CSIRO Publishing blank image blank image blank image blank imageBooksblank image blank image blank image blank imageJournalsblank image blank image blank image blank imageAbout Usblank image blank image blank image blank imageShopping Cartblank image blank image blank image You are here: Journals > Invertebrate Systematics   
Invertebrate Systematics
Journal Banner
  Systematics, Phylogeny and Biogeography
 
blank image Search
 
blank image blank image
blank image
 
  Advanced Search
   

Journal Home
About the Journal
Editorial Board
Contacts
Content
Current Issue
Just Accepted
All Issues
Special Issues
Virtual Issues
Sample Issue
For Authors
General Information
Notice to Authors
Submit Article
Open Access
For Referees
Referee Guidelines
Review an Article
Annual Referee Index
For Subscribers
Subscription Prices
Customer Service
Print Publication Dates

blue arrow e-Alerts
blank image
Subscribe to our Email Alert or RSS feeds for the latest journal papers.

red arrow Connect with us
blank image
facebook twitter youtube

red arrow Supplementary Series
blank image
All volumes of the Australian Journal of Zoology Supplementary Series are online.

 

Article << Previous     |     Next >>   Contents Vol 25(4)

Immature stages of Euchirinae (Coleoptera : Scarabaeoidea): genera Cheirotonus and Propomacrus with comments on their phylogeny based on larval and adult characters

Petr Šípek A B , Petr Janšta A and David Král A

A Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Viničná 7, CZ – 128 44 Praha 2, Czech Republic.
B Corresponding author. Email: Sipekpetr80@gmail.com

Invertebrate Systematics 25(4) 282-302 http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/IS11028
Submitted: 23 June 2011  Accepted: 20 October 2011   Published: 22 December 2011


 
PDF (2.6 MB) $40
 Export Citation
 Print
  
Abstract

We report the discovery of the larvae of Propomacrus bimucronatus (Pallas, 1781) in their natural habitat; providing notes on their biology based on field observations and laboratory-bred specimens. We give a detailed description of Cheirotonus formosanus Ohaus, 1913 and P. cypriacus Alexis & Markis, 2002 larvae as well as a redescription of the immature stages of P. bimucronatus and present the first diagnosis of larval Euchirinae. Based on 105 morphological and ecological characters of adults and larvae in 24 taxa of Scarabaeoidea, we discuss the phylogenetic relationships of Euchirinae within the group. Our results corroborate Euchirinae monophyly, supported by two larval synapomorphic characters; however, no adult autapomorphic characters were detected. The results of 15 separate phylogenetic analyses (differing in the set of terminalia, characters and in the optimality criteria) indicate a possible sister group relationship between Euchirinae and a clade comprising Melolonthinae + Rutelinae + Dynastinae, with Cetoniinae being a sister group to the whole clade. Larval characters represent a valuable source of information for the systematics of Scarabaeoidea; however, special effort should be paid to improve the still unsatisfactory sampling of immature data.

Additional keywords: larvae, Melolonthinae, morphology, Oriental and Palaearctic region, pupae, Scarabaeidae.


References

Ahrens, D. (2006). The phylogeny of Sericini and their position in the Scarabaeidae based on morphological characters (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae). Systematic Entomology 31, 113–144.
CrossRef |

Ahrens, D., and Vogler, A. P. (2008). Towards the phylogeny of chafers (Sericini): analysis of alignment-variable sequence and the evolution of segment numbers in the antennal club. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 47, 783–798.
CrossRef | CAS |

Ahrens, D., Monaghan, M. T., and Vogler, A. P. (2007). DNA-based taxonomy for associating adults and larvae in multi-species assemblages of chafers (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 44, 436–449.
CrossRef | CAS |

Ahrens, D., Scott, M., and Vogler, A. P. (2011). The phylogeny of Monkey beetles based on mitochondrial and ribosomal RNA genes (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Hoplini). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution , .
CrossRef |

Arrow, G. J. (1917). ‘Coleoptera. Lamellicornia Part II (Rutelinae, Desmonycinae and Euchirinae). The Fauna of British India Including Ceylon and Burma.’ (Taylor and Francis: London.)

Bezděk, A. (2006). Eucheirinae. In ‘Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. Vol. 3. Scarabaeoidea – Scirtoidea – Dascilloidea – Buprestoidea – Byrrhoidea’. (Eds I. Löbl and A. Smetana.) p. 181. (Apollo Books: Stenstrup, Denmark.)

Böving, A. G. (1936). Description of the larva of Plectris aliena Chapin and explanation of new terms applied to the epipharynx and raster. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 38, 169–185.

Bremer, K. (1994). Branch support and tree stability. Cladistics 10, 295–304.
CrossRef |

Farris, J. S. (1969). A successive approximation approach to character weighting. Systematic Zoology 18, 374–385.
CrossRef |

Felsenstein, J. (1985). Confidence limits on phylogenies: an approach using the bootstrap. Evolution 39, 783–791.
CrossRef |

Fitch, W. M. (1971). Towards defining the course of evolution: minimum change for a specific tree topology. Systematic Zoology 20, 406–416.
CrossRef |

Fujioka, M. (2007). A new species of the genus Propomacrus Newman, 1837 (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Euchirinae) from Tibet, China. Kogane 8, 99–102.

Goloboff, P. A. (1994). NONA (NO NAME): a tree searching program, ver. 2. Program and documentation. Available at www.cladistics.com/Software.html [Verified 6 November 2011]

Grebennikov, V. V., and Newton, C. H. (2009). Good-bye Scydmaenidae, or why the ant-like stone beetles should become megadiverse Staphylinidae sensu latissimo (Coleoptera). European Journal of Entomology 106, 275–301.

Iablokoff-Khnzorian, S. M. (1977). Über die Phylogenie der Lamellicornia (Insecta, Coleoptera). Entomologishe Abhandlungen staatlichen Museum für Tierkunde, Dresden 41, 135–200.

Lawrence, J. F. (1991). Order Coleoptera (general discussion, family key, various family treatments). In ‘Immature Insects, Volume II’. (Ed. F. W. Stehr.) pp. 144–658. (Kendal/Hunt: Dubuque, IA.)

Lumaret, J. P., and Tauzin, P. (1992). Le genre Propomacrus Newman, 1837. Donées biologiques et morphologie larvaire (Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea, Euchiridae). Nouvelle Revue d’Entomologie 9, 173–180.

Micó, E., Morón, M. A., Šípek, P., and Galante, E. (2008). Larval morphology enhances phylogenetic reconstruction in Cetoniidae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) and allows the interpretation of the evolution of larval feeding habits. Systematic Entomology 33, 128–144.

Mizunuma, T. (1984). ‘Cheirotonus jambar’. (Asahi: Tokyo.)

Muramoto, M. (2008). A new species of the genus Cheirotonus Hope, 1840 from Tibet, with a list of the genus Cheirotonus (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Euchirinae). Kogane 9, 85–94.

Nixon, K. C. (2002). ‘WinClada, Version 1.0000.’ Published by the author, Ithaca, NY.

Onucar, A., and Ulu, O. (1986). A little known, endemic species which has been found in the chestnut plantations around Izmir: Propomacrus bimucronatus Pall. Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Euchirinae. Turkiye Bitki Koruma Dergisi 10, 231–234.

Ratcliffe, B. C., and Cave, R. D. (2006). The Dynastinae Scarab Beetles of Honduras, Nicaragua, and El Salvador (Coleoptera: Sacarabaeidae: Dynastinae). Bulletin of the University of Nebraska State Museum 21, 1–424.

Ritcher, P. O. (1966). ‘White Grubs and Their Allies: a Study of North American Scarabaeoid Larvae.’ (Oregon State University Press: Corvallis, OR.)

Scholz, C. H., and Grebennikov, V. V. (2005). Scarabaeiformia Crowson, 1960. In ‘Handbook of Zoology. A Natural History of the Phyla of the Animal Kingdom. Vol. 4 Arthropoda: Insecta, Part 38. Coleoptera, Beetles Vol. 1: Morphology and Systematics (Archostemata, Adephaga, Myxophaga, Polyhaga partim’. (Eds R. Beutel and R. A. B. Leschen.) pp. 345–425. (Walter de Gruyter: Berlin.)

Šípek, P., Král, D., and Jahn, O. (2008). Description of the larvae of Dicronocephalus wallichi bourgoini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae) with observations on nesting behavior and life cycle of two Dicronocephalus species under laboratory conditions. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 44, 409–417.

Šípek, P., Grebennikov, V., and Gill, B. (2009). Afromontane Coelocorynus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae): larval descriptions, biological notes, phylogenetic analysis and polyphyly of Trichiini. European Journal of Entomology 106, 95–106.

Smith, A. B. T., Hawks, D. C., and Heraty, J. M. (2006). An overview of the classification and evolution of the major scarab beetle clades (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) based on preliminary molecular analyses. Coleopterists Society Monograph 60, 35–46.
CrossRef |

Švácha, P., and Danilevsky, M. L. (1986). Cerambycoid larvae of Europe and Soviet Union (Coleoptera, Cerambycoidea). Part I. Acta Universitae Carolinae Biologica 30, 1–176.

Swofford, D. L. (2002). ‘PAUP*: Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony. Version 4.0b10.’ (Sinauer: Sunderland, MA.)

Young, R. M. (1989). Euchirinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) of the world: distribution and taxonomy. Coleopterists Bulletin 43, 205–236.


   
Subscriber Login
Username:
Password:  

 
    
Legal & Privacy | Contact Us | Help

CSIRO

© CSIRO 1996-2014