CSIRO Publishing blank image blank image blank image blank imageBooksblank image blank image blank image blank imageJournalsblank image blank image blank image blank imageAbout Usblank image blank image blank image blank imageShopping Cartblank image blank image blank image You are here: Journals > Invertebrate Systematics   
Invertebrate Systematics
Journal Banner
  Systematics, Phylogeny and Biogeography
 
blank image Search
 
blank image blank image
blank image
 
  Advanced Search
   

Journal Home
About the Journal
Editorial Board
Contacts
Content
Current Issue
Just Accepted
All Issues
Special Issues
Virtual Issues
Sample Issue
For Authors
General Information
Notice to Authors
Submit Article
Open Access
For Referees
Referee Guidelines
Review an Article
Annual Referee Index
For Subscribers
Subscription Prices
Customer Service
Print Publication Dates

blue arrow e-Alerts
blank image
Subscribe to our Email Alert or RSS feeds for the latest journal papers.

red arrow Connect with us
blank image
facebook twitter youtube

red arrow Supplementary Series
blank image
All volumes of the Australian Journal of Zoology Supplementary Series are online.

 

Article << Previous     |     Next >>   Contents Vol 28(2)

Molecular phylogenetics and taxonomic reanalysis of the family Mithracidae MacLeay (Decapoda : Brachyura : Majoidea)

Amanda M. Windsor A B C and Darryl L. Felder A

A The University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Department of Biology, PO Box 42451, Lafayette, LA 70504, USA.
B National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20013-7012, USA.
C Corresponding author. Email: amwindsor@gmail.com

Invertebrate Systematics 28(2) 145-173 http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/IS13011
Submitted: 17 March 2013  Accepted: 22 November 2013   Published: 30 May 2014


 
 Full Text
 PDF (1.9 MB)
 Export Citation
 Print
  
Abstract

Mithracid crabs comprise a primarily subtidal reef- and rubble-dwelling group inhabiting both tropical and subtropical seas. Despite their relative ubiquity in many hard-substrate environments, there has been little consensus about their phylogenetic relationships or whether their group rank should be that of subfamily or family. We have used a combined molecular dataset of two nuclear (18S, H3) and three mitochondrial (12S, 16S, COI) genes to build a preliminary molecular phylogeny of Majoidea in order to examine the membership of Mithracidae. We then built a second molecular phylogeny based on three mitochondrial genes to assess the internal composition of the family, and conducted comparative morphological examinations of genera and species that resolved in unexpected positions on the phylogram. Four genera are designated under new or resurrected names on the basis of molecular and morphological characters, while memberships of several other existing genera are modified. Following review of molecular and morphological characters, the genera Coelocerus, Cyclocoeloma, Cyphocarcinus, Leptopisa, Micippa, Picrocerodes, Stenocionops and Tiarinia are provisionally excluded from Mithracidae s.s., while Hemus and Pitho are included in it. A key to genera of Mithracidae is provided.

Additional keywords: Mithracidae, Mithraculus, Mithrax, molecular systematics, spider crabs.


References

Alcock, A. (1895). Materials for a carcinological fauna of India. No. 1. The Brachyura Oxyrhyncha. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 64, 157–291.

Apakupakul, K., Siddall, M. E., and Burreson, E. M. (1999). Higher level relationships of leeches (Annelida: Clitellata: Euhirudinea) based on morphology and gene sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 12, 350–359.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Baeza, J. A., Bolaños, J. A., Fuentes, S., Hernandez, J. E., Lira, C., and López, R. (2010). Molecular phylogeny of enigmatic Caribbean spider crabs from the MithraxMithraculus species complex (Brachyura: Majidae: Mithracinae): ecological diversity and a formal test of genera monophyly. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 90, 851–858.
CrossRef | CAS |

Balss, H. (1922). Crustacea VII: Decapoda Brachyura (Oxyrhyncha bis Brachyrhyncha) und geographische Übersicht über Crustacea Decapoda. In ‘Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Meeresfauna Westafrikas. Vol. 3.’ (Ed. W. Michaelsen.) pp. 72–110, Figs 1–5. (L. Friederichsen & Co.: Hamburg, Germany.)

Balss, H. (1935). Die brachyuran Dekapoden der Reise Michaelsen-Hartmeyer nach Südwestaustralien 1905. Eine geographische Übersicht nebst Beschreibung einiger neuer Formen. Zoologischer Anzeiger 111, 35–42.

Barnard, K. H. (1946). Descriptions of new species of South African decapod Crustacea, with notes on synonymy and new records. The Annals and Magazine of Natural History (series 11) 13, 361–392.

Bell, T. (1836). Some account of the Crustacea of the coasts of South America, with descriptions of new genera and species; founded principally on the collections obtained by Mr Cuming and Mr Miller. (Tribus 1, Oxyrhynchi). Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 3, 169–173.

Bracken, H. D., De Grave, S., and Felder, D. L. (2009). Phylogeny of the infraorder Caridea based on mitochondrial and nuclear genes (Crustacea: Decapoda). In ‘Decapod Crustacean Phylogenetics’. (Eds J. W. Martin, K. A. Crandall, and D. L. Felder.) pp. 281–305. (CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group: New York.)

Buhay, J. E., Moni, G., Mann, N., and Crandall, K. A. (2007). Molecular taxonomy in the dark: evolutionary history, phylogeography, and diversity of cave crayfish in the subgenus Aviticambarus, genus Cambarus. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 42, 435–448.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Calado, R., Lin, J. D., Rhyne, A. L., Araújo, R., and Narcisco, L. (2003a). Marine ornamental decapods – popular, pricey, and poorly studied. Journal of Crustacean Biology 23, 963–973.
CrossRef |

Calado, R., Narciso, L., Morais, S., Rhyne, A. L., and Lin, J. (2003b). A rearing system for the culture of ornamental decapod crustacean larvae. Aquaculture 218, 329–339.
CrossRef |

Cano, G. (1889). Crostacei Brachiuri ed Anomuri raccolti nel viaggio della “Vettor Pisani” intorno al globo. Studio preliminare. Bollettino dei Societe Naturale di Napoli 3, 79–105.

Coelho, P. A. (1988). Algumas mudanças na taxonomia da família Majidae (Crustacea, Decapoda). Congresso Brasileiro de Zoologia, Resumos, Sociedade Brasileira de Zoologia, Curitiba. Congresso 15, 88.

Coelho, P. A., and Torres, M. F. A. (1990). Revisão das espécies do gênero Mithraculus White na costa Atlântica da América do Sul (Crustacea, Decapoda, Majidae). Anais Sociedade Norestina de Zoologica 3, 63–92.

Colgan, D. J., McLauchlan, A., Wilson, G. D. F., Livingston, S. P., Edgecombe, G. D., Macaranas, J., Cassis, G., and Gray, M. R. (1998). Histone H3 and U2 snRNA DNA sequences and arthropod molecular evolution. Australian Journal of Zoology 46, 419–437.
CrossRef |

Dana, J. D. (1851). On the classification of the maioid Crustacea or Oxyrhyncha. American Journal of Science 11, 425–434.

De Grave, S., Pentcheff, N.D., Ahyong, S.T., Chan, T.-Y., Crandall, K.A., Dworschak, P.C., Felder, D.L., Feldmann, R.M., Fransen, C.H.J.M., Goulding, L.Y.D., Lemaitre, R., Low, M.E.Y., Martin, J.W., Ng, P.K.L., Schweitzer, C.E., Tan, S.H., Tshudy, D., and Wetzer, R. (2009). A classification of living and fossil genera of decapod crustaceans. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Supplement No. 21, 1–109.

De Man, J. G. (1887). Übersicht der Indo-pacifischen Arten der Gattung Sesarma Say nebst einer Kritik der von W. Hess und E. Nauck in den Jahren 1865 und 1880 beschriebenen Decapoden. Zoologischen Jahrbüchen: Abtheilung für Systematik Geographie und Biologie der Thiere 2, 639–722.

Desbonne, I., and Schramm, A. (1867). Brachyures. In ‘Crustacés de la Guadeloupe d’aprés un Manuscrit du Docteur Isis Desbonne comparé avec les Échantillons de Crustacés de sa Collection et les Derniéres Publications de M.M. Henri de Saussure et William Stimpson.’ Premiere partie. pp. 1–60, pls. 1–8. (Imprimerie du Gouvernement: Basse-Terre.)

Desmarest, A. G. (1823). Malacostracés, Malacostraca. (Crust.). [Malacostracés 211–285]. In ‘Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturelles, dans lequel on Trait Méthodiquement des Différens étres de la Nature, Considérés soit en Eux-mêmes, d’après l’état Actuel de nos Connoissances, soit Relativement a l’utilité qu’en Peuvent retirer la Médecine, l’Agriculture, le Commerce et les Arts. Suivi d’une Biographie des plus Célèbres Naturalistes. Ouvrage Destiné aux Médecins, aux Agriculteurs, aux Commerçans, aux Artistes, aux Manufacturiers, et à tous Ceux qui ont Intérêt à Connoître les Productions de la Nature, leurs Caractères Génériques et Spécifiques, leur lieu Natal, leurs Propiétés et leurs Usages’. (Ed. F. Cuvier.) pp. 138–425. (F. G. Levrault et Le Normant: Strasbourg and Paris.)

Fabricius, J. C. (1793). ‘Entomologia systematica emendata et aucta. Secundum classes, ordines, genera, species adjectis synonymis, locis, observationibus, descriptionibus.’ Vol. 2. pp. 519. (Proft et Storch: Hafniae.)

Felder, D. L., Álvarez, F., Goy, J. W., and Lemaitre, R. (2009). Decapoda (Crustacea) of the Gulf of Mexico, with comments on the Amphionidacea. In ‘Gulf of Mexico: Origin, Waters, and Biota’. (Eds D. L. Felder and D. K. Camp.) pp. 1019–1104. (Texas A&M Press: College Station, TX.)

Finnegan, S. (1931). Report on the Brachyura collected in central America, the Gorgona and Galápagos Islands, by Dr. Crossland on the ‘St. George’ expedition to the Pacific, 1924–25. Journal of the Linnean Society of London. Zoology (Jena, Germany) 37, 607–673.

Folmer, O., Black, M., Hoeh, W., Lutz, R., and Vrijenhoek, R. (1994). DNA primers for amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit I from diverse metazoan invertebrates. Molecular Marine Biology and Biotechnology 3, 294–297.
| CAS | PubMed |

Garth, J. S. (1940). Some new species of brachyuran crabs from Mexico and the Central and South American mainland. Allan Hancock Pacific Expeditions 5, 53–127.

Garth, J. S. (1958). Brachyura of the Pacific coast of America: Oxyrhyncha. Allan Hancock Pacific Expeditions 21, 1–499.

Gerstaecker, A. (1857). Carcinologishes beiträge. Archiv für Naturgeschichte 22, 101–162 pls. 4–6.

Gibbes, L. R. (1850). On the carcinological collections of the United States, and an enumeration of species contained in them, with notes on the most remarkable, and descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Third meeting, 167–201.

Gistel, J. (1848). ‘Naturgeschichte des Thierreiches für höhere Schulen bearbeitet.’ (Hoffmann’sche Verlags-Buchhandlung: Stuttgart.)

Glassell, S. A. (1936). The Templeton Crocker Expedition. I. Six new brachyuran crabs from the Gulf of California. Zoologica; Scientific Contributions of the New York Zoological Society 21, 213–218.

Griffin, D. J. G., and Tranter, H. A. (1986). The Decapoda Brachyura of the Siboga Expedition. Part VIII: Majidae. Siboga-Expeditie 39, 1–335.

Haime, J. (1849). Observations sur la Milnia, nouveau genre de l’ordre des Echinides. Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Troisième Série. Zoologie 12, 217–224.

Hartnoll, R. G. (1963). A locking mechanism for the dactylus of certain Brachyura. Annals and Magazine of Natural History Series 13 vi, 173–176.

Hendrickx, M. E. (1995). Checklist of brachyuran crabs (Decapoda: Brachyura) from the eastern tropical Pacific. Bulletin de l’Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique 65, 125–150.

Hendrickx, M. E. (1999). ‘Los Cangrejos Braquiuros (Crustacea: Brachyura: Majoidea y Parthenopoidea) del Pacífico Mexicano.’ (Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad [CONABIO] e Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología: UNAM, México.)

Herbst, J. F. W. (1782–1804). ‘Versuch einer Naturgeschichte der Krabben und Krebse, Nebst Einer Systematischen Beschreibung ihrer Verschiedenen Arten.’ Volumes 1–3, pp. 1–515, pls. 62. (Gottlieb August Lange: Berlin and Stralsund.)

Huelsenbeck, J. P., and Ronquist, F. (2001). MRBAYES: Bayesian inference of phylogenetic trees. Bioinformatics 17, 754–755.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Hultgren, K. M., and Stachowicz, J. J. (2008). Molecular phylogeny of the brachyuran crab superfamily Majoidea indicates close congruence with trees based on larval morphology. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 48, 986–996.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Hultgren, K. M., Guerao, G., Marques, F. P. L., and Palero, F. P. (2009). Assessing the contribution of molecular and larval morphological characters in a combined phylogenetic analysis of the superfamily Majoidea. In ‘Decapod Crustacean Phylogenetics’. (Eds J. W. Martin, K. A. Crandall, and D. L. Felder.) pp. 437–455. (CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group: Boca Raton, London, New York.)

International Commission of Zoological Nomenclature (1999). ‘International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Fourth Edition. Adopted by the International Union of Biological Sciences.’ (International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature, London.) Available at: http://www.iczn.org/code

Jones, H. G. (1969). Spider crabs of the genus Mithrax from Barbados. Zoologischer Anzeiger 182, 379–383.

Katoh, K., Kuma, K., Toh, H., and Miyata, T. (2005). MAFFT version 5: improvement in accuracy of multiple sequence alignment. Nucleic Acids Research 33, 511–518.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Kingsley, J. S. (1879). On a collection of Crustacea from Virginia, North Carolina, and Florida, with a revision of the genera of Crangonidae and Palaemonidae. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 1879, 383–427.

Kirk, T. W. (1879). Note on some New Zealand crustaceans. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 11, 401–402.

Lamarck, J. B. P. A. (1818). ‘Histoire naturelle des animaux sans vertèbres, présentant les caractères généraux et particuliers de ces animaux, leur distribution, leurs classes, leurs familles, leurs genres et la citation des principales espèces qui s’y rapportent; précédé d’une introduction offrant la détermination des caractères essentiels de l’animal, sa distinction du végétal et des autres corps naturels, enfin l’exposition des principes fondamentaux de la zoologie.’ Tome 5 (2nd edn), pp. 1–612. (Paris.)

Latreille, P. A. (1816). ‘Les crustacés, les arachnides et les insectes. In ‘Le règne animal distribués d’après son organisation, pour servir de base à l’histoire naturelle des animaux et d’introduction à l’anatomie comparée. Vol. 3’. (Ed. G. Cuvier.) pp. 653. (Déterville: Paris.)

Latreille, P. A. (1825). ‘Histoire Naturelle. Entomologie, ou Histoire naturelle des Crustacés, des Arachnides et des Insectes.’ (Agasse Imprimeur-Libraire: Paris.)

Leach, W. E. (1815). ‘The Zoological Miscellany; being Descriptions of new, or Interesting Animals. Vol. 2.’ (E. Nodder and Son: Covent Garden and London.)

Leach, W. E. (1817). ‘The Zoological Miscellany; being Descriptions of new, or Interesting Animals. Vol. 3.’ (E. Nodder and Son: Covent Garden and London.)

Lemos De Castro, A. (1953). Fauna do Distrito Federal. IX. Descrição de uma nova espécie do gênero Eucinetops Stimpson (Decapoda: Majidae). Revista Brasileira de Biologia 13, 355–358.

Linnaeus, C. (1758). ‘Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis.’ Edition 10, i–iii, 1–824. (Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.)

Lockington, W. N. (1877). Remarks on the Crustacea of the Pacific coast, with descriptions of some new species. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 7, 28–36.

MacLeay, W. S. (1838). On the brachyurous decapod Crustacea brought from the Cape by Dr. Smith. In ‘Illustrations of the Annulosa of South Africa; being a portion of the objects of natural history chiefly collected during an expedition into the interior of South Africa, under the direction of Dr. Andrew Smith, in the years 1834, 1835. and 1836; fitted out by “The Cape of Good Hope Association for Exploring Central Africa”.’ (Ed. A. Smith.) pp. 53–71, pls. 2. (Smith, Elder, and Co.: London.)

Manning, R. B. (1970). Mithrax (Mithraculus) commensalis, a new West Indian spider crab (Decapoda, Majidae) commensal with a sea anemone. Crustaceana 19, 157–160.
CrossRef |

Marques, F. P. L., and Pohle, G. (1998). The use of structural reduction in phylogenetic reconstruction of decapods and a phylogenetic hypothesis for fifteen genera of Majidae: testing previous hypotheses and assumptions. Invertebrate Reproduction & Development 33, 241–262.
CrossRef |

Marques, F. P. L., Pohle, G. W., and Vrbova, L. (2003). On the larval stages of Macrocoeloma diplacanthum (Decapoda: Brachyura: Majidae), with a review of mithracine phylogenetic aspects. Journal of Crustacean Biology 23, 187–200.

Martin, J. W., and Davis, G. E. (2001). An updated classification of the Recent Crustacea. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County. Science Series 39, 1–124.

McLaughlin, P. A., Camp, D. K., Angel, M. V., Bousfield, E. L., Brunel, P., Brusca, R. C., Cadien, D., Cohen, A. C., Conlan, K., Eldredge, L. G., Felder, D. L., Goy, J. W., Haney, T., Hann, B., Heard, R. W., Hendrycks, E. A., Hobbs, H. H., Holsinger, J. R., Kensley, B., Laubitz, D. R., LeCroy, S. E., Lemaitre, R., Maddocks, R. F., Martin, J. W., Mikkelsen, P., Nelson, E., Newman, W. A., Overstreet, R. M., Poly, W. J., Price, W. W., Reid, J. W., Robertson, A., Rogers, D. C., Ross, A., Schotte, M., Schram, F. R., Shih, C.-T., Watling, L., Wilson, G. D. F., and Turgeon, D. D. (2005). Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Crustaceans (with CD-ROM). American Fisheries Society Special Publication 31, 1–533.

Medlin, L. K., Elwood, H. J., Stickles, S., and Sogin, M. L. (1988). The characterization of enzymatically amplified eukaryotic 16S-like rRNA-coding regions. Gene 71, 491–499.
CrossRef | CAS |

Melo, G. A. S. D. (1990). Descrição de Mithrax (Mithrax) besnardi, sp.n., Espécie abissalbẽntica de ãguas meridionais da América do Sul (Crustacea, Brachyura, Majidae). Atlantica 12, 19–26.

Miers, E. J. (1879). On the classification of the maioid Crustacea or Oxyrhyncha, with a synopsis of the families, sub-families and genera. Journal of the Linnean Society of London. Zoology (Jena, Germany) 14, 634–673.
CrossRef |

Miers, E. J. (1880). On a collection of Crustacea from the Malaysian Region, 1. Crustacea Oxyrhyncha and Cyclomatopa, except Thelphusidea. The Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 5) 5, 226–239, pl. 13.

Miers, E. J. (1886). Report on the Brachyura collected by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873–1876. In ‘Zoology. Report on the Scientific Results of the Voyage of H.M.S. Challenger During the Years 1873–76 Under the Command of Captain George S. Nares, R.N., F.R.S. and the Late Captain Frank Tourle Thomson, R.N.’. (Ed. J. Murray.) (Series Eds C. Wyville Thomson and J. Murray.) Vol. 17. pp. 1–362, pls. 1–29. (Neill and Company: Edinburgh.)

Milne-Edwards, A. (1868). Description de quelques crustacés nouveaux provenant des voyages de M. Alfred Grandidier à Zanzibar et al Madagascar. Nouvelles Archives du Muséum d’Histoire, Naturelle, Paris 4, pp. 69–92, pls. 16–21.

Milne-Edwards, A. (1873–1880). ‘Études sur les Xiphosures et les Crustacés de la région Mexicaine, mission scientifique au Mexique et dans l’Amerique centrale. Recherches zoologiques a l’histoire de la faune de l’Amerique Centrale et du Mexique, part 5.’ pp. 1–368, pls. 61. (Imprimerie Nationale: Paris.)

Milne-Edwards, A. (1875). Études sur les Xiphosures et les Crustacés podopthalmaires. In ‘Mission scientifique au Mexique et dans l’Amerique centrale. Recherches Zoologiques a l’histoire de la faune de l’Amerique Centrale et du Mexique, part 5.’ pp. 1–368, pls. 61. (Imprimerie Nationale: Paris.)

Milne Edwards, H. (1832). Observations sur les crustacés du genre Mithrax. Magasin de Zoologie 2 (class 7), pls. 1–5.

Milne Edwards, H. (1834–1840). ‘Histoire naturelle des Crustacés, comprenant l’anatomie, la physiologie et la classification de ces animaux.’ Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret. Vol. 1–3. (1)468, (2)532, (3)638 pp, Atlas 1–32, pls. I–XLII. (Roret: Paris)

Milne Edwards, H. (1851). Observations sur le squelette tégumentaire des crustacés décapodes, et sur la morphologie de ces animaux. Annales des Sciences Naturelles, 3e série 16, 221–291.

Monod, T. (1939). Sur quelques crustacés de la Guadeloupe (Mission P. Allorge, 1936). Bulletin du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris. Série 2e, 557–568.

Ng, P. K. L., and Low, M. E. Y. (2010). On the generic nomenclature of nine brachyuran names, with four replacement names and two nomina protecta (Crustacea: Decapoda). Zootaxa 2489, 34–46.

Ng, P. K. L., Guinot, D., and Davie, P. J. F. (2008). Systema Brachyurorum: Part I. An annotated checklist of extant brachyuran crabs of the world. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 17, 1–286.

Nobili, G. (1901). Viaggio del Dr. Enrico Festa nella Repubblica dell’Ecuador e regione vicine. XXIII. Decapodi e Stomatopodi. Bollettino dei Musei di Zoologia ed Anatomia comparata della R. Università di Torino 16, 1–58.

Nylander, J. A. A. (2004). ‘MrAIC.pl.’ [Program distributed by the author] (Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University: Uppsala.)

Olivier, G. A. (1791). Crabe. In ‘Encyclopédie Méthodique, Histoire Naturelle, Insects, Agasse, Paris, 116.’ (Ed G. A. Olivier.) pp. 96–157. (Chez H. Agasse: Paris.)

Pennant, T. (1777). ‘British Zoology. Volume 4, Crustacea Mollusca Testacea.’ pp. i–viii, 1–157, 93 pls. (B. White: London.)

Pohle, G., and Marques, F. P. L. (2000). Larval stages of Paradasygyius depressus (Bell, 1835) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Majidae) and a phylogenetic analysis for 21 genera of Majidae. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 113, 739–760.

Provenzano, A. J., and Brownell, W. N. (1977). Larval and early post-larval stages of the West Indian spider crab, Mithrax spinosissimus (Lamarck) (Decapoda: Majidae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 90, 735–752.

Rathbun, M. J. (1892). Catalogue of the crabs of the family Periceridae in the U.S. National Museum. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 15, pp. 231–277, pls. 28–40.

Rathbun, M. J. (1894). Scientific results of explorations by the U.S. Fish Commission steamer Albatross. No. XXIV. – Descriptions of new genera and species of crabs from the west coast of North America and the Sandwich Islands. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 16, 223–260.
CrossRef |

Rathbun, M. J. (1898). The Brachyura of the Biological Expedition to the Florida Keys and the Bahamas in 1893. Bulletin of the Laboratories of Natural History of the State University of Iowa 4, 250–294.

Rathbun, M. J. (1901). The Brachyura and Macrura of Porto Rico. Bulletin of the United States Fish Commission [for 1900] 20, 1–127.

Rathbun, M. J. (1906). The Brachyura and Macrura of the Hawaiian Islands. Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries 23, pp. 827–930, pls. 24.

Rathbun, M. J. (1920). New species of spider crabs from the Straits of Florida and Caribbean Sea. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 33, 23–24.

Rathbun, M. J. (1924). New species and subspecies of spider crabs. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 64, 1–5.
CrossRef |

Rathbun, M. J. (1925). The spider crabs of America. Bulletin of the United States National Museum 129, 1–613.

Rhyne, A. L., Fujita, Y., and Calado, R. (2006). Larval development and first crab of Mithraculus sculptus (Decapoda: Brachyura: Majoidea: Mithracidae) described from laboratory-reared material. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 86, 1133–1147.
CrossRef |

Risso, A. (1816). ‘Histoire naturelle des crustacés des environs de Nice.’ pp. 1–175, pls. 3. (Librairie Grecque-Latine-Allemande: Paris.)

Risso, A. (1827). ‘Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe Méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes Maritimes. Vol. 5 Animaux Articulés, Annelides, Crustacés, Arachnides, Myriapodes et Insectes.’ i–xiii, 1–400, pls. 10. (F.-G. Levrault: Paris.)

Robles, R., Schubart, C. D., Conde, J. E., Carmona-Suarez, C., Alvarez, F., Villalobos, J., and Felder, D. L. (2007). Molecular phylogeny of the American Callinectes Stimpson, 1860 (Brachyura: Portunidae), based on two partial mitochondrial genes. Marine Biology 150, 1265–1274.
CrossRef | CAS |

Roux, P. (1828–1830). Crustacés de la Mediterranée et de son littoral. Décrits et Lithographiés par Polydore Roux, Conservateur du Cabinet d’histoire naturelle de la Ville de Marseille. (Paris: Levrault). 176 [unnumbered] pp, pls. 1–10 [1828]; Plates 11–15 [1829], pls. 16–45 [1830].

Sakai, T. (1976). ‘The Crabs of Japan and the Adjacent Seas.’ (Kodansha Ltd: Tokyo.)

Sakai, K. (1999). J. F. W. Herbst-collection of decapod Crustacea of the Berlin Zoological Museum, with remarks on certain species. Naturalists, Tokushima Biological Laboratory, Shikoku Women’s University 6, 1–45.

Samouelle, G. (1819). ‘The Entomologist’s Useful Compendium; or an Introduction to the Knowledge of British insects, Comprising the best Means of Obtaining and Preserving them, and a Description of the Apparatus Generally used; Together with the genera of Linné, and the Modern Method of Arranging the Classes Crustacea, Myriapoda, Spiders, Mites and Insects, from their Affinities and Structure, According to the views of Dr. Leach. Also an Explanation of the Terms used in Entomology; a Calendar of the Times of Appearance and Usual Situations of Near 3,000 Species of British Insects; with Instructions for Collecting and Fitting up Objects for the Microscope.’ pp. 1–496, pls. 12. (Thomas Boys: London.)

Santana, W., Pohle, G., and Marques, F. P. L. (2003). Zoeal stages and megalopa of Mithrax hispidus (Herbst, 1790) (Decapoda: Brachyura: Majoidea: Mithracidae): a reappraisal of larval characters from laboratory cultured material and a review of larvae of the MithraxMithraculus species complex. Invertebrate Reproduction & Development 44, 17–32.
CrossRef |

Santana, W., Marques, F., and Pohle, G. (2004). Larval stages of Stenocionops furcatus (Olivier, 1791) (Decapoda: Brachyura: Majoidea) and a reappraisal of larval morphological characters for Mithracidae. Journal of Plankton Research 26, 859–874.
CrossRef |

Saussure, H., and de, (1853). Description de quelques crustacés nouveaux de la côte occidentale du Mexique. Revue et Magasin de Zoologie pure et appliquée, (série 2) 5, 354–368.

Saussure, H., and de, (1857). Diagnoses de quelques crustacés nouveaux de l’Amérique tropicale. Revue et Magasin de Zoologie pure et Appliquée (série 2) 9, 501–505.

Saussure, H. de (1858). Mémoire sur divers Crustacés nouveaux des Antilles et du Mexique. Mémoires de la Société de Physique et d’Histoire Naturelle de Genève 14, pp. 417–496, pls. 1–6.

Stamatakis, A. (2006). RAxML-VI-HPC: maximum likelihood-based phylogenetic analyses with thousands of taxa and mixed models. Bioinformatics 22, 2688–2690.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Števčić, Z. (1994). Contribution to the re-classification of the family Majidae. Periodicum Biologorum 96, 419–420.

Števčić, Z. (2005). The reclassification of brachyuran crabs (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura). Natura Croatica 14, 1–159.

Stimpson, W. (1857). Prodromus descriptionis animalium evertebratorum, quae in Expeditione ad Oceanum Pacificum Septentrionalem, a Republica Federata missa, Cadwaladaro Ringgold et Johanne Rodgers Ducibus, observavit et descripsit. Pars III. Crustacea Maioidea. Proceedings. Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 9, 216–221.

Stimpson, W. (1860). Notes on North American Crustacea, in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution, No. 2. Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York 7, 177–246.

Stimpson, W. (1871). Preliminary report on the Crustacea dredged in the Gulf Stream in the Straits of Florida by L. F. de Pourtalés, Assist. United States Coast Survey. Part I. Brachyura. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College 2, 109–160.

Strand, E. (1928). Miscellanea nomenclatoria zoologica et palaeontologica. I–II. Archiv für Naturgeschichte 92A, 40–41.

Streets, T. H. (1871). Catalogue of Crustacea from the Isthmus of Panamá. Collected by J. A. McNeil. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 23, 238–243.

Türkay, M. (1967). Neue Brachyuren von der Westküste Südamerikas (Crustacea, Decapoda). Senckenbergiana Biologica 48, 361–364.

Türkay, M. (1986). Mithrax caboverdianus n. sp., eine neue Seespinnen-Art von den Kapverdischen Inseln (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Majidae). Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 81, 7–11.

Van Noort, G. J., and Adema, J. P. H. M. (1985). The genus Macropodia Leach, 1814 in the North Sea and adjacent waters with the description of a new species. Zoologische Mededeelingen 59, 363–379.

Von Martens, E. (1872). Über cubanische Crustaceen nach den Sammlungen Dr. J. Gundlach’s. Archiv für Naturgeschichte 38, pp. 77–147, pls. 4–5.

Wagner, H. P. (1990). The Genera Mithrax Latreille, 1818 and Mithraculus White, 1847 (Crustacea: Brachyura: Majidae) in the Western Atlantic Ocean. Zoologische Verhandelingen 264, 1–65.

White, A. (1847). ‘List of the Specimens in the Collection of the British Museum.’ (British Museum: London.)

Williams, A. B. (1984). ‘Shrimps, Lobsters, and Crabs of the Atlantic Coast of the Eastern United States, Maine to Florida.’ (Smithsonian Institution Press: Washington, DC.)

Windsor, A. M., and Felder, D. L. (2009). Re-evaluation of species allied to Mithrax hispidus (Decapoda: Brachyura: Majoidea: Mithracidae) based on three mitochondrial genes. Zootaxa 2302, 61–68.

Windsor, A. M., and Felder, D. L. (2011). A new species of Hemus (Majoidea: Majidae: Mithracinae) from the Pacific coast of Panamá, with a key to the genus. Zootaxa 2799, 63–68.


   
 
    
Legal & Privacy | Contact Us | Help

CSIRO

© CSIRO 1996-2014