The Ray Paths of Whistling Atmospherics: Differential Geometry
Australian Journal of Physics
15(1) 106 - 113
Expressions are developed on the basis of geometrical optics for the curvature of a whistler ray path in terms of the gradients of electron density, magnetic field strength, and field direction, the analysis being restricted for simplicity to paths which are plane curves. It is shown that there is in general no tendency for the rays to follow the lines of force closely unless the wave-normal is very nearly at right angles to the direction of the ray.
Full text doi:10.1071/PH620106
© CSIRO 1962