CSIRO Publishing blank image blank image blank image blank imageBooksblank image blank image blank image blank imageJournalsblank image blank image blank image blank imageAbout Usblank image blank image blank image blank imageShopping Cartblank image blank image blank image You are here: Journals > Reproduction, Fertility and Development   
Reproduction, Fertility and Development
Journal Banner
  Vertebrate Reproductive Science & Technology
blank image Search
blank image blank image
blank image
  Advanced Search

Journal Home
About the Journal
Editorial Board
Online Early
Current Issue
Just Accepted
All Issues
Special Issues
Research Fronts
Sample Issue
For Authors
General Information
Instructions to Authors
Submit Article
Open Access
For Referees
Referee Guidelines
Review Article
Annual Referee Index
For Subscribers
Subscription Prices
Customer Service
Print Publication Dates

blue arrow e-Alerts
blank image
Subscribe to our email Early Alert or RSS feeds for the latest journal papers.

red arrow Connect with us
blank image
facebook twitter youtube

red arrow Connect with SRB
blank image
facebook TwitterIcon

Affiliated Societies

RFD is the official journal of the International Embryo Transfer Society and the Society for Reproductive Biology.


Article << Previous     |     Next >>   Contents Vol 22(1)


W. E. Snyder A, J. T. Aaltonen A, H. D. Sigal A, N. M. Loskutoff A

The Bill and Berniece Grewcock Center for Conservation & Research, Omaha’s Henry Doorly Zoo, Omaha, NE, USA
 Export Citation


This study examined the effects of X-rays on bovine oocytes used for in vitro embryo production. In recent years, airport security has become more stringent and the use of X-ray screening may be required for all items, which could be problematic when transporting oocytes. Ionizing radiation such as X-rays are high-energy particles that can penetrate into the nucleus of a cell and cause single and double-strand breaks in the DNA chain. Oocytes exposed to X-ray radiation may have DNA damage affecting maturation, fertilization, and embryonic development. Bovine ovaries obtained from a local abattoir were used to collect immature oocytes by follicular aspiration. The oocytes were divided into a control group and an experimental group then placed in maturation medium. The oocytes in the experimental group were placed in a hospital X-ray machine with a single exposure of 100 mA, 120 kVp for 0.3 s. This exposure challenged the oocytes with a comparable, calculated amount of mrems equivalent to a single screening from an airport X-ray machine (30 mrems). After X-ray exposure, the experimental group was cultured with the control at 37°C and 5% CO2. After 18 h, cryopreserved bovine sperm were thawed and processed using BoviPure (Nidacon International, Mölndal, Sweden) density gradient centrifugation and the oocytes were inseminated with 1 × 106 sperm in fertilization medium at 37°C and 5% CO2. After 24 h, both groups were transferred to 50-μL droplets of G1 medium (Vitrolife, Göteborg, Sweden) at 37°C and 6% CO2 and both were transferred into G2 medium after 72 h. Development of the oocytes was scored after an additional 72 h. Results were based on 2 criteria: the percent cleaved (presumptive fertilization) and the percent cleaved that developed to morula and blastocyst stages. The results indicated no significant difference in the percentages of oocytes cleaving after insemination for the control and experimental groups (P = 0.403, chi-square test). However, there was a significant increase (P = 0.037, chi-square test) in the percentages of morulae and blastocysts developing in the control (non-irradiated) v. experimental (X-rayed) groups. The outcome of this study cautions on the potential damage caused to bovine oocytes used for embryo production in vitro when exposed to X-ray electromagnetic radiation during routine air transport screening operations.

Legal & Privacy | Contact Us | Help


© CSIRO 1996-2014