10070
Submitted: 3 July 2010  Accepted: 26 October 2010   Published: 21 December 2010


 
PDF (1.3 MB) $25
 Export Citation
 Print
  

Environmental context. Trafficked streets are air pollution hot spots where people experience high exposure to hazardous pollutants. Although monitoring networks provide crucial information about measured pollutant levels, the measurements are resource demanding and thus can be performed at only few selected sites. Fast and easily applied street pollution models are therefore necessary tools to provide information about the loadings in streets without measurement activities. We evaluate the Operational Street Pollution Model, one of the most commonly applied models in air pollution management and research worldwide.

Abstract. Traffic emissions constitute a major source of health hazardous air pollution in urban areas. Models describing pollutant levels in urban streets are thus important tools in air pollution management as a supplement to measurements in routine monitoring programmes. A widely used model in this context is the fast and easy to apply Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM). For almost 20 years, OSPM has been routinely used in many countries for studying traffic pollution, performing analyses of field campaign measurements, studying efficiency of pollution abatement strategies, carrying out exposure assessments and as reference in comparisons to other models. OSPM is generally considered as state-of-the-art in applied street pollution modelling. This paper outlines the most important findings in OSPM validation and application studies in literature. At the end of the paper, future research needs are outlined for traffic air pollution modelling in general but with outset in the research performed with OSPM.

Additional keywords: air pollution assessment, air quality, integrated air, modelling.


References

[1]  WHO air quality guidelines for particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen, dioxide and sulfur dioxide. Summary of risk assessment 2006 (WHO Press: Geneva).

[2]  O. Hertel, F. De Leeuw, O. Raaschou-Nielsen, S. S. Jensen, D. Gee, O. Herbarth, S. Pryor, F. Palmgren, E. Olsen, Human exposure to outdoor air pollution (IUPAC technical report). Pure Appl. Chem. 2001, 73, 933.
CrossRef | CAS |

[3]  O. Hertel, T. Ellermann, F. Palmgren, R. Berkowicz, P. Løfstrøm, L. M. Frohn, C. Geels, C. A. Skjøth, J. Brandt, J. Christensen, K. Kemp, M. Ketzel, Integrated air-quality monitoring – combined use of measurements and models in monitoring programmes. Environ. Chem. 2007, 4, 65.
CrossRef | CAS |

[4]  S. Vardoulakis, B. E. A. Fisher, K. Pericleous, N. Gonzalez-Flesca, Modelling air quality in street canyons: a review. Atmos. Environ. 2003, 37, 155.
CrossRef | CAS |

[5]  N. Sharma, K. K. Chaudhry, C. V. C. Rao, Vehicular pollution prediction modelling: a review of highway dispersion models. Transp. Rev. 2004, 24, 409.
CrossRef |

[6]  P. Sharma, M. Khare, Modelling of vehicular exhausts – a review. Transport. Res. D – Tr. E. 2001, 6, 179.
CrossRef |

[7]  S. Gokhale, M. Khare, A review of deterministic, stochastic and hybrid vehicular exhaust emission models. Int. J. Transp. Manage. 2004, 2, 59.
CrossRef |

[8]  N. S. Holmes, L. Morawska, A review of dispersion modelling and its application to the dispersion of particles: an overview of different dispersion models available. Atmos. Environ. 2006, 40, 5902.
CrossRef | CAS |

[9]  X. X. Li, C. H. Liu, D. Y. C. Leung, K. M. Lam, Recent progress in CFD modelling of wind field and pollutant transport in street canyons. Atmos. Environ. 2006, 40, 5640.
CrossRef | CAS |

[10]  T. Pierce, V. Isakov, B. Haneke, J. Paumier, Emission and air quality modeling tools for near-roadway applications. Report EPA-600/R-09/001 2008 (US Environmental Protection Agency).

[11]  N. Moussiopoulos, F. de Leeuw, K. Karatzas, A. Bassoukos, The air quality model documentation system of the European Environment Agency. Int. J. Environ. Pollut. 2000, 14, 10..

[12]  O. Hertel, R. Berkowicz, Operational street pollution model (OSPM) – evaluation of data and model development, Report A-135 1989 (Ministry of the Environment, National Environmental Research Institute: Roskilde, Denmark).

[13]  O. Hertel, R. Berkowicz, Modelling pollution from traffic in a street canyon – evaluation of data and model development. Report A-129 1989 (Ministry of the Environment, National Environmental Research Institute: Roskilde, Denmark).

[14]  R. Berkowicz, Modelling street canyon pollution: model requirements and expectations. Int. J. Environ. Pollut. 1997, 8, 609..

[15]  R. Berkowicz, OSPM – a parameterised street pollution model. Environ. Monit. Assess. 2000, 65, 323.
CrossRef | CAS |

[16]  F. Palmgren, R. Berkowicz, O. Hertel, E. Vignati, Effects of reduction of NOx on the NO2 levels in urban streets. Sci. Total Environ. 1996, 189–190, 409.
CrossRef |

[17]  J. den Boeft, H. C. Eerens, W. A. M. den Tonkelaar, P. Y. J. Zandveld, C. A. R. International, a simple model to determine city street air quality. Sci. Total Environ. 1996, 189–190, 321.
CrossRef |

[18]  H. C. Eerens, C. J. Sliggers, K. D. Van den Hout, The Car Model – the Dutch method to determine city street air-quality. Atmos. Environ., B Urban Atmos. 1993, 27, 389.
CrossRef |

[19]  E. Vignati, O. Hertel, R. Berkowicz, Generation of input parameters for OSPM calculations – sensitivity analysis of a method based on a questionnaire. Report No 188 1997 (Ministry of the Environment, Danish National Environmental Research Institute: Roskilde, Denmark).

[20]  S. B. Gokhale, A. Rebours, M. Pavageau, The performance evaluation of WinOSPM model for urban street canyons of Nantes in France. Environ. Monit. Assess. 2005, 100, 153.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[21]  J. Kukkonen, E. Valkonen, J. Walden, T. Koskentalo, A. Karppinen, R. Berkowicz, R. Kartastenpää, Measurements and modelling of air pollution in a street canyon in Helsinki. Environ. Monit. Assess. 2000, 65, 371.
CrossRef | CAS |

[22]  N. S. Dixon, J. W. D. Boddy, R. J. Smalley, A. S. Tomlin, Evaluation of a turbulent flow and dispersion model in a typical street canyon in York, UK. Atmos. Environ. 2006, 40, 958.
CrossRef | CAS |

[23]  L. X. Fu, J. M. Hao, D. He, K. He, Modeling air pollution from traffic in urban street canyon. Qinghua Daxue Xuebao [Journal of Tsinghua University] 1999, 39, 99..

[24]  R. Berkowicz, F. Palmgren, O. Hertel, E. Vignati, Using measurements of air pollution in streets for evaluation of urban air quality – meteorological analysis and model calculations. Sci. Total Environ. 1996, 189–190, 259.
CrossRef |

[25]  O. Hertel, M. Hvidberg, M. Ketzel, L. Storm, L. Stausgaard, A proper choice of route significantly reduces air pollution exposure – a study on bicycle and bus trips in urban streets. Sci. Total Environ. 2008, 389, 58.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[26]  O. V. Taseiko, S. V. Mikhailuta, A. Pitt, A. A. Lezhenin, Y. V. Zakharov, Air pollution dispersion within urban street canyons. Atmos. Environ. 2009, 43, 245.
CrossRef | CAS |

[27]  R. Berkowicz, M. Winther, M. Ketzel, Traffic pollution modelling and emission data. Environ. Model. Softw. 2006, 21, 454.
CrossRef |

[28]  L. Nguyen, J. P. Wesseling, OSPM: comparison between modelled results obtained for the Erzeijstraat in the Netherlands and measurements, Report 680705011 2008 (National Institute for Public Health and the Environment: Bilthoven, the Netherlands).

[29]  S. Vardoulakis, N. Gonzalez-Flesca, B. E. A. Fisher, K. Pericleous, Spatial variability of air pollution in the vicinity of a permanent monitoring station in central Paris. Atmos. Environ. 2005, 39, 2725.
CrossRef | CAS |

[30]  A. Ghenu, J.-M. Rosant, J. F. Sini, Dispersion of pollutants and estimation of emissions in a street canyon in Rouen, France. Environ. Model. Softw. 2008, 23, 314.
CrossRef |

[31]  M. J. Assael, M. Delaki, K. E. Kakosimos, Applying the OSPM model to the calculation of PM10 concentration levels in the historical centre of the city of Thessaloniki. Atmos. Environ. 2008, 42, 65.
CrossRef | CAS |

[32]  O. Raaschou-Nielsen, F. Palmgren, S. Solvang Jensen, P. Hlin, R. Berkowicz, O. Hertel, M. L. Vrang, S. H. Loft, Health effects of ambient particulate matter – a quantitative assessment. Ugeskr. Laeger 2002, 164, 3959..
| PubMed |

[33]  R. Berkowicz, M. Ketzel, S. S. Jensen, M. Hvidberg, O. Raaschou-Nielsen, Evaluation and application of OSPM for traffic pollution assessment for a large number of street locations. Environ. Model. Softw. 2008, 23, 296.
CrossRef |

[34]  S. S. Jensen, T. Larson, K. C. Deepti, J. D. Kaufman, Modeling traffic air pollution in street canyons in New York City for intra-urban exposure assessment in the US Multi-Ethnic Study of atherosclerosis and air pollution. Atmos. Environ. 2009, 43, 4544.
CrossRef | CAS |

[35]  O. Raaschou-Nielsen, H. Bak, M. Sorensen, S. S. Jensen, M. Ketzel, M. Hvidberg, P. Schnohr, A. Tjonneland, K. Overvad, S. H. Loft, Air pollution from traffic and risk for lung cancer in three Danish cohorts. Cancer Epidem. Biomar. 2010, 19, 1284.
CrossRef | CAS |

[36]  J. Kukkonen, E. Valkonen, J. Walden, T. Koskentalo, P. Aarnio, A. Karppinen, R. Berkowicz, R. Kartastenpää, A measurement campaign in a street canyon in Helsinki and comparison of results with predictions of the OSPM model. Atmos. Environ. 2001, 35, 231.
CrossRef | CAS |

[37]  J. Kukkonen, L. Partanen, A. Karppinen, J. Walden, R. Kartastenpää, P. Aarnio, T. Koskentalo, R. Berkowicz, Evaluation of the OSPM model combined with an urban background model against the data measured in 1997 in Runeberg Street, Helsinki. Atmos. Environ. 2003, 37, 1101.
CrossRef | CAS |

[38]  A. T. Buckland, Validation of a street canyon model in two cities. Environ. Monit. Assess. 1998, 52, 255.
CrossRef | CAS |

[39]  P. Kumar, A. Garmory, M. Ketzel, R. Berkowicz, R. Britter, Comparative study of measured and modelled number concentrations of Tenanoparticles in an urban street canyon. Atmos. Environ. 2009, 43, 949.
CrossRef | CAS |

[40]  S. Vardoulakis, M. Valiantis, J. Milner, H. M. Apsimon, Operational street canyon modelling in the UK – applications and challenges. Atmos. Environ. 2007, 41, 4622.
CrossRef | CAS |

[41]  N. Aquilina, A. Micallef, Evaluation of the operational street pollution model using data from European cities. Environ. Monit. Assess. 2004, 95, 75.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[42]  A. Lohmeyer, W. J. Mueller, W. Baechlin, A comparison of street canyon concentration predictions by different modellers: final results now available from the Podbi-exercise. Atmos. Environ. 2002, 36, 157.
CrossRef | CAS |

[43]  D. Rose, B. Wehner, M. Ketzel, C. Engler, J. Voigtlander, T. Tuch, A. Wiedensohler, Atmospheric number size distributions of soot particles and estimation of emission factors. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 2006, 6, 1021.
CrossRef | CAS |

[44]  C. Mensink, F. Lefebre, L. Janssen, J. Cornelis, A comparison of three street canyon models with measurements at an urban station in Antwerp, Belgium. Environ. Model. Softw. 2006, 21, 514.
CrossRef |

[45]  S. Vardoulakis, B. E. A. Fisher, N. Gonzalez-Flesca, K. Pericleous, Model sensitivity and uncertainty analysis using roadside air quality measurements. Atmos. Environ. 2002, 36, 2121.
CrossRef | CAS |

[46]  E. Brizio, G. Genon, S. Borsarelli, PM emissions in a urban context. Am. J. Environ. Sci. 2007, 3, 166.
CrossRef | CAS |

[47]  F. Murena, G. Favale, S. Vardoulakis, E. Solazzo, Modelling dispersion of traffic pollution in a deep street canyon: application of CFD and operational models. Atmos. Environ. 2009, 43, 2303.
CrossRef | CAS |

[48]  N. Moussiopoulos, P. Sahm, S. Munchow, D. Tonnesen, F. de Leeuw, L. Tarrason, Uncertainty analysis of modelling studies included in air quality assessments. Int. J. Environ. Pollut. 2001, 16, 175..

[49]  A. Ziv, R. Berkowicz, E. L. Genikhovich, F. Palmgren, E. Yakovleva, Analysis of the St Petersburg traffic data using the OSPM. Water Air Soil Pollut. Focus 2002, 2, 297.
CrossRef | CAS |

[50]  L. Moseholm, J. Silva, T. Larson, Forecasting carbon monoxide concentrations near a sheltered intersection using video traffic surveillance and neural networks. Transport. Res. D – Tr. E. 1996, 1, 15.
CrossRef |

[51]  L. X. Fu, J. M. Hao, O. Hertel, R. Berkowicz, Modeling traffic-related air pollution in street canyons of Beijing. J. Air Waste Manage. 2000, 50, 2060..

[52]  M. Ketzel, R. Berkowicz, A. Lohmeyer, Comparison of numerical street dispersion models with results from wind tunnel and field measurements. Environ. Monit. Assess. 2000, 65, 363.
CrossRef | CAS |

[53]  O. Hertel, R. Berkowicz, S. Larssen, The Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM), in 18th International meeting of NATO/CCMS on Air Pollution Modelling and its Application, Vancouver, Canada, 13–17 May 1990 1991, pp. 741–749 (NATO: Vancouver, Canada).

[54]  O. Hertel, C. A. Skjøth, P. Løfstrøm, C. Geels, L. M. Frohn, T. Ellermann, P. V. Madsen, Modelling nitrogen deposition on a local scale – a review of the current state of the art. Environ. Chem. 2006, 3, 317.
CrossRef | CAS |

[55]  Directive 96/62/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 September 1996: on ambient air quality assessment and management, in Official Journal of the European Union 1996, L296, 55. Available at http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:31996L0062:EN:HTML [Verified 16 December 2010].

[56]  Directive 1999/13/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 March 1999: on the limitation of emissions of volatile organic compounds due to the use of organic solvents in certain activities and installations, in Official Journal of the European Union 1999, L85, 1. Available at http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:1999:085:0001:0022:EN:PDF [Verified 16 December 2010].

[57]  F. Palmgren, A. B. Hansen, R. Berkowicz, H. Skov, Benzene emission from the actual car fleet in relation to petrol composition in Denmark. Atmos. Environ. 2001, 35, 35.
CrossRef |

[58]  O. Raaschou-Nielsen, O. Hertel, E. Vignati, R. Berkowicz, S. S. Jensen, V. B. Larsen, C. Lohse, J. H. Olsen, An air pollution model for use in epidemiological studies: evaluation with measured levels of nitrogen dioxide and benzene. J. Expo. Anal. Environ. Epidemiol. 2000, 10, 4.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[59]  O. Raaschou-Nielsen, O. Hertel, B. L. Thomsen, J. H. Olsen, Air pollution from traffic at the residence of children with cancer. Am. J. Epidemiol. 2001, 153, 433.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[60]  D. W. Dockery, C. A. Pope, X. P. Xu, J. D. Spengler, J. H. Ware, M. E. Fay, B. G. Ferris, F. E. Speizer, An association between air-pollution and mortality in 6 United States cities. N. Engl. J. Med. 1993, 329, 1753.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[61]  C. A. Pope, D. V. Bates, M. E. Raizenne, Health-effects of particulate air-pollution – time for reassessment. Environ. Health Perspect. 1995, 103, 472.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[62]  C. A. Pope, D. W. Dockery, Health effects of fine particulate air pollution: lines that connect. J. Air Waste Manage. 2006, 56, 709..

[63]  E. Vignati, R. Berkowicz, F. Palmgren, E. Lyck, F. Hummelshoj, Transformation of size distributions of emitted particles in streets. Sci. Total Environ. 1999, 235, 37.
CrossRef | CAS |

[64]  M. Ketzel, Dispersion and Transformation of Traffic Exhaust Particles in the Urban Atmosphere 2004, Ph.D. thesis, Department of Physics, Lund Institute of Technology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

[65]  M. J. Assael, M. Delaki, K. Kakosimos, Local scale vehicles pollution study in the absence of sufficient data: the case of the city of Thessaloniki. WIT Trans. Ecol. Environ. 2007, 101, 137.
CrossRef | CAS |

[66]  C. Mensink, G. Cosemans, From traffic flow simulations to pollutant concentrations in street canyons and backyards. Environ. Model. Softw. 2008, 23, 288.
CrossRef |

[67]  E. Brizio, G. Genon, Definition of PM10 emission factors from traffic: use of tracers and definition of background concentration. WIT Trans. Ecol. Environ. 2008, 82, 57.
CrossRef |

[68]  S. Klose, W. Birmili, J. Voigtländer, T. Tuch, B. Wehner, A. Wiedensohler, M. Ketzel, Particle number emissions of motor traffic derived from street canyon measurements in a Central European city. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 2009, 9, 3763.
CrossRef |

[69]  D. Gkatzoflias, L. Ntziachristos, Z. Samaras, COPERT 4 Computer programme to calculate emissions from road transport – Users Manual 2007 (European Topic Centre on Air and Climate Change: Thessaloniki, Greece).

[70]  G. Omstedt, B. Bringfelt, C. Johansson, A model for vehicle-induced non-tailpipe emissions of particles along Swedish roads. Atmos. Environ. 2005, 39, 6088.
CrossRef | CAS |

[71]  E. Solazzo, S. Vardoulakis, X. Cai, Evaluation of traffic-producing turbulence schemes within operational street pollution models using roadside measurements. Atmos. Environ. 2007, 41, 5357.
CrossRef | CAS |

[72]  O. Hertel, R. Berkowicz, Calculation of NO2 concentrations in urban areas in connection with warnings of episodes of enhanced pollution levels. Report NERI A-139 1990 (Ministry of the Environment, Danish National Environmental Research Institute: Roskilde, Denmark) [In Danish].

[73]  J. Brandt, J. H. Christensen, L. M. Frohn, F. Palmgren, R. Berkowicz, Z. Zlatev, Operational air pollution forecasts from European to local scale. Atmos. Environ. 2001, 35, 91.
CrossRef |

[74]  A. N. Skouloudis, P. Suppan, Methodology for urban – impact assessment modelling in the frame of Auto-Oil II. Commission of European Communities, Joint Research Centre Report EUR19556 EN/2000 2000 (European Commission: Ispra, Italy).

[75]  R. Berkowicz, O. Hertel, S. E. Larsen, N. N. Sørensen, M. Nielsen, Modelling traffic pollution in streets 1997 (Ministry of the Environment, National Environmental Research Institute: Roskilde, Denmark).

[76]  A. T. Buckland, D. R. Middleton, Nomograms for calculating pollution within street canyons. Atmos. Environ. 1999, 33, 1017.
CrossRef | CAS |

[77]  O. Hertel, R. Berkowicz, Calculations with OSPM of NOx and CO air pollution concentrations in Bredgade, Copenhagen. Report No 15 1991 (Danish Ministry of the Environment, National Environmental Research Institute: Roskilde, Denmark) [In Danish].

[78]  O. Hertel, R. Berkowicz, Modelling NO2 concentrations in a street canyon. Report A-131 1989 (National Environmental Research Institute, Ministry of Environment: Roskilde, Denmark).

[79]  R. Ganguly, B. Broderick, Estimation of CO concentrations for an urban street canyon in Ireland. Air Qual. Atmos. Health 2010, 3, 195.
CrossRef | CAS |

[80]  G. Gualtieri, A street canyon model intercomparison in Florence, Italy. Water Air Soil Pollut. 2010, 212, 461.
CrossRef | CAS |

[81]  O. Hertel, M. E. Goodsite, Urban air pollution climates throughout the world. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2009, 28, 1.
CrossRef | CAS |

[82]  N. Moussiopoulos, E. A. Kalognomou, S. Larssen, K. I. Gjerstad, S. Mellios, Z. Samaras, G. Mellios, I. Vouitsis, S. E. Larssen, K. I. Gjerstad, F. A. A. M. de Leeuw, K. D. van den Hout, S. Teeuwisse, R. M. van Aalst, Street Emission Ceilings (SEC) exercise – Phase 2. Report No 2004/5 2005 (European Topic Centre on Air and Climate Change: Copenhagen, Denmark).

[83]  T. Wang, S. Xie, Assessment of traffic-related air pollution in the urban streets before and during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games traffic control period. Atmos. Environ. 2009, 43, 5682.
CrossRef | CAS |

[84]  R. Berkowicz, F. Palmgren, S. S. Jensen, J. Brandt, Analyse af forhøjet NO2 niveaui København og prognose for 2010, Report No 498 2004 (Ministry of the Environment, Danish National Environmental Research Institute: Roskilde, Denmark).

[85]  J. J. Colls, A. Micallef, Towards better human exposure estimates for setting of air quality standards. Atmos. Environ. 1997, 31, 4253.
CrossRef | CAS |

[86]  C. Sacre, M. Chiron, J. P. Flori, Elaboration d’un indice d’exposition a la pollution atmospherique d’origine automobile a l’usage des etudes epidemiologiques. Sci. Total Environ. 1995, 169, 63 [In French].
CrossRef |

[87]  O. Raaschou-Nielsen, J. H. Olsen, O. Hertel, R. Berkowicz, H. Skov, E. M. Hansen, C. Lohse, Exposure of Danish children to traffic exhaust fumes. Sci. Total Environ. 1996, 189–190, 51.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[88]  C. B. Pedersen, O. Raaschou-Nielsen, O. Hertel, P. B. Mortensen, Air pollution from traffic and schizophrenia risk. Schizophr. Res. 2004, 66, 83.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[89]  O. Hertel, S. S. Jensen, H. V. Andersen, F. Palmgren, P. Wåhlin, H. Skov, I. V. Nielsen, M. Sørensen, S. Loft, O. Raaschou-Nielsen, Human exposure to traffic pollution. Experience from Danish studies. Pure Appl. Chem. 2001, 73, 137.
CrossRef | CAS |

[90]  Y. Zhou, J. I. Levy, The impact of urban street canyons on population exposure to traffic-related primary pollutants. Atmos. Environ. 2008, 42, 3087.
CrossRef | CAS |

[91]  D. H. Bennett, T. E. McKone, J. S. Evans, W. W. Nazaroff, M. D. Margni, O. Jolliet, K. R. Smith, Defining intake fraction. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2002, 36, 207A..
| PubMed |

[92]  U. W. Tang, Z. S. Wang, Influences of urban forms on traffic-induced noise and air pollution: results from a modelling system. Environ. Model. Softw. 2007, 22, 1750.
CrossRef |

[93]  F. Palmgren, R. Berkowicz, A. Ziv, O. Hertel, Actual car fleet emissions estimated from urban air quality measurements and street pollution models. Sci. Total Environ. 1999, 235, 101.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[94]  M. Schatzamann, H. Olesen, J. Franke, COST 732 model evaluation case studies: approach and results 2010 (Cooperation in Science and Technology Office: Brussels, Belgium).

[95]  W. B. Johnson, F. L. Ludwig, W. F. Dabbert, R. J. Allen, An urban diffusion simulation model for carbon monoxide. JAPCA 1973, 23, 490..

[96]  A. J. Manning, K. J. Nicholson, D. R. Middleton, S. C. Rafferty, Field study of wind and traffic to test a street canyon pollution model. Environ. Monit. Assess. 2000, 60, 283.
CrossRef | CAS |

[97]  B. Croxford, A. Penn, Siting considerations for urban pollution monitors. Atmos. Environ. 1998, 32, 1049.
CrossRef | CAS |

[98]  P. E. Benson, A review of the development and application of the CALINE3 and 4 models. Atmos. Environ., B Urban Atmos. 1992, 26, 379.
CrossRef |

[99]  B. Owen, H. A. Edmunds, D. J. Carruthers, D. W. Raper, Use of a new generation urban scale dispersion model to estimate the concentration of oxides of nitrogen and sulphur dioxide in a large urban area. Sci. Total Environ. 1999, 235, 277.
CrossRef | CAS |

[100]  W. B. Petersen, User’s guide for HIGHWAY-2: a highway air pollution model. Report EPA-600/8-80-018 1980 (US Environmental Protection Agency).

[101]  K. D. Van Den Hout, H. P. Baars, Development of two models for the dispersion of air pollution by traffic: the TNO Traffic Model and the CAR Model 1988 (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu (National Institute for Health and Environment): the Netherlands) [In Dutch].

[102]  C. A. McHugh, D. J. Carruthers, H. A. Edmunds, ADMS and ADMS-urban. Int. J. Environ. Pollut. 1997, 8, 438..

[103]  R. J. Yamartino, G. Wiegand, Development and evaluation of simple models for the flow, turbulence and pollutant concentration fields within an urban street canyon. Atmos. Environ. A – Gen. 1986, 20, 2137.
CrossRef | CAS |

[104]  R. S. Hotchkiss, F. H. Harlow, Air pollution transport in street canyons. Report EPA-R4-73-029 1973 (US Environmental Protection Agency).

[105]  H. Kono, S. Ito, A micro-scale dispersion model for motor vehicle exhaust gas in urban areas-OMG volume-source model. Atmos. Environ. B – Urb. 1990, 24, 243.
CrossRef |

[106]  A. Papathanassiou, I. Douros, N. Moussiopoulos, A simplified three-dimensional approach to street canyon modelling using SEP-SCAM. Environ. Model. Softw. 2008, 23, 304.
CrossRef |

[107]  A. Micallef, J. J. Colls, Sci. Total Environ. 1999, 235, 199..
CrossRef | PubMed |

[108]  J. G. Bartzis, ADREA-HF: a three-dimensional finite volume code for vapour cloud dispersion in complex terrain. Commission of European Communities, Joint Research Centre Report EUR 13580 EN 1991 (European Commission: Ispra, Italy).

[109]  S. Levi-Alvares, J.-F. Sini, Simulation of diffusion within an urban street canyon with a k-ε model. J. Wind Eng. 1992, 52, 114..

[110]  V. Assimakopoulos, J. Ehrhard, G. Theodoridis, N. Moussiopoulos, H. ApSimon, Assessing the influence of near wall treatment on the wind and dispersion characteristics in urban areas, in Sixth International Conference on Harmonisation within Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling for Regulatory Purposes, Rouen, France, 11–14 October 1999, pp. 227–228 (CORIA (Complexe de Recherche Interprofessionnel en Aérothermochimie): Rouen, France).

[111]  J. Eichhorn, Validation of a microscale pollution dispersal model, in 21st International Meeting on Air Pollution Modeling and its Application, Baltimore, MD, USA, 6–10 November 1995, pp. 539–545 (Plenum Press: Baltimore, MD).

[112]  S. S. Jensen, M. Ketzel, R. Berkowicz, M. Hvidberg, J. Hoj, Cleaner transport technology most efficient to ensure compliance with 2010 NO2 limit values in Copenhagen, Denmark. Int. J. Environ. Waste Manage. 2009, 4, 179.
CrossRef | CAS |

[113]  C. A. Gillham, P. K. Leech, H. S. Eggleston, UK Emissions of Air Pollutants 1970–1990. Report LR887 (AP) 1992 (Department of Energy: London, UK).


   
Subscriber Login
Username:
Password:  

 
    
Legal & Privacy | Contact Us | Help

CSIRO

© CSIRO 1996-2014