CSIRO Publishing blank image blank image blank image blank imageBooksblank image blank image blank image blank imageJournalsblank image blank image blank image blank imageAbout Usblank image blank image blank image blank imageShopping Cartblank image blank image blank image You are here: Journals > Marine & Freshwater Research   
Marine & Freshwater Research
Journal Banner
  Advances in the Aquatic Sciences
 
blank image Search
 
blank image blank image
blank image
 
  Advanced Search
   

Journal Home
About the Journal
Editorial Board
Contacts
Content
Online Early
Current Issue
Just Accepted
All Issues
Special Issues
Research Fronts
Sample Issue
For Authors
General Information
Instructions to Authors
Submit Article
Open Access
For Referees
General Information
Review an Article
Referee Guidelines
Annual Referee Index
For Subscribers
Subscription Prices
Customer Service
Print Publication Dates

blue arrow e-Alerts
blank image
Subscribe to our Email Alert or RSS feeds for the latest journal papers.

red arrow Connect with us
blank image
facebook twitter youtube

 

Article << Previous     |     Next >>   Contents Vol 62(3)

Freshwater conservation options for a changing climate in California’s Sierra Nevada

Joshua H. Viers A B and David E. Rheinheimer A

A Center for Watershed Sciences, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA.
B Corresponding author. Email: jhviers@ucdavis.edu

Marine and Freshwater Research 62(3) 266-278 http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/MF09286
Submitted: 9 November 2009  Accepted: 4 October 2010   Published: 18 March 2011


 
PDF (421 KB) $25
 Export Citation
 Print
  
Abstract

Catchments of California’s Sierra Nevada have been managed for hydropower, water supply, recreation and the environment, during which regional freshwater ecosystems have experienced extirpations of anadromous fishes, widespread loss in amphibian abundance and increases in non-native species. California’s Mediterranean-montane climate is expected to warm by 2–6°C over the next century, reducing snowpack, causing earlier runoff and altering flows. Freshwater conservation efforts currently rely on a patchwork of legal and regulatory mechanisms, and have failed to achieve their full potential because of weak and uncoordinated implementation. No scheme adequately addresses freshwater conservation objectives such as representation and persistence, and all ignore anticipated impacts of climate change. We recommend that (1) existing legislation be fully implemented, with explicit anticipation of future conditions, (2) local institutions develop and implement a systematic freshwater conservation plan, focusing on resilience to climate warming, (3) policies be crafted to prioritise catchments to emphasise key regional objectives (e.g. conservation) and (4) regional planning agencies with regulatory authority be formed at the catchment level.

Additional keywords: California, climate warming, freshwater conservation, Sierra Nevada, water management.


References

Abell, R. A. (2000). ‘Freshwater Ecoregions of North America: A Conservation Assessment.’ (Island Press: Washington, DC.)

Abell, R. (2002). Conservation biology for the biodiversity crisis: a freshwater follow-up. Conservation Biology 16, 1435–1437.
CrossRef |

Abell, R., Allan, J. D., and Lehner, B. (2007). Unlocking the potential of protected areas for freshwaters. Biological Conservation 134, 48–63.
CrossRef |

Allan, J. D., and Flecker, A. S. (1993). Biodiversity conservation in running waters. BioScience 43, 32–43.
CrossRef |

Alpers, C. N., Hunerlach, M. P., May, J. T., and Hothem, R. L. (2005) Mercury contamination from historical gold mining in California, United States Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2005-3014 Version 1.1. Available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2005/3014/fs2005_3014_v1.1.pdf [accessed 3 December 2010].

Anderson, J., Chung, F., Anderson, M., Brekke, L., Easton, D., Ejeta, M., Peterson, R., and Snyder, R. (2008). Progress on incorporating climate change into management of California’s water resources. Climatic Change 87, 91–108.
CrossRef |

Banuri, T. (2009). Integrated water resources management: seeking sustainable solutions to water management. Natural Resources Forum 33, 1.
CrossRef |

Bartolome, J. W., Erman, D. C., and Schwarz, C. F. (1990). Stability and change in minerotrophic peatlands, Sierra Nevada of California and Nevada. USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station Research Paper PSW-198. USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station, Berkeley, CA. Available at http://www.fs.fed.us/psw/publications/documents/psw_rp198/psw_rp198.pdf [accessed 3 December 2010].

Bates, B., Kundzewicz, Z. W., Wu, S., and Palutikof, J. (2008). Climate change and water. Technical paper of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Geneva. Available at http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/technical-papers/climate-change-water-en.pdf [accessed 3 December 2010].

Blumm, M., and Schwartz, T. (1995). Mono Lake and the evolving public trust in Western water. Arizona Law Review 37, 701–738.

Bonada, N., Doledec, S., and Statzner, B. (2007a). Taxonomic and biological trait differences of stream macroinvertebrate communities between Mediterranean and temperate regions: implications for future climatic scenarios. Global Change Biology 13, 1658–1671.
CrossRef |

Bonada, N., Rieradevall, M., and Prat, N. (2007b). Macroinvertebrate community structure and biological traits related to flow permanence in a Mediterranean river network. Hydrobiologia 589, 91–106.
CrossRef |

Bonada, N., Rieradevall, M., Dallas, H., Davis, J., Day, J., Figueroa, R., Resh, V. H., and Prat, N. (2008). Multi-scale assessment of macroinvertebrate richness and composition in Mediterranean-climate rivers. Freshwater Biology 53, 772–788.
CrossRef |

Bricker, J. L., and Filippi, D. E. (2000). Endangered Species Act enforcement and Western water law. Environmental Law 30, 735–768.

Caissie, D. (2006). The thermal regime of rivers: a review. Freshwater Biology 51, 1389–1406.
CrossRef |

Carpenter, S. R., Fisher, S. G., Grimm, N. B., and Kitchell, J. F. (1992). Global change and freshwater ecosystems. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 23, 119–139.
CrossRef |

Chan, K. M. A., Shaw, M. R., Cameron, D. R., Underwood, E. C., and Daily, G. C. (2006). Conservation planning for ecosystem services. PLoS Biology 4, e379.
CrossRef | PubMed |

Clark, D. H., and Gillespie, A. R. (1997). Timing and significance of late-glacial and holocene cirque glaciation in the Sierra Nevada, California. Quaternary International 38–39, 21–38.
CrossRef |

Davidson, C. (2004). Declining downwind: amphibian population declines in California and historical pesticide use. Ecological Applications 14, 1892–1902.
CrossRef |

Davidson, C., and Knapp, R. A. (2007). Multiple stressors and amphibian declines: dual impacts of pesticides and fish on yellow-legged frogs. Ecological Applications 17, 587–597.
CrossRef | PubMed |

Davidson, C., Shaffer, H. B., and Jennings, M. R. (2001). Declines of the California red-legged frog: climate, UV-B, habitat, and pesticides hypotheses. Ecological Applications 11, 464–479.
CrossRef |

Davis, F. W., Costello, C., and Stoms, D. (2006). Efficient conservation in a utility-maximization framework. Ecology and Society 11, 33. Available at http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol11/iss1/art33/ [accessed 3 December 2010].

de la Vega, E. (2008). Our national water policy: Oh, wait, we don’t have a national water policy. In ‘Grist: a Beacon in the Smog’. (Seattle, WA, USA.) Available at http://www.grist.org/article/our-national-water-policy [accessed 3 December 2010].

Department of Water Resources (2005). A framework for action. In ‘California Water Plan Update 2005’. Volume 1, Chapter 2. (Department of Water Resources: Sacramento, CA.) Available at http://www.waterplan.water.ca.gov/docs/cwpu2005/vol1/v1ch02.pdf [accessed 3 December 2010].

Dettinger, M. D., Cayan, D. R., Meyer, M., and Jeton, A. E. (2004). Simulated hydrologic responses to climate variations and change in the Merced, Carson, and American River basins, Sierra Nevada, California, 1900–2099. Climatic Change 62, 283–317.
CrossRef |

Dudgeon, D., Arthington, A. H., Gessner, M. O., Kawabata, Z. I., Knowler, D. J., Lévêque, C., Naiman, R. J., Prieur-Richard, A.-H., Soto, D., Stiassny, M. L. J., and Sullivan, C. A. (2006). Freshwater biodiversity: importance, threats, status and conservation challenges. Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 81, 163–182.
CrossRef | PubMed |

Dunning, C. M., and Galloway, G. E. (2006). The second national water policy dialogue: muddling through to better water policy. Journal of Contemporary Water Research & Education 134, 46–50.
CrossRef |

Epanchin, P., Knapp, R., and Lawler, S. (2011). Nonnative trout impact an alpine-nesting bird by altering aquatic insect subsidies. Ecology 91, 2406–2415.
CrossRef |

Erman, N. A. (1996). Status of aquatic invertebrates. In ‘Sierra Nevada Ecosystem Project: Final Report to Congress, Vol. II’. (Centers for Water and Wildland Resources, University of California: Davis, CA.)

Gasith, A., and Resh, V. H. (1999). Streams in mediterranean climate regions: abiotic influences and biotic responses to predictable seasonal events. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 30, 51–81.
CrossRef |

Grantham, T. E., Merenlender, A. M., and Resh, V. H. (2010). Climatic influences and anthropogenic stressors: an integrated framework for streamflow management in Mediterranean-climate California, USA. Freshwater Biology 55, 188–204.
CrossRef |

Hayhoe, K., Cayan, D., Field, C. B., Frumhoff, P. C., Maurer, E. P., Miller, N. L., Moser, S. C., Schneider, S. H., Cahill, K. N., Cleland, E. E., Dale, L., Drapek, R., Hanemann, R. M., Kalkstein, L. S., Lenihan, J., Lunch, C. K., Neilson, R. P., Sheridan, S. C., and Verville, J. H. (2004). Emissions pathways, climate change, and impacts on California. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 101, 12 422–12 427.
CrossRef | CAS |

Herbst, D. B., and Silldorff, E. L. (2006). Comparison of the performance of different bioassessment methods: similar evaluations of biotic integrity from separate programs and procedures. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 25, 513–530.
CrossRef |

Herbst, D. B., Silldorff, E. L., and Cooper, S. D. (2009). The influence of introduced trout on the benthic communities of paired headwater streams in the sierra nevada of california. Freshwater Biology 54, 1324–1342.
CrossRef |

Hermoso, V., and Clavero, M. (2011). Conservation management of endemic freshwater fish in the Mediterranean basin – a review. Marine and Freshwater Research 62, 244–254.
CrossRef |

Hertig, E., and Jacobeit, J (2010). Predictability of Mediterranean climate variables from oceanic variability. Part II: statistical models for monthly precipitation and temperature in the Mediterranean area. Climate Dynamics , in press.
CrossRef |

Janetski, D. J., Chaloner, D. T., Tiegs, S. D., and Lamberti, G. A. (2009). Pacific salmon effects on stream ecosystems: a quantitative synthesis. Oecologia 159, 583–595.
CrossRef | PubMed |

Jennings, M. R. (1996). Status of amphibians. In ‘Sierra Nevada Ecosystem Project: Final Report to Congress, Vol. II’. pp. 921–944. (Centers for Water and Wildland Resources, University of California: Davis, CA.)

Jennings, M. R., and Hayes, M. P. (1994). ‘Amphibians and Reptile Species of Special Concern in California.’ (California Department of Fish and Game: Sacramento, CA.)

Jones, W. J., Quelvog, B. D., and Bernardi, G. (2002). Morphological and genetic analysis of the Red Hills roach (Cyprinidae: Lavinia symmetricus). Conservation Genetics 3, 261–276.
CrossRef | CAS |

Klausmeyer, K. R., and Shaw, M. R. (2009). Climate change, habitat loss, protected areas and the climate adaptation potential of species in Mediterranean ecosystems worldwide. PLoS ONE 4, e6392.
CrossRef | PubMed |

Knapp, R. A., and Matthews, K. R. (2000). Non-native fish introductions and the decline of the mountain yellow-legged frog from within protected areas. Conservation Biology 14, 428–438.
CrossRef |

Knapp, R. A., Matthews, K. R., and Sarnelle, O. (2001). Resistance and resilience of alpine lake fauna to fish introductions. Ecological Monographs 71, 401–421.
CrossRef |

Light, T., and Marchetti, M. P. (2007). Distinguishing between invasions and habitat changes as drivers of diversity loss among California’s freshwater fishes. Conservation Biology 21, 434–446.
CrossRef | PubMed |

Little Hoover Commission (2009). Clearer structure, cleaner water: improving performance and outcomes at the state water boards. Report #195. Little Hoover Commission, Sacramento, CA. Available at http://www.lhc.ca.gov/studies/195/report195.pdf [accessed 3 December 2010].

Marchetti, M. P., Light, T., Moyle, P. B., and Viers, J. H. (2004). Fish invasions in California watersheds: testing hypotheses using landscape patterns. Ecological Applications 14, 1507–1525.
CrossRef |

Maurer, E. (2007). Uncertainty in hydrologic impacts of climate change in the sierra nevada, california, under two emissions scenarios. Climatic Change 82, 309–325.
CrossRef |

Maurer, E. P., Stewart, I. T., Bonfils, C., Duffy, P. B., and Cayan, D. (2007). Detection, attribution, and sensitivity of trends toward earlier streamflow in the Sierra Nevada. Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres 112, D11118.
CrossRef |

Medellin-Azuara, J., Harou, J. J., Olivares, M. A., Madani, K., Lund, J. R., Howitt, R. E., Tanaka, S. K., Jenkins, M. W., and Zhu, T. (2008). Adaptability and adaptations of California’s water supply system to dry climate warming. Climatic Change 87, S75–S90.
CrossRef |

Milliman, J. D., Farnsworth, K. L., Jones, P. D., Xu, K. H., and Smith, L. C. (2008). Climatic and anthropogenic factors affecting river discharge to the global ocean, 1951–2000. Global and Planetary Change 62, 187–194.
CrossRef |

Milly, P. C. D., Betancourt, J., Falkenmark, M., Hirsch, R. M., Kundzewicz, Z. W., Lettenmaier, D. P., and Stouffer, R. J. (2008). Stationarity is dead: whither water management? Science 319, 573–574.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Morrill, J. C., Bales, R. C., and Conklin, M. H. (2005). Estimating stream temperature from air temperature: implications for future water quality. Journal of Environmental Engineering 131, 139–146.
CrossRef | CAS |

Mount, J. F. (1995). ‘California Rivers and Streams: the Conflict Between Fluvial Process and Land Use.’ (University of California Press: Berkeley, CA.)

Moyle, P. B. (1996). Potential aquatic diversity management areas. In ‘Sierra Nevada Ecosystem Project: Final Report to Congress. Vol. II’. pp. 945–952. (Centers for Water and Wildland Resources, University of California: Davis, CA.)

Moyle, P. B. (2002). ‘Inland Fishes of California.’ (University of California Press: Berkeley, CA.)

Moyle, P. B., and Randall, P. J. (1998). Evaluating the biotic integrity of watersheds in the Sierra Nevada, California. Conservation Biology 12, 1318–1326.
CrossRef |

Moyle, P. B., and Yoshiyama, R. M. (1994). Protection of aquatic biodiversity in California: a five-tiered approach. Fisheries 19, 6–18.
CrossRef |

Moyle, P. B., Marchetti, M. P., Baldrige, J., and Taylor, T. L. (1998). Fish health and diversity: justifying flows for a California stream. Fisheries 23, 6–15.
CrossRef |

Moyle, P. B., Israel, J. A., and Purdy, S. E. (2008). Salmon, steelhead, and trout in California: status of an emblematic fauna. A report to California Trout, San Francisco, CA. Available at http://www.caltrout.org/SOS-Californias-Native-Fish-Crisis-Final-Report.pdf [accessed 3 December 2010].

National Fish and Wildlife Foundation (2009). ‘Sierra Nevada Meadow Restoration: Improving Water Flows, Flood Attenuation and Wildlife abitat in California.’ (National Fish and Wildlife Foundation: Washington, DC.) Available at http://www.nfwf.org/Content/ContentFolders/NationalFishandWildlifeFoundation/GrantPrograms/Keystones/WildlifeandHabitat/Sierra_Meadow_Restoration_business_plan.pdf [accessed 3 December 2010].

National Marine Fisheries Service (2009). ‘Public Draft Recovery Plan for the Evolutionarily Significant Units of Sacramento River Winter-run Chinook Salmon and Central Valley Spring-run Chinook Salmon and the Distinct Population Segment of Central Valley Steelhead.’ (Sacramento Protected Resources Division: Sacramento, CA.)

Nel, J. L., Roux, D. J., Abell, R., Ashton, P. J., Cowling, R. M., Higgins, J. V., Thieme, M., and Viers, J. H. (2009). Progress and challenges in freshwater conservation planning. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 19, 474–485.
CrossRef |

Nel, J. L., Turak, E., Linke, S., and Brown, C. (2011). A new era in catchment management: integration of environmental flow assessment and freshwater conservation planning. Marine and Freshwater Research 62, 290–299.

Null, S. E., and Lund, J. R. (2006). Reassembling Hetch Hetchy: water supply without O’Shaughnessy Dam. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 42, 395–408.
CrossRef |

Null, S. E., Viers, J. H., and Mount, J. F. (2010). Hydrologic response and watershed sensitivity to climate warming in California’s Sierra Nevada. PLoS ONE 5, .
CrossRef | CAS |

Pahl-Wostl, C. (2007). Transitions towards adaptive management of water facing climate and global change. Water Resources Management 21, 49–62.
CrossRef |

Palmer, M. A., Lettenmaier, D. P., Poff, N. L., Postel, S. L., Richter, B., and Warner, R. (2009). Climate change and river ecosystems: protection and adaptation options. Environmental Management 44, 1053–1068.
CrossRef | PubMed |

Pittock, J. (2010). Better management of hydropower in an era of climate change. Water Alternatives 3, 444–452.

Pittock, J., and Finlayson, M. (2011). Australia’s Murray–Darling Basin: freshwater ecosystem conservation options in an era of climate change. Marine and Freshwater Research 62, 232–243.
CrossRef |

Pittock, J., and Hartmann, J. (2011). Taking a second look: climate change, periodic relicensing and improved management of dams. Marine and Freshwater Research 62, 312–320.
CrossRef |

Pittock, J., Hansen, L., and Abell, R. (2008). Running dry: freshwater biodiversity, protected areas and climate change. Biodiversity 9, 30–38.

Quesne, T. L., Matthews, J. H., Von der Heyden, C., Wickel, A. J., Wilby, R., et al. (2010). ‘Flowing Forward: Freshwater Ecosystem Adaptation to Climate Change in Water Resources Management and Biodiversity Conservation.’ (The World Bank: Washington, DC.)

Rehn, A. C. (2009). Benthic macroinvertebrates as indicators of biological condition below hydropower dams on west slope Sierra Nevada streams, California, USA. River Research and Applications 25, 208–228.
CrossRef |

Rheinheimer, D. E., Lund, J. R., Jenkins, M. W., and Madani, K. (2007). ‘Concepts and Options for Mitigation of Hydropower Dams in the Sierra Nevada: a Preliminary Review.’ (Center for Watershed Sciences, University of California: Davis, CA.)

Richter, B., Postel, S. L., Revenga, C., Scudder, T., Lehner, B., et al. (2010). Lost in development’s shadow: the downstream human consequences of dams. Water Alternatives 3, 14–42.

Roux, D. J., Nel, J. L., Ashton, P. J., Deaconc, A. R., de Moor, F. C., Hardwick, D., Hill, L., Kleynhans, C. J., Maree, G. A., Moolman, J., and Scholes, R. J. (2008). Designing protected areas to conserve riverine biodiversity: lessons from a hypothetical redesign of the Kruger National Park. Biological Conservation 141, 100–117.
CrossRef |

Sala, O. E., Chapin, F. S., Armesto, J. J., Berlow, E., Bloomfield, J., Dirzo, R., Huber-Sanwald, E., Huenneke, L. F, Jackson, R. B., Kinzig, A., Leemans, R., Lodge, D. M., Mooney, H. A, Oesterheld, M., LeRoy Poff, N., Sykes, M. T., Walker, B. H., Walker, M., and Wall, D. H. (2000). Biodiversity – global biodiversity scenarios for the year 2100. Science 287, 1770–1774.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Shilling, F., and Girvetz, E. (2007). Physical and financial barriers to implementing a nature reserve network in the Sierra Nevada, California, USA. Landscape and Urban Planning 80, 165–172.
CrossRef |

Stewart, I. T., Cayan, D. R., and Dettinger, M. D. (2005). Changes toward earlier streamflow timing across western North America. Journal of Climate 18, 1136–1155.
CrossRef |

Stoddard, J. L. (2005). ‘An Ecological Assessment of Western Streams and Rivers.’ (US Environmental Protection Agency: Washington, DC.) Available at http://www.epa.gov/nheerl/arm/documents/EMAP.W.Assessment.final.pdf [accessed 3 December 2010].

Suchanek, T. H., Richerson, P. J., Zierenberg, R. A., Eagles-Smith, C. A., Slotton, D. G., Harner, E. J., Osleger, D. A., Anderson, D. W., Cech, J. J., Schladow, S. G., Colwell, A. E., Mount, J. F., King, P. S., Adam, D. P., and McElroy, K. J. (2008). The legacy of mercury cycling from mining sources in an aquatic ecosystem: from ore to organism. Ecological Applications 18, A12–A28.
CrossRef | PubMed |

Tanaka, S. K., Zhu, T. J., Lund, J. R., Howitt, R. E., Jenkins, M. W., Pulido, M. A., Tauber, M., Ritzema, R. S., and Ferreira, I. C. (2006). Climate warming and water management adaptation for california. Climatic Change 76, 361–387.
CrossRef |

Thorne, J. H., Viers, J. H., Price, J., and Storns, D. M. (2009). Spatial patterns of endemic plants in California. Natural Areas Journal 29, 344–366.
CrossRef |

UN-Water (2008). ‘Status Report on Integrated Water Resources Management and Water Efficiency Plans for Commission on Sustainable Development 16.’ (United Nations: Geneva, Switzerland.)

Underwood, E. C., Viers, J. H., Klausmeyer, K. R., Cox, R. L., and Shaw, M. R. (2009). Threats and biodiversity in the Mediterranean biome. Diversity & Distributions 15, 188–197.
CrossRef |

Vicuna, S., and Dracup, J. (2007). The evolution of climate change impact studies on hydrology and water resources in California. Climatic Change 82, 327–350.
CrossRef |

Viers, J. H. (2008). Objective classification of navarro river salmon habitat: a watershed-based critical habitat case study. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 18, 147–162.
CrossRef |

Viers, J. H. (2011). Hydropower relicensing and climate change. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 47, 1–7.
CrossRef |

Vörösmarty, C. J., Green, P., Salisbury, J. S., and Lammers, R. B. (2000). Global water resources: vulnerability from climate change and population growth. Science 289, 284–288.
CrossRef | PubMed |

Watts, R. J., Ryder, D. S., Allan, C., and Commens, S. (2010). Using river-scale experiments to inform variable releases from large dams: a case study of emergent adaptive management. Marine and Freshwater Research 61, 786–797.
CrossRef | CAS |

Whittaker, R. H., Levin, S. A., and Root, R. B. (1973). Niche, habitat, and ecotope. American Naturalist 107, 321–338.
CrossRef |

Williams, J. G. (2006a). Central Valley salmon: a perspective on chinook and steelhead in the Central Valley of California. Appendix C: legal issues affecting instream flows. San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science 4, 392–397.

Williams, J. G. (2006b). Central Valley salmon: a perspective on chinook and steelhead in the Central Valley of California. Chapter 17: summary and recommendations. San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science 4, 300–316.

Yarnell, S. M., Viers, J. H., and Mount, J. F. (2010). Ecology and management of the spring snowmelt recession. BioScience 60, 114–127.
CrossRef |

Yoshiyama, R. M., Fisher, F. W., and Moyle, P. B. (1998). Historical abundance and decline of chinook salmon in the Central Valley region of California. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 18, 487–521.
CrossRef |

Young, C. A., Escobar-Arias, M. I., Fernandes, M., Joyce, B., Kiparsky, M., Mount, J. F., Mehta, V. K., Purkey, D., Viers, J. H., and Yates, D. (2009). Modeling the hydrology of climate change in California’s Sierra Nevada for subwatershed scale adaptation. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 45, 1409–1423.
CrossRef |


   
Subscriber Login
Username:
Password:  

 
    
Legal & Privacy | Contact Us | Help

CSIRO

© CSIRO 1996-2014