CSIRO Publishing blank image blank image blank image blank imageBooksblank image blank image blank image blank imageJournalsblank image blank image blank image blank imageAbout Usblank image blank image blank image blank imageShopping Cartblank image blank image blank image You are here: Journals > Marine & Freshwater Research   
Marine & Freshwater Research
Journal Banner
  Advances in the Aquatic Sciences
 
blank image Search
 
blank image blank image
blank image
 
  Advanced Search
   

Journal Home
About the Journal
Editorial Structure
Contacts
Content
Online Early
Current Issue
Just Accepted
All Issues
Special Issues
Research Fronts
Virtual Issues
Sample Issue
For Authors
General Information
Scope
Submit Article
Author Instructions
Open Access
For Referees
General Information
Review an Article
Referee Guidelines
For Subscribers
Subscription Prices
Customer Service
Print Publication Dates
Library Recommendation

blue arrow e-Alerts
blank image
Subscribe to our Email Alert or RSS feeds for the latest journal papers.

red arrow Connect with us
blank image
facebook twitter logo LinkedIn

 

Article << Previous     |     Next >>   Contents Vol 67(4)

New approaches to the ecological risk assessment of multiple stressors

Paul J. Van den Brink A B J, Catherine Bo Choung C, Wayne Landis D, Mariana Mayer-Pinto E, Vincent Pettigrove F, Peter Scanes G, Rachael Smith H and Jenny Stauber I

A Department of Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management, Wageningen University, Wageningen University and Research centre, PO Box 47, NL-6700 AA Wageningen, Netherlands.
B Alterra, Wageningen University and Research centre, PO Box 47, NL-6700 AA Wageningen, Netherlands.
C Environment Canada at the Canadian Rivers Institute, Department of Biology, University of New Brunswick, 10 Bailey Drive, PO Box 45111, Fredericton, NB, E3B 6E1, Canada.
D Institute of Environmental Toxicology, Huxley College of the Environment, Western Washington University, Bellingham, WA 98225-9180, USA.
E Evolution & Ecology Research Centre, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia.
F CAPIM, Bio21 Institute, University of Melbourne, 30 Flemington Road, Parkville, Vic. 3010, Australia.
G Waters and Coastal Science Section, New South Wales Office of Environment and Heritage, PO Box A290, Sydney South, NSW 1232, Australia.
H Water Quality and Investigations, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Science, Science Division, Department of Science, Information Technology, Innovation and the Arts (DSITIA), PO Box 5078, Brisbane, Qld 4001, Australia.
I CSIRO Land and Water, Locked Bag 2007, Kirrawee, Sydney, NSW 2232, Australia.
J Corresponding author. Email: paul.vandenbrink@wur.nl

Marine and Freshwater Research 67(4) 429-439 http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/MF15111
Submitted: 13 March 2015  Accepted: 17 November 2015   Published: 12 January 2016


 
PDF (243 KB) $25
 Supplementary Material
 Export Citation
 Print
  
Abstract

So as to assess how emerging science and new tools can be applied to study multiple stressors at a large (ecosystem) scale and to facilitate greater integration of approaches among different scientific disciplines, a workshop was organised on 10–12 September 2014 at the Sydney Institute of Marine Sciences, Sydney, Australia. The present paper discusses the limitations of the current risk-assessment approaches and how multiple stressors at large scales can be better evaluated in ecological risk assessments to inform the development of more efficient and preventive management policies based on adaptive management in the future. A future risk-assessment paradigm that overcomes these limitations is presented. This paradigm includes cultural and ecological protection goals, the development of ecological scenarios, the establishment of the relevant interactions among species, potential sources of stressors, their interactions and the development of cause–effect models. It is envisaged that this will be achievable through a greater integration of approaches among different scientific disciplines and through the application of new and emerging tools such as 'big data', ecological modelling and the incorporation of ecosystem service endpoints.

Additional keywords: adaptive management, anthropogenic stress, aquatic ecosystems.


References

Amstrup, S. C., DeWeaver, E. T., Douglas, D. C., Marcot, B. G., Durner, G. M., Bitz, C. M., and Bailey, D. S. (2010). Greenhouse gas mitigation can reduce sea-ice loss and increase polar bear persistence. Nature 468, 955–958.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Apitz, S. E. (2013). Ecosystem services and environmental decision making: seeking order in complexity. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 9, 214–230.
CrossRef | PubMed |

Ashauer, R., and Brown, C. D. (2013). Highly time-variable exposure to chemicals: toward an assessment strategy. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 9, e27–e33.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Augusiak, J., Van den Brink, P. J., and Grimm, V. (2014). Merging validation and evaluation of ecological models to ‘evaludation’: a review of terminology and a practical approach. Ecological Modelling 280, 117–128.
CrossRef |

Ayre, K. K., and Landis, W. G. (2012). A Bayesian approach to landscape ecological risk assessment applied to the Upper Grande Ronde watershed, Oregon. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 18, 946–970.
CrossRef | CAS |

Baird, D. J., and Hajibabaei, M. (2012). Biomonitoring 2.0: a new paradigm in ecosystem assessment made possible by next-generation DNA sequencing. Molecular Ecology 21, 2039–2044.
CrossRef | PubMed |

Baird, D. J., and Van den Brink, P. J. (2007). Using biological traits to predict species sensitivity to toxic substances? Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 67, 296–301.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Baird, D. J., Van den Brink, P. J., Chariton, A. A., Dafforn, K. A., and Johnston, E. L. (2015). New diagnostics for multiply stressed marine and freshwater ecosystems: integrating models, ecoinformatics and big data. Marine and Freshwater Research , .
CrossRef |

Ballard, C., Compert, C., Jesionowski, T., Milman, I., Plants, B., Rosen, B., and Smith, H. (2014). ‘Information Governance Principles and Practices for a Big Data Landscape.’ (IBM Redbooks: New York.)

Barbour, M. T., Gerritsen, J., Snyder, B. D., and Stribling, J. B. (1999). ‘Rapid Bioassessment Protocols for Use in Streams and Wadeable Rivers: Periphyton, Benthic Nacroinvertebrates and Fish’, 2nd edn. EPA 841-B-99-002. (US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water: Washington, DC.)

Berghahn, R., Mohr, S., Hübner, V., Schmiediche, R., Schmiedling, I., Svetich-Will, E., and Schmidt, R. (2012). Effects of repeated insecticide pulses on macroinvertebrate drift in indoor stream mesocosms. Aquatic Toxicology 122–123, 56–66.
CrossRef | PubMed |

Biron, P. A., Massarin, S., Alonzo, F., Garcia-Sanchez, L., Charles, S., and Billoir, E. (2012). Population-level modeling to account for multigenerational effects of uranium in Daphnia magna. Environmental Science & Technology 46, 1136–1143.
CrossRef | CAS |

Branch, T. A., Watson, R., Fulton, E. A., Jennings, S., McGilliard, C. R., Pablico, G. T., Ricard, D., and Tracey, S. R. (2010). The trophic fingerprint of marine fisheries. Nature 468, 431–435.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Brock, T. C. M. (2013). Priorities to improve the ecological risk assessment and management for pesticides in surface water. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 9, e64–e74.
CrossRef | CAS |

Bulleri, F., and Airoldi, L. (2005). Artificial marine structures facilitate the spread of a non-indigenous green alga, Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides, in the north Adriatic Sea. Journal of Applied Ecology 42, 1063–1072.
CrossRef |

Burton, G. A., De Zwart, D., Diamond, J., Dyer, S., Kapo, K. E., Liess, M., and Posthuma, L. (2012). Making ecosystem reality checks the status quo. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 31, 459–468.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Chapman, P. M., McDonald, B. G., and Lawrence, G. S. (2002). Weight-of-evidence issues and frameworks for sediment quality (and other) assessments. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 8, 1489–1515.
CrossRef |

Chariton, A., Sun, M., Gibson, J., Webb, A., Leung, K., Hickey, C., and Hose, G. C. (2015). Emergent technologies and analytical approaches for increasing our understanding of multiple stressors in aquatic environments. Marine and Freshwater Research , .
CrossRef |

Clements, W. H., Hickey, C. W., and Kidd, K. A. (2012). How do aquatic communities respond to contaminants? It depends on the ecological context. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 31, 1932–1940.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Colnar, A. M., and Landis, W. G. (2007). Conceptual model development for invasive species and regional risk assessment case study: the European green crab, Carcinus maenas, at Cherry Point, Washington, USA. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 13, 120–155.
CrossRef |

Condie, S. A., Hayes, D., Fulton, E. A., and Savina, M. (2012). Modelling ecological change over half a century in a subtropical estuary: impacts of climate change, land-use, urbanization and freshwater extraction. Marine Ecology Progress Series 457, 43–66.
CrossRef |

Crain, C. M., Kroeker, K., and Halpern, B. S. (2008). Interactive and cumulative effects of multiple human stressors in marine systems. Ecology Letters 11, 1304–1315.
CrossRef | PubMed |

Culp, J. M., Hose, G. C., Armanini, D. G., Dunbar, M. J., Orlofske, J. M., Poff, N. L., Pollard, A. I., and Yates, A. G. (2011). Incorporating traits in aquatic biomonitoring to enhance causal diagnosis and prediction. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 7, 187–197.
CrossRef | PubMed |

Daam, M. A., and Van den Brink, P. J. (2010). Implications of differences between temperate and tropical freshwater ecosystems for the ecological risk assessment of pesticides. Ecotoxicology (London, England) 19, 24–37.
CrossRef | CAS |

Dafforn, K. A., Johnston, E. L., Ferguson, A., Humphrey, C., Monk, W., Nichols, S. J., Simpson, S. L., Tulbure, M. G., and Baird, D. J. (2015). Data opportunities and challenges for assessing multiple stressors across scales in aquatic ecosystems. Marine and Freshwater Research , .
CrossRef |

Dam, R. A., Camilleri, C., Bayliss, P., and Markich, S. J. (2004). Ecological risk assessment of tebuthiuron following application on tropical Australian wetlands. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 10, 1069–1097.
CrossRef |

De Laender, F., and Janssen, C. (2013). The ecosystem perspective in ecotoxicology as a way forward for the ecological risk assessment of chemicals. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 9, e34–e38.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

De Laender, F., Morselli, M., Baveco, H., Van den Brink, P. J., and Di Guardo, A. (2015). Theoretically exploring direct and indirect chemical effects across ecological and exposure scenarios using mechanistic fate and effects modelling. Environment International 74, 181–190.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Dunbar, M. B., Paagos, P., and Montanarella, L. (2013). European perspective of ecosystem services and related policies. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 9, 231–236.
CrossRef | PubMed |

EFSA PPR Panel (2013). Guidance on tiered risk assessment for plant protection products for aquatic organisms in edge-of-field surface waters. EFSA Journal 11, 3290.
CrossRef |

EFSA PPR Panel (2014). Scientific opinion on good modelling practice in the context of mechanistic effect models for risk assessment of plant protection products. EFSA Journal 12, 3589.
CrossRef |

EFSA PPR Panel (2015). DRAFT Guidance Document. Guidance to define protection goals for environmental risk assessment in relation to biodiversity and ecosystem services. (European Food Safety Authority: Parma, Italy.) Available at http://www.efsa.europa.eu/sites/default/files/assets/150622a.pdf [Verified 1 December 2015].

Eränen, J. K., Nilsen, J., Zverev, V. E., and Kozlov, M. V. (2009). Mountain birch under multiple stressors: heavy metal-resistant populations co-resistant to biotic stress but maladapted to abiotic stress. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22, 840–851.
CrossRef | PubMed |

European Commission (2013). Addressing the new challenges for risk assessment. (Scientific Committee on Health and Environmental Risks (SCHER), Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks (SCENIHR), Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS)). Available at http://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_committees/consumer_safety/docs/sccs_o_131.pdf [Verified 1 December 2015].

Fairweather, P. G. (1998). Experimental research in environmental management and biodiversity protection: ecological principles and methods. Australasian Journal of Environmental Management 5, 15–17.
CrossRef |

Fan, L., Liu, M., Simister, R., Webster, N. S., and Thomas, T. (2013). Marine microbial symbiosis heats up: the phylogenetic and functional response of a sponge holobiont to thermal stress. The ISME Journal 7, 991–1002.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Fleeger, J. W., Carman, K. R., and Nisbet, R. M. (2003). Indirect effects of contaminants in aquatic ecosystems. The Science of the Total Environment 317, 207–233.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Forbes, V. E., and Calow, P. (2013). Developing predictive systems models to address complexity and relevance for ecological risk assessment. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 9, e75–e80.
CrossRef | PubMed |

Fulton, E. A. (2011). Interesting times: winners, losers, and system shifts under climate change around Australia. ICES Journal of Marine Science 68, 1329–1342.
CrossRef |

Fulton, E. A., Link, J. S., Kaplan, I. C., Savina-Rolland, M., Johnson, P., Ainsworth, C., Horne, P., Gorton, R., Gamble, R. J., Smith, A. D. M., and Smith, D. C. (2011). Lessons in modelling and management of marine ecosystems: the Atlantis experience. Fish and Fisheries 12, 171–188.
CrossRef |

Fulton, E. A., Smith, A. D. M., Smith, D. C., and Johnson, P. (2014). An integrated approach is needed for ecosystem based fisheries management: insights from ecosystem-level management strategy evaluation. PLoS One 9, e84242.
CrossRef | PubMed |

Galic, N., Hommen, U., Baveco, J. M., and Van den Brink, P. J. (2010). Potential application of population models in the European ecological risk assessment of chemicals: II. Review of models and whether they can address the protection aims. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 6, 338–360.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Galic, N., Ashauer, R., Baveco, H., Nyman, A.-M., Barsi, A., Thorbek, P., Bruns, E., and Van den Brink, P. J. (2014). Modelling the contribution of toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic processes to the recovery of Gammarus pulex populations after exposure to pesticides. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 33, 1476–1488.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Gentile, J. H., Harwell, M. A., Cropper, W., Harwell, C. C., DeAngelis, D., Davis, S., Ogden, J. C., and Lirman, D. (2001). Ecological conceptual models: a framework and case study on ecosystem management for South Florida sustainability. The Science of the Total Environment 274, 231–253.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Gilliom, R. J., Barbash, J. E., Crawford, C. G., Hamilton, P. A., Martin, J. D., Nakagaki, N., Nowell, L. H., Scott, J. C., Stackelberg, P. E., Thelin, G. P., and Wolock, D. M. (2006). ‘The Quality of Our Nation’s Waters. Pesticides in the Nation’s Streams and Ground Water, 1992–2001.’ (US Geological Survey: Reston, VA.)

Hampton, S. E., Strasser, C. A., Tewksbury, J. J., Gram, W. K., Budden, A. E., Batcheller, A. L., Duke, C. S., and Porter, J. H. (2013). Big data and the future of ecology. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 11, 156–162.
CrossRef |

Hart, B. T., and Pollino, C. A. (2008). Increased use of Bayesian network models will improve ecological risk assessments. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 14, 851–853.
CrossRef |

Hines, E. E., and Landis, W. G. (2014). Regional risk assessment of the Puyallup river watershed and the evaluation of low impact development in meeting management goals. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 10, 269–278.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Hommen, U., Baveco, J. M., Galic, N., and Van den Brink, P. J. (2010). Potential application of ecological models in the European environmental risk assessment of chemicals I: review of protection goals in EU directives and regulations. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 6, 325–337.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Horrigan, N., and Baird, D. J. (2008). Trait patterns of aquatic insects across gradients of flow-related factors: a multivariate analysis of Canadian national data. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 65, 670–680.
CrossRef |

Hunka, A. D., Meli, M., Thit, A., Palmquist, A., Thorbeck, P., and Forbes, V. E. (2013). Stakeholder’s perspective on ecological modeling in environmental risk assessment of pesticides: challenges and opportunities. Risk Analysis 33, 68–79.
CrossRef | PubMed |

Jackson, M. C., Loewen, C. J. G., Vinebrooke, R. D., and Chimimba, C. T. (2016). Net effects of multiple stressors in freshwater ecosystems: a meta-analysis. Global Change Biology 22, 180–189.
CrossRef |

Johnston, E. L., Mayer-Pinto, M., and Crowe, T. P. (2015). Chemical contaminant effects on marine ecosystem functioning. Journal of Applied Ecology 52, 140–149.
CrossRef |

Kapustka, L. (2008). Limitations of the current practices used to perform ecological risk assessment. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 4, 290–298.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Kapustka, L. A., Bowers, K., Isanhart, J., Martinez-Garza, C., Finger, S., Stahl, R., and Stauber, J. (2015). Coordinating ecological restoration options and risk assessment to improve environmental outcomes. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management , .
CrossRef | PubMed |

Kellar, C. R., Hassell, K. L., Long, S. M., Myers, J. H., Golding, L., Rose, G., Kumar, A., Hoffmann, A. A., and Pettigrove, V. (2014). Ecological evidence links adverse biological effects to pesticide and metal contamination in an urban Australian watershed. Journal of Applied Ecology 51, 426–439.
CrossRef |

Kimberly, D. A., and Salice, C. J. (2014). Complex interactions between climate change and toxicants: evidence that temperature variability increases sensitivity to cadmium. Ecotoxicology 23, 809–817.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Kwok, K. W. H., Leung, K. M. Y., Chu, V. K. H., Lam, P. K. S., Morritt, D., Maltby, L., Brock, T. C. M., Van den Brink, P. J., Warne, M. St. J., and Crane, M. (2007). Comparison of tropical and temperate freshwater species sensitivities to chemicals: implications for deriving safe extrapolation factors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 3, 49–67.
CrossRef | CAS |

Landis, W. G., and Wiegers, J. K. (2005). Introduction to the regional risk assessment model using the relative risk model. In ‘Regional Scale Ecological Risk Assessment Using the Relative Risk Model’. (Ed. W. G. Landis.) pp. 11–36. (CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL.)

Landis, W. G., and Wiegers, J. K. (2007). Ten years of the relative risk model and regional scale ecological risk assessment. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 13, 25–38.
CrossRef |

Lange, K., Townsend, C. R., and Matthaei, C. D. (2014). Can biological traits of stream invertebrates help disentangle the effects of multiple stressors in an agricultural catchment? Freshwater Biology 59, 2431–2446.
CrossRef |

Leeuwangh, P., Brock, T. C. M., and Kersting, K. (1994). An evaluation of four types of freshwater model ecosystem for assessing the hazard of pesticides. Human and Experimental Toxicology 13, 888–899.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Leung, K. M. Y., Bjørgesæter, A., Gray, J. S., Li, W. K., Lui, G. C. S., Wang, Y., and Lam, P. K. S. (2005). Deriving sediment quality guidelines from field-based species sensitivity distributions. Environmental Science & Technology 39, 5148–5156.
CrossRef | CAS |

Marcot, B. G., Steventon, J. D., Sutherland, G. D., and McCann, R. K. (2006). Guidelines for developing and updating Bayesian belief networks applied to ecological modeling and conservation. Canadian Journal of Research 36, 3075–3086.

McMahon, T. A., Halstead, N. T., Johnson, S., Raffel, T. R., Romansic, J. M., Crumrine, P. W., and Rohr, J. R. (2012). Fungicide-induced declines of freshwater biodiversity modify ecosystem functions and services. Ecology Letters 15, 714–722.
CrossRef | PubMed |

Nienstedt, K. M., Brock, T. C. M., van Wensem, J., Montforts, M., Hart, A., Aagaard, A., Alix, A., Boesten, J., Bopp, S. K., Brown, C., Capri, E., Forbes, V., Koepp, H., Liess, M., Luttik, R., Maltby, L., Sousa, J. P., Streissl, F., and Hardy, A. R. (2012). Development of a framework based on an ecosystem services approach for deriving specific protection goals for environmental risk assessment of pesticides. The Science of the Total Environment 415, 31–38.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Noyes, P. D., McElwee, M. K., Miller, H. D., Clark, B. W., Van Tiem, L. A., Walcott, K. C., Erwin, K. N., and Levin, E. D. (2009). The toxicology of climate change: environmental contaminants in a warming world. Environment International 35, 971–986.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Nyberg, J. B., Marcot, B. G., and Sulyma, R. (2006). Using Bayesian belief networks in adaptive management. Canadian Journal of Research 36, 3104–3116.
CrossRef |

Piggott, J. J., Niyogi, D. K., Townsend, K. R., and Matthaei, C. D. (2015). Multiple stressors and stream ecosystem functioning: climate warming and agricultural stressors interact to affect processing of organic matter. Journal of Applied Ecology 52, 1126–1134.
CrossRef |

Rico, A., Van den Brink, P. J., Gylstra, R., Focks, A., and Brock, T. C. M. (2015). Developing ecological scenarios for the prospective aquatic risk assessment of pesticides. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management , .
CrossRef | PubMed |

Rivero, N. K., Dafforn, K. A., Coleman, M. A., and Johnston, E. L. (2013). Environmental and ecological changes associated with a marina. Biofouling 29, 803–815.
CrossRef | PubMed |

Rubach, M. N., Baird, D. J., and Van den Brink, P. J. (2010). A new method for ranking mode-specific sensitivity of freshwater arthropods to insecticides and its relationship to biological traits. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 29, 476–487.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Rubach, M. N., Baird, D. J., Boerwinkel, M.-C., Maund, S. J., Roessink, I., and Van den Brink, P. J. (2012). Species traits as predictors for intrinsic sensitivity of aquatic invertebrates to the insecticide chlorpyrifos. Ecotoxicology 21, 2088–2101.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Scanes, P., Coade, G., Doherty, M., and Hill, R. (2007). Evaluation of the utility of water quality based indicators of estuarine lagoon condition in NSW, Australia. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 74, 306–319.
CrossRef |

Schreiber, E. S. G., Bearlin, A. R., Nicol, S. J., and Todd, C. R. (2004). Adaptive management: a synthesis of current understanding and effective application. Ecological Management & Restoration 5, 177–182.
CrossRef |

Schuler, L. J., Hoang, T. C., and Rand, G. M. (2008). Aquatic risk assessment of copper in freshwater and saltwater ecosystems of South Florida. Ecotoxicology 17, 642–659.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Tarazona, J. V. (2013). Use of new scientific developments in regulatory risk assessments: challenges and opportunities. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 9, e85–e91.
CrossRef | PubMed |

Townsend, C. R., Uhlmann, S. S., and Matthaei, C. D. (2008). Individual and combined responses of stream ecosystems to multiple stressors. Journal of Applied Ecology 45, 1810–1819.
CrossRef |

Trolle, D., Hamilton, D. P., Hipsey, M. R., Bolding, K., Bruggeman, J., Mooij, W. M., Janse, J. H., Nielsen, A., Jeppesen, E., Elliott, J. A., Makler-Pick, V., Petzoldt, T., Rinke, K., Flindt, M. R., Arhonditsis, G. B., Gal, G., Bjerring, R., Tominaga, K., ’t Hoen, J., Downing, A. S., Marques, D. M., Fragoso, C. R., Søndergaard, M., and Hanson, P. C. (2012). A community-based framework for aquatic ecosystem models. Hydrobiologia 683, 25–34.
CrossRef |

US EPA (1998). Guidelines for Ecological Risk Assessment, EPA/630/R-95/002F. US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

Van den Brink, P. J. (2008). Ecological risk assessment: from book-keeping to chemical stress ecology. Environmental Science & Technology 42, 8999–9004.
CrossRef | CAS |

Van den Brink, P. J., Alexander, A., Desrosiers, M., Goedkoop, W., Goethals, P., Liess, M., and Dyer, S. (2011). Traits-based approaches in bioassessment and ecological risk assessment: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 7, 198–208.
CrossRef | PubMed |

Van den Brink, P. J., Baird, D. J., Baveco, J. M., and Focks, A. (2013). The use of traits-based approaches and eco(toxico)logical models to advance the ecological risk assessment framework for chemicals. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 9, e47–e57.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Vinebrooke, R. D., Cottingham, K. L., Norberg, J., Scheffer, M., Dodson, S. I., Maberly, S. C., and Sommer, U. (2004). Impacts of multiple stressors on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning: the role of species co-tolerance. Oikos 104, 451–457.
CrossRef |

Vörösmarty, C. J., McIntyre, P. B., Gessner, M. O., Dudgeon, D., Prusevich, A., Green, P., Glidden, S., Bunn, S. E., Sullivan, C. A., Reidy Liermann, C., and Davies, P. M. (2010). Global threats to human water security and river biodiversity. Nature 467, 555–561.
CrossRef | PubMed |

Walters, C. J. (1986). ‘Adaptive Management of Renewable Resources.’ (Macmillan: New York.)

Walters, C. (1997). Challenges in adaptive management of riparian and coastal ecosystems. Conservation Ecology 1, 1.

Walters, C., and Holling, C. S. (1990). Large-scale management experiments and learning by doing. Ecology 71, 2060–2068.
CrossRef |

Wyant, J. G., Meganck, R. A., and Ham, S. M. (1995). A planning and decision-making framework for ecological restoration. Environmental Management 19, 789–796.
CrossRef |


   
Subscriber Login
Username:
Password:  

 
    
Legal & Privacy | Contact Us | Help

CSIRO

© CSIRO 1996-2016