CSIRO Publishing blank image blank image blank image blank imageBooksblank image blank image blank image blank imageJournalsblank image blank image blank image blank imageAbout Usblank image blank image blank image blank imageShopping Cartblank image blank image blank image You are here: Journals > Sexual Health   
Sexual Health
Journal Banner
  Publishing on sexual health from the widest perspective
 
blank image Search
 
blank image blank image
blank image
 
  Advanced Search
   

Journal Home
About the Journal
Editorial Committee
Contacts
Content
Online Early
Current Issue
Just Accepted
All Issues
Special Issues
Sample Issue
Call for Papers
For Authors
General Information
Instructions to Authors
Submit Article
Open Access
For Referees
Referee Guidelines
Review Article
Annual Referee Index
For Advertisers
For Subscribers
Subscription Prices
Customer Service

blue arrow e-Alerts
blank image
Subscribe to our Email Alert or RSS feeds for the latest journal papers.

red arrow Connect with us
blank image
facebook twitter youtube

red arrow Interview with Kit Fairley
blank image
Hear Kit Fairley speak about what is sexual health.

red arrow Call for Papers
blank image
We are seeking contributions for a Special Issue.. More

 

Article << Previous     |     Next >>   Contents Vol 11(3)

Australian sexually transmissible infection and HIV testing guidelines for asymptomatic men who have sex with men 2014: a review of the evidence

David J. Templeton A B C H , Phillip Read B D , Rajesh Varma E and Christopher Bourne F G

A RPA Sexual Health, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, NSW 2050, Australia.
B The Kirby Institute for Infection and Immunity in Society, The University of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW 2052, Australia.
C Central Clinical School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.
D Kirketon Road Centre, PO Box 22, Kings Cross, Sydney, NSW 1340, Australia.
E Western Sydney Sexual Health Centre, Jeffery House, Level 1, 162 Marsden Street, Parramatta, NSW 2150, Australia.
F Sydney Sexual Health Centre, Sydney Hospital, PO Box 1614 Sydney, NSW 2001, Australia.
G School of Public Health and Community Medicine, The University of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW 2052, Australia.
H Corresponding author. Email: dtempleton@kirby.unsw.edu.au

Sexual Health 11(3) 217-229 http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/SH14003
Submitted: 3 January 2014  Accepted: 9 February 2014   Published: 2 April 2014


 
 Full Text
 PDF (285 KB)
 Export Citation
 Print
  
Abstract

Men who have sex with men (MSM) in Australia and overseas are disproportionately affected by sexually transmissible infections (STIs), including HIV. Many STIs are asymptomatic, so regular testing and management of asymptomatic MSM remains an important component of effective control. We reviewed articles from January 2009–May 2013 to inform the 2014 update of the 2010 Australian testing guidelines for asymptomatic MSM. Key changes include: a recommendation for pharyngeal chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis) testing, use of nucleic acid amplification tests alone for gonorrhoea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae) testing (without gonococcal culture), more frequent (up to four times a year) gonorrhoea and chlamydia testing in sexually active HIV-positive MSM, time required since last void for chlamydia first-void urine collection specified at 20 min, urethral meatal swab as an alternative to first-void urine for urethral chlamydia testing, and the use of electronic reminders to increase STI and HIV retesting rates among MSM.

Additional keywords: chlamydia, first-void urine, gonorrhoea, nucleic acid amplification test, reminders, swabs.


References

[1]  Pedrana A, Hellard M, Guy R, El-Hayek C, Gouillou M, Asselin J, et al Stop the Drama Downunder: a social marketing campaign increases HIV/sexually transmitted infection knowledge and testing in Australian gay men. Sex Transm Dis 2012; 39: 651–8.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[2]  Wilkinson A, El-Hayek C, Fairley CK, Leslie D, Roth N, Tee BK, et al Incidence and risk factors associated with chlamydia in men who have sex with men: a cohort analysis of Victorian Primary Care Network for Sentinel Surveillance data. Sex Transm Infect 2012; 88: 319–24.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[3]  Mallitt KA, Wilson DP, McDonald A, Wand H. HIV incidence trends vary between jurisdictions in Australia: an extended back-projection analysis of men who have sex with men. Sex Health 2012; 9: 138–43.
| PubMed |

[4]  The Kirby Institute. HIV, viral hepatitis and sexually transmissible infections in Australia, annual surveillance report, 2013. Sydney: University of New South Wales; 2013.

[5]  Zablotska IB, Kippax S, Grulich A, Holt M, Prestage G. Behavioural surveillance among gay men in Australia: methods, findings and policy implications for the prevention of HIV and other sexually transmissible infections. Sex Health 2011; 8: 272–9.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[6]  Jin F, Prestage GP, Templeton DJ, Poynten IM, Donovan B, Zablotska I, et al The impact of HIV seroadaptive behaviors on sexually transmissible infections in HIV-negative homosexual men in Sydney, Australia. Sex Transm Dis 2012; 39: 191–4.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[7]  Brill JR. Sexually transmitted infections in men. Prim Care 2010; 37: 509–25.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[8]  Cohen MS. HIV and sexually transmitted diseases: lethal synergy. Top HIV Med 2004; 12: 104–7.
| PubMed |

[9]  New South Wales STI Programs Unit (STIPU). Sexually transmitted infection testing guidelines for men who have sex with men. Sydney: STIPU; 2010. Available online at: http://www.stipu.nsw.gov.au/icms_docs/163932_STI_testing_guidelines_for_MSM_2010.pdf [verified 2 December 2013].

[10]  Jin F, Prestage GP, Mao L, Kippax SC, Pell CM, Donovan B, et al Incidence and risk factors for urethral and anal gonorrhoea and chlamydia in a cohort of HIV-negative homosexual men: the Health in Men Study. Sex Transm Infect 2007; 83: 113–9.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[11]  Templeton DJ, Jin F, McNally LP, Imrie JC, Prestage GP, Donovan B, et al Prevalence, incidence and risk factors for pharyngeal gonorrhoea in a community-based HIV-negative cohort of homosexual men in Sydney, Australia. Sex Transm Infect 2010; 86: 90–6.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[12]  Ota KV, Fisman DN, Tamari IE, Smieja M, Ng LK, Jones KE, et al Incidence and treatment outcomes of pharyngeal Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis infections in men who have sex with men: a 13-year retrospective cohort study. Clin Infect Dis 2009; 48: 1237–43.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[13]  Annan NT, Sullivan AK, Nori A, Naydenova P, Alexander S, McKenna A, et al Rectal chlamydia – a reservoir of undiagnosed infection in men who have sex with men. Sex Transm Infect 2009; 85: 176–9.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[14]  Soni S, White JA. Self-screening for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis in the human immunodeficiency virus clinic – high yields and high acceptability. Sex Transm Dis 2011; 38: 1107–9.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[15]  Holt M, Hull P, Lea T, Guy R, Bourne C, Prestage G, et al Comprehensive testing for, and diagnosis of, sexually transmissible infections among Australian gay and bisexual men: findings from repeated, cross-sectional behavioural surveillance, 2003–2012. Sex Transm Infect 2013; •••: .
CrossRef | PubMed |

[16]  Templeton DJ, Jin F, Imrie J, Prestage GP, Donovan B, Cunningham PH, et al Prevalence, incidence and risk factors for pharyngeal chlamydia in the community based Health in Men (HIM) cohort of homosexual men in Sydney, Australia. Sex Transm Infect 2008; 84: 361–3.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[17]  Peters RP, Verweij SP, Nijsten N, Ouburg S, Mutsaers J, Jansen CL, et al Evaluation of sexual history-based screening of anatomic sites for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection in men having sex with men in routine practice. BMC Infect Dis 2011; 11: 203.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[18]  Park J, Marcus JL, Pandori M, Snell A, Philip SS, Bernstein KT. Sentinel surveillance for pharyngeal chlamydia and gonorrhea among men who have sex with men – San Francisco, 2010. Sex Transm Dis 2012; 39: 482–4.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[19]  Bernstein KT, Stephens SC, Barry PM, Kohn R, Philip SS, Liska S, et al Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae transmission from the oropharynx to the urethra among men who have sex with men. Clin Infect Dis 2009; 49: 1793–7.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[20]  Apewokin SK, Geisler WM, Bachmann LH. Spontaneous resolution of extragenital chlamydial and gonococcal infections prior to therapy. Sex Transm Dis 2010; 37: 343–4.
| PubMed |

[21]  Hutt DM, Judson FN. Epidemiology and treatment of oropharyngeal gonorrhea. Ann Intern Med 1986; 104: 655–8.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[22]  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Clinic-based testing for rectal and pharyngeal Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis infections by community-based organizations –five cities, United States, 2007. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2009; 58: 716–9.
| PubMed |

[23]  Ryder N, Lockart IG, Bourne C. Is screening asymptomatic men who have sex with men for urethral gonorrhoea worthwhile? Sex Health 2010; 7: 90–1.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[24]  Turner AN, Reese PC, Ervin M, Davis JA, Fields KS, Bazan JA. HIV, rectal chlamydia, and rectal gonorrhea in men who have sex with men attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic in a midwestern US city. Sex Transm Dis 2013; 40: 433–8.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[25]  Pinsky L, Chiarilli DB, Klausner JD, Kull RM, O’Keefe R, Heffer C, et al Rates of asymptomatic nonurethral gonorrhea and chlamydia in a population of university men who have sex with men. J Am Coll Health 2012; 60: 481–4.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[26]  Bachmann LH, Johnson RE, Cheng H, Markowitz L, Papp JR, Palella FJ, et al Nucleic acid amplification tests for diagnosis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis rectal infections. J Clin Microbiol 2010; 48: 1827–32.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[27]  Ota KV, Tamari IE, Smieja M, Jamieson F, Jones KE, Towns L, et al Detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis in pharyngeal and rectal specimens using the BD Probetec ET system, the Gen-Probe Aptima Combo 2 assay and culture. Sex Transm Infect 2009; 85: 182–6.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[28]  McNally LP, Templeton DJ, Jin F, Grulich AE, Donovan B, Whiley DM, et al Low positive predictive value of a nucleic acid amplification test for nongenital Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection in homosexual men. Clin Infect Dis 2008; 47: e25–7.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[29]  Fairley CK, Chen MY, Bradshaw CS, Tabrizi SN. Is it time to move to nucleic acid amplification tests screening for pharyngeal and rectal gonorrhoea in men who have sex with men to improve gonorrhoea control? Sex Health 2011; 8: 9–11.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[30]  Sherley M, Kennedy KJ, Martin SJ. Screening with nucleic acid amplification tests for gonorrhoea in men who have sex with men. Med J Aust 2012; 197: 332.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[31]  Harryman L, Scofield S, Macleod J, Carrington D, Williams OM, Fernandes A, et al Comparative performance of culture using swabs transported in Amies medium and the Aptima Combo 2 nucleic acid amplification test in detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from genital and extra-genital sites: a retrospective study. Sex Transm Infect 2012; 88: 27–31.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[32]  Bissessor M, Tabrizi SN, Fairley CK, Danielewski J, Whitton B, Bird S, et al Differing Neisseria gonorrhoeae bacterial loads in the pharynx and rectum in men who have sex with men: implications for gonococcal detection, transmission, and control. J Clin Microbiol 2011; 49: 4304–6.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[33]  Dodge B, Van Der Pol B, Reece M, Malebranche D, Martinez O, Goncalves G, et al Rectal self-sampling in non-clinical venues for detection of sexually transmissible infections among behaviourally bisexual men. Sex Health 2012; 9: 190–1.
| PubMed |

[34]  Sexton ME, Baker JJ, Nakagawa K, Li Y, Perkins R, Slack RS, et al How reliable is self-testing for gonorrhea and chlamydia among men who have sex with men? J Fam Pract 2013; 62: 70–8.
| PubMed |

[35]  Dodge B, Van Der Pol B, Rosenberger JG, Reece M, Roth AM, Herbenick D, et al Field collection of rectal samples for sexually transmitted infection diagnostics among men who have sex with men. Int J STD AIDS 2010; 21: 260–4.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[36]  van der Helm JJ, Hoebe CJ, van Rooijen MS, Brouwers EE, Fennema HS, Thiesbrummel HF, et al High performance and acceptability of self-collected rectal swabs for diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in men who have sex with men and women. Sex Transm Dis 2009; 36: 493–7.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[37]  Moncada J, Schachter J, Liska S, Shayevich C, Klausner JD. Evaluation of self-collected glans and rectal swabs from men who have sex with men for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae by use of nucleic acid amplification tests. J Clin Microbiol 2009; 47: 1657–62.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[38]  Templeton DJ, Wang Y, Higgins AN, Manokaran N. Self-collected anal swabs in men who have sex with men: minimal benefit of routine peri-anal examination. Sex Transm Infect 2011; 87: 204.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[39]  Dize L, Agreda P, Quinn N, Barnes MR, Hsieh YH, Gaydos CA. Comparison of self-obtained penile-meatal swabs to urine for the detection of C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae and T. vaginalis. Sex Transm Infect 2013; 89: 305–7.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[40]  Chernesky MA, Jang D, Portillo E, Smieja M, Gilchrist J, Ewert R, et al Self-collected swabs of the urinary meatus diagnose more Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections than first catch urine from men. Sex Transm Infect 2013; 89: 102–4.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[41]  Kwan B, Ryder N, Knight V, Kenigsberg A, McNulty A, Read P, et al Sensitivity of 20-minute voiding intervals in men testing for Chlamydia trachomatis. Sex Transm Dis 2012; 39: 405–6.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[42]  Mathew T, O’Mahony C, Mallinson H. Shortening the voiding interval for men having chlamydia nucleic acid amplification tests. Int J STD AIDS 2009; 20: 752–3.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[43]  Jin F, Prestage GP, Imrie J, Kippax SC, Donovan B, Templeton DJ, et al Anal sexually transmitted infections and risk of HIV infection in homosexual men. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2010; 53: 144–9.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[44]  Pathela P, Braunstein SL, Blank S, Schillinger JA. HIV incidence among men with and those without sexually transmitted rectal infections: estimates from matching against an HIV case registry. Clin Infect Dis 2013; 57: 1203–9.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[45]  Bernstein KT, Marcus JL, Nieri G, Philip SS, Klausner JD. Rectal gonorrhea and chlamydia reinfection is associated with increased risk of HIV seroconversion. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2010; 53: 537–43.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[46]  Sanders EJ, Okuku HS, Smith AD, Mwangome M, Wahome E, Fegan G, et al High HIV-1 incidence, correlates of HIV-1 acquisition, and high viral loads following seroconversion among MSM. AIDS 2013; 27: 437–46.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[47]  Kalichman SC, Pellowski J, Turner C. Prevalence of sexually transmitted co-infections in people living with HIV/AIDS: systematic review with implications for using HIV treatments for prevention. Sex Transm Infect 2011; 87: 183–90.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[48]  Jin F, Prestage GP, Zablotska I, Rawstorne P, Kippax SC, Donovan B, et al High rates of sexually transmitted infections in HIV positive homosexual men: data from two community based cohorts. Sex Transm Infect 2007; 83: 397–9.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[49]  Lim MS, Goller JL, Guy R, Gold J, Stoove M, Hocking JS, et al Correlates of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in a primary care sentinel surveillance network. Sex Health 2012; 9: 247–53.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[50]  Christerson L, de Vries HJ, de Barbeyrac B, Gaydos CA, Henrich B, Hoffmann S, et al Typing of lymphogranuloma venereum Chlamydia trachomatis strains. Emerg Infect Dis 2010; 16: 1777–9.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[51]  Ward H, Ronn M. Lymphogranuloma venereum in men who have sex in men: are we missing a reservoir of infection? Sex Transm Dis 2013; 40: 609–10.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[52]  White JA. Manifestations and management of lymphogranuloma venereum. Curr Opin Infect Dis 2009; 22: 57–66.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[53]  de Vries HJ, van der Bij AK, Fennema JS, Smit C, de Wolf F, Prins M, et al Lymphogranuloma venereum proctitis in men who have sex with men is associated with anal enema use and high-risk behavior. Sex Transm Dis 2008; 35: 203–8.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[54]  Hughes G, Alexander S, Simms I, Conti S, Ward H, Powers C, et al Lymphogranuloma venereum diagnoses among men who have sex with men in the UK: interpreting a cross-sectional study using an epidemic phase-specific framework. Sex Transm Infect 2013; 895: 42–7.

[55]  Rönn MM, Ward H. The association between lymphogranuloma venereum and HIV among men who have sex with men: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Infect Dis 2011; 11: 70.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[56]  Tinmouth J, Gilmour MW, Kovacs C, Kropp R, Mitterni L, Rachlis A, et al Is there a reservoir of sub-clinical lymphogranuloma venereum and non-LGV Chlamydia trachomatis infection in men who have sex with men? Int J STD AIDS 2008; 19: 805–9.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[57]  Geisler WM, Morrison SG, Bachmann LH. Absence of lymphogranuloma venereum strains among rectal Chlamydia trachomatis outer membrane protein A genotypes infecting women and men who have sex with men in Birmingham, Alabama. Sex Transm Dis 2008; 35: 856–8.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[58]  Ward H, Alexander S, Carder C, Dean G, French P, Ivens D, et al The prevalence of lymphogranuloma venereum infection in men who have sex with men: results of a multicentre case finding study. Sex Transm Infect 2009; 85: 173–5.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[59]  Van der Bij AK, Spaargaren J, Morré SA, Fennema HSA, Mindel A, Coutinho RA, et al Diagnostic and clinical implications of anorectal lymphogranuloma venereum in men who have sex with men: a retrospective case–control study. Clin Infect Dis 2006; 42: 186–94.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[60]  Haar K, Dudareva-Vizule S, Wisplinghoff H, Wisplinghoff F, Sailer A, Jansen K, et al Lymphogranuloma venereum in men screened for pharyngeal and rectal infection, Germany. Emerg Infect Dis 2013; 19: 488–92.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[61]  Templeton DJ, Sharp N, Gryllis S, O’Connor CC, Dubedat SM. Prevalence and predictors of lymphogranuloma venereum among men who have sex with men at a Sydney metropolitan sexual health clinic. Sex Health 2013; 10: 190–1.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[62]  Lee DM, Fairley CK, Owen L, Horvath L, Chen MY. Lymphogranuloma venereum becomes an established infection among men who have sex with men in Melbourne. Aust N Z J Public Health 2009; 33: 94.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[63]  Templeton DJ, Grulich AE, Yew J, Twin J, Jin F, Prestage GP, et al Lymphogranuloma venereum is rare in Australian community-based samples of men who have sex with men. Sex Transm Dis 2011; 38: 48–9.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[64]  Templeton DJ, Twin J, Jin F, Grulich AE, Garland SM, Tabrizi SN. Chlamydia trachomatis serovars in community-based HIV-positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men in Sydney, Australia. Sex Transm Infect 2011; 87: 501–2.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[65]  Twin J, Moore EE, Garland SM, Stevens MP, Fairley CK, Donovan B, et al Chlamydia trachomatis genotypes among men who have sex with men in Australia. Sex Transm Dis 2011; 38: 279–85.
| PubMed |

[66]  Korhonen S, Hiltunen-Back E, Puolakkainen M. Genotyping of Chlamydia trachomatis in rectal and pharyngeal specimens: identification of LGV genotypes in Finland. Sex Transm Infect 2012; 88: 465–9.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[67]  de Vrieze NH, van Rooijen M, Speksnijder AG, de Vries HJ. Urethral lymphogranuloma venereum infections in men with anorectal lymphogranuloma venereum and their partners: the missing link in the current epidemic? Sex Transm Dis 2013; 40: 607–8.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[68]  Bradshaw CS, Fairley CK, Lister NA, Chen SJ, Garland SM, Tabrizi SN. Mycoplasma genitalium in men who have sex with men at male-only saunas. Sex Transm Infect 2009; 85: 432–5.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[69]  Cazanave C, Manhart LE, Bebear C. Mycoplasma genitalium, an emerging sexually transmitted pathogen. Med Mal Infect 2012; 42: 381–92.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[70]  Soni S, Alexander S, Verlander N, Saunders P, Richardson D, Fisher M, et al The prevalence of urethral and rectal Mycoplasma genitalium and its associations in men who have sex with men attending a genitourinary medicine clinic. Sex Transm Infect 2010; 86: 21–4.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[71]  Weinstein SA, Stiles BG. A review of the epidemiology, diagnosis and evidence-based management of Mycoplasma genitalium. Sex Health 2011; 8: 143–58.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[72]  Moi H, Reinton N, Moghaddam A. Mycoplasma genitalium is associated with symptomatic and asymptomatic non-gonococcal urethritis in men. Sex Transm Infect 2009; 85: 15–8.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[73]  Couldwell DL, Gidding HF, Freedman EV, McKechnie ML, Biggs K, Sintchenko V, et al Ureaplasma urealyticum is significantly associated with non-gonococcal urethritis in heterosexual Sydney men. Int J STD AIDS 2010; 21: 337–41.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[74]  Mezzini TM, Waddell RG, Douglas RJ, Sadlon TA. Mycoplasma genitalium: prevalence in men presenting with urethritis to a South Australian public sexual health clinic. Intern Med J 2013; 43: 494–500.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[75]  Street E, Joyce A, Wilson J. BASHH UK guideline for the management of epididymo-orchitis, 2010. Int J STD AIDS 2011; 22: 361–5.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[76]  Francis SC, Kent CK, Klausner JD, Rauch L, Kohn R, Hardick A, et al Prevalence of rectal Trichomonas vaginalis and Mycoplasma genitalium in male patients at the San Francisco STD clinic, 2005–2006. Sex Transm Dis 2008; 35: 797–800.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[77]  Edlund M, Blaxhult A, Bratt G. The spread of Mycoplasma genitalium among men who have sex with men. Int J STD AIDS 2012; 23: 455–6.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[78]  Napierala Mavedzenge S, Weiss HA. Association of Mycoplasma genitalium and HIV infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. AIDS 2009; 23: 611–20.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[79]  Creswell J, Guardado ME, Lee J, Nieto AI, Kim AA, Monterroso E, et al HIV and STI control in El Salvador: results from an integrated behavioural survey among men who have sex with men. Sex Transm Infect 2012; 88: 633–8.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[80]  Mayer KH, Bush T, Henry K, Overton ET, Hammer J, Richardson J, et al Ongoing sexually transmitted disease acquisition and risk-taking behavior among US HIV-infected patients in primary care: implications for prevention interventions. Sex Transm Dis 2012; 39: 1–7.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[81]  Kelley CF, Rosenberg ES, O’Hara BM, Sanchez T, del Rio C, Sullivan PS. Prevalence of urethral Trichomonas vaginalis in Black and White men who have sex with men. Sex Transm Dis 2012; 39: 739.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[82]  Cosentino LA, Campbell T, Jett A, Macio I, Zamborsky T, Cranston RD, et al Use of nucleic acid amplification testing for diagnosis of anorectal sexually transmitted infections. J Clin Microbiol 2012; 50: 2005–8.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[83]  Munson E, Wenten D, Phipps P, Gremminger R, Schuknecht MK, Napierala M, et al Retrospective assessment of transcription-mediated amplification-based screening for Trichomonas vaginalis in male sexually transmitted infection clinic patients. J Clin Microbiol 2013; 51: 1855–60.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[84]  Cotter SM, Sansom S, Long T, Koch E, Kellerman S, Smith F, et al Outbreak of hepatitis A among men who have sex with men: implications for hepatitis A vaccination strategies. J Infect Dis 2003; 187: 1235–40.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[85]  NSW Public Health Unit. Hepatitis A notifications by month and sex. Sydney: New South Wales Ministry of Health; 2013. Available online at: http://www.healthstats.nsw.gov.au/Indicator/com_hepanot/com_hepanot [verified July 2013].

[86]  Weerakoon AP, Chen MY, Read TRH, Bradshaw C, Fairley CK. Immunity to hepatitis A when outbreaks of infection in men who have sex with men (MSM) are rare. Vaccine 2012; 30: 3430–4.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[87]  Bialek SR, Barry V, Bell BP, Valleroy LA, Behel S, MacKellar DA, et al Seroprevalence and correlates of hepatitis A among HIV-negative American men who have sex with men. Sex Health 2011; 8: 343–8.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[88]  Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing (DoHA). The Australian immunisation handbook, 10th edn. Canberra: DoHA; 2013.

[89]  British Association of Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH). United Kingdom national guideline on the management of the viral hepatitides A, B & C., Macclesfield, UK: BASHH; 2008. Available online at: http://www.bashh.org/documents/1927.pdf [verified December 2013].

[90]  Workowski KA, Berman S, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2010. MMWR Recomm Rep 2010; 59: 1–110.
| PubMed |

[91]  Crum-Cianflone NF, Wilkins K, Lee AW, Grosso A, Landrum ML, Weintrob A, et al Long-term durability of immune responses after hepatitis A vaccination among HIV-infected adults. J Infect Dis 2011; 203: 1815–23.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[92]  Gamagedara N, Weerakoon AP, Zou H, Fehler G, Chen MY, Read TR, et al Cross-sectional study of hepatitis B immunity in MSM between 2002 and 2012. Sex Transm Infect 2014; 90: 41–45.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[93]  Baars JE, Boon BJ, Garretsen HF, van de Mheen D. The reach of a hepatitis B vaccination programme among men who have sex with men. Eur J Public Health 2011; 21: 333–7.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[94]  Reiter PL, Brewer NT. Hepatitis B vaccination among a national sample of gay and bisexual men. Sex Transm Dis 2011; 38: 235–38.
CrossRef |

[95]  Hoover KW, Butler M, Workowski KA, Follansbee S, Gratzer B, Hare CB, et al Low rates of hepatitis screening and vaccination of HIV-infected MSM in HIV clinics. Sex Transm Dis 2012; 39: 349–53.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[96]  Poovorawan Y, Chongsrisawat V, Theamboonlers A, Leroux-Roels G, Crasta PD, Hardt K. Persistence and immune memory to hepatitis B vaccine 20 years after primary vaccination of Thai infants, born to HBsAg and HBeAg positive mothers. Hum Vaccin Immunother 2012; 8: 896–904.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[97]  Powis JE, Raboud J, Ostrowski M, Loutfy MR, Kovacs C, Walmsley SL. The Recombinant Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Vaccine in Persons With HIV: Is Seroconversion Sufficient for Long-term Protection? J Infect Dis 2012; 205: 1534–8.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[98]  Jin F, Prestage GP, Matthews G, Zablotska I, Rawstorne P, Kippax SC, et al Prevalence, incidence and risk factors for hepatitis C in homosexual men: data from two cohorts of HIV-negative and HIV-positive men in Sydney, Australia. Sex Transm Infect 2010; 86: 25–8.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[99]  van de Laar TJ, Paxton WA, Zorgdrager F, Cornelissen M, de Vries HJ. Sexual transmission of hepatitis C virus in human immunodeficiency virus-negative men who have sex with men: a series of case reports. Sex Transm Dis 2011; 38: 102–4.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[100]  Jin F, Prestage GP, Kippax SC, Kaldor JM, Dore GJ, Grulich AE. Prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis C in HIV-negative homosexual men in Sydney, Australia. Aust N Z J Public Health 2005; 29: 536–9.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[101]  Raymond HF, Chu P, Nieves-Rivera I, Louie B, McFarland W, Pandori M, et al Infection among men who have sex with men, San Francisco, 2011. Sex Transm Dis 2012; 39: 985–6.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[102]  Tseng Y-T, Sun H-Y, Chang S-Y, Wu C-H, Liu W-C, Wu P-Y, et al Seroprevalence of hepatitis virus infection in men who have sex with men aged 18–40 years in Taiwan. J Formos Med Assoc 2012; 111: 431–8.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[103]  Scott C, Day S, Low E, Sullivan A, Atkins M, Asboe D. Unselected hepatitis C screening of men who have sex with men attending sexual health clinics. J Infect 2010; 60: 351–3.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[104]  Yaphe S, Bozinoff N, Kyle R, Shivkumar S, Pai NP, Klein M. Incidence of acute hepatitis C virus infection among men who have sex with men with and without HIV infection: a systematic review. Sex Transm Infect 2012; 88: 558–64.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[105]  Witt MD, Seaberg EC, Darilay A, Young S, Badri S, Rinaldo CR, et al Incident hepatitis C virus infection in men who have sex with men: a prospective cohort analysis, 1984–2011. Clin Infect Dis 2013; 57: 77–84.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[106]  Gamage DG, Read TR, Bradshaw CS, Hocking JS, Howley K, Chen MY, et al Incidence of Hepatitis-C among HIV infected men who have sex with men (MSM) attending a sexual health service: a cohort study. BMC Infect Dis 2011; 11: 39.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[107]  van der Helm JJ, Prins M, del Amo J, Bucher HC, Chêne G, Dorrucci M, et al The hepatitis C epidemic among HIV-positive MSM: incidence estimates from 1990 to 2007. AIDS 2011; 25: 1083–91.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[108]  Danta M, Brown D, Bhagani S, Pybus OG, Sabin CA, Nelson M, et al Recent epidemic of acute hepatitis C virus in HIV-positive men who have sex with men linked to high-risk sexual behaviours. AIDS 2007; 21: 983–91.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[109]  Bradshaw D, Matthews G, Danta M. Sexually transmitted hepatitis C infection: the new epidemic in MSM? Curr Opin Infect Dis 2013; 26: 66–72.
| CAS | PubMed |

[110]  Linas BP, Wong AY, Schackman BR, Kim AY, Freedberg KA. Cost-effective screening for acute hepatitis C virus infection in HIV-infected men who have sex with men. Clin Infect Dis 2012; 55: 279–90.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[111]  Albert M, Gilson R, Guiguet M, Hoepelman A, Horban A, Katlama C, et al Acute hepatitis C in HIV-infected individuals: recommendations from the European AIDS Treatment Network (NEAT) consensus conference The European AIDS Treatment Network (NEAT) Acute Hepatitis C Infection Consensus Panel. AIDS 2011; 25: 399–409.

[112]  Hill C, McKinney E, Lowndes CM, Munro H, Murphy G, Parry JV, et al Epidemiology of herpes simplex virus types 2 and 1 amongst men who have sex with men attending sexual health clinics in England and Wales: implications for HIV prevention and management. Euro Surveill 2009; 14: 19418.
| PubMed |

[113]  Bohl DD, Katz KA, Bernstein K, Wong E, Raymond HF, Klausner JD, et al Prevalence and correlates of herpes simplex virus type-2 infection among men who have sex with men, San Francisco, 2008. Sex Transm Dis 2011; 38: 617–21.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[114]  Spielmann N, Munstermann D, Hagedorn HJ, an der Heiden M, Houareau C, Gunsenheimer-Bartmeyer B, et al Time trends of syphilis and HSV-2 co-infection among men who have sex with men in the German HIV-1 seroconverter cohort from 1996–2007. Sex Transm Infect 2010; 86: 331–6.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[115]  Barnabas RV, Wasserheit JN, Huang Y, Janes H, Morrow R, Fuchs J, et al Impact of herpes simplex virus type 2 on HIV-1 acquisition and progression in an HIV vaccine trial (the Step study). J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2011; 57: 238–44.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[116]  Freeman EE, Weiss HA, Glynn JR, Cross PL, Whitworth JA, Hayes RJ. Herpes simplex virus 2 infection increases HIV acquisition in men and women: systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. AIDS 2006; 20: 73–83.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[117]  Celum C, Wald A, Hughes J, Sanchez J, Reid S, Delany-Moretlwe S, et al Effect of aciclovir on HIV-1 acquisition in herpes simplex virus 2 seropositive women and men who have sex with men: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2008; 371: 2109–19.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[118]  Celum C, Wald A, Lingappa JR, Magaret AS, Wang RS, Mugo N, et al Acyclovir and transmission of HIV-1 from persons infected with HIV-1 and HSV-2. N Engl J Med 2010; 362: 427–39.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[119]  Douglas JM, Berman SM. Screening for HSV-2 infection in STD clinics and beyond: a few answers but more questions. Sex Transm Dis 2009; 36: 729–31.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[120]  Patel R, Alderson S, Geretti A, Nilsen A, Foley E, Lautenschlager S, et al European guideline for the management of genital herpes, 2010. Int J STD AIDS 2011; 22: 1–10.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[121]  Machalek DA, Grulich AE, Jin F, Templeton DJ, Poynten IM. The epidemiology and natural history of anal human papillomavirus infection in men who have sex with men. Sex Health 2012; 9: 527–37.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[122]  Garland SM. Prevention strategies against human papillomavirus in males. Gynecol Oncol 2010; 117: S20–5.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[123]  Read TR, Hocking JS, Vodstrcil LA, Tabrizi SN, McCullough MJ, Grulich AE, et al Oral human papillomavirus in men having sex with men: risk-factors and sampling. PLoS ONE 2012; 7: e49324.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[124]  Grulich AE, Hillman R, Brotherton JM, Fairley CK. Time for a strategic research response to anal cancer. Sex Health 2012; 9: 628–31.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[125]  Poynten IM, Jin F, Templeton DJ, Prestage GP, Donovan B, Pawlita M, et al Prevalence, incidence, and risk factors for human papillomavirus 16 seropositivity in Australian homosexual men. Sex Transm Dis 2012; 39: 726–32.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[126]  Videla S, Darwich L, Canadas MP, Coll J, Pinol M, Garcia-Cuyas F, et al Natural history of human papillomavirus infections involving anal, penile, and oral sites among HIV-positive men. Sex Transm Dis 2013; 40: 3–10.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[127]  Nyitray AG, da Silva RJ, Baggio ML, Lu B, Smith D, Abrahamsen M, et al The prevalence of genital HPV and factors associated with oncogenic HPV among men having sex with men and men having sex with women and men: the HIM study. Sex Transm Dis 2011; 38: 932–40.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[128]  Machalek DA, Poynten M, Jin F, Fairley CK, Farnsworth A, Garland SM, et al Anal human papillomavirus infection and associated neoplastic lesions in men who have sex with men: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Oncol 2012; 13: 487–500.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[129]  Machalek DA, Grulich AE, Hillman RJ, Jin F, Templeton DJ, Tabrizi SN, et al The Study of the Prevention of Anal Cancer (SPANC): design and methods of a three-year prospective cohort study. BMC Public Health 2013; 13: 946.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[130]  Brown B, Davtyan M, Galea J, Chow E, Leon S, Klausner JD. The role of human papillomavirus in human immunodeficiency virus acquisition in men who have sex with men: a review of the literature. Viruses 2012; 4: 3851–8.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[131]  Lissouba P, Van de Perre P, Auvert B. Association of genital human papillomavirus infection with HIV acquisition: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sex Transm Infect 2013; 89: 350–6.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[132]  Chin-Hong PV, Husnik M, Cranston RD, Colfax G, Buchbinder S, Da Costa M, et al Anal human papillomavirus infection is associated with HIV acquisition in men who have sex with men. AIDS 2009; 23: 1135–42.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[133]  Beyrer C, Baral SD, van Griensven F, Goodreau SM, Chariyalertsak S, Wirtz AL, et al Global epidemiology of HIV infection in men who have sex with men. Lancet 2012; 380: 367–77.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[134]  Birrell PJ, Gill ON, Delpech VC, Brown AE, Desai S, Chadborn TR, et al HIV incidence in men who have sex with men in England and Wales 2001–10: a nationwide population study. Lancet Infect Dis 2013; 13: 313–8.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[135]  German D, Sifakis F, Maulsby C, Towe VL, Flynn CP, Latkin CA, et al Persistently high prevalence and unrecognized HIV infection among men who have sex with men in Baltimore: the BESURE study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2011; 57: 77–87.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[136]  Frieden TR, Jaffe HW, Stephens JW, Thacker SB, Zaza S. HIV surveillance – United States, 1981–2008. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2011; 60: 689–93.

[137]  Jakopanec I, Grjibovski AM, Nilsen O, Blystad H, Aavitsland P. Trends in HIV infection surveillance data among men who have sex with men in Norway, 1995–2011. BMC Public Health 2013; 13: 144.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[138]  Feng Y, Wu Z, Detels R, Qin G, Liu L, Wang X, et al HIV/STD prevalence among men who have sex with men in Chengdu, China and associated risk factors for HIV infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2010; 53: S74–80.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[139]  Mallitt K-A, Wilson DP, McDonald A, Wand H. HIV incidence trends vary between jurisdictions in Australia: an extended back-projection analysis of men who have sex with men. Sex Health 2012; 9: 138–43.
| PubMed |

[140]  Pedrana AE, Hellard ME, Wilson K, Guy R, Stoove M. High rates of undiagnosed HIV infections in a community sample of gay men in Melbourne, Australia. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2012; 59: 94–9.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[141]  Holt M, Rawstorne P, Wilkinson J, Worth H, Bittman M, Kippax S. HIV testing, gay community involvement and internet use: social and behavioural correlates of HIV testing among Australian men who have sex with men. AIDS Behav 2012; 16: 13–22.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[142]  Guy R, Goller JL, Spelman T, El-Hayek C, Gold J, Lim M, et al Does the frequency of HIV and STI testing among men who have sex with men in primary care adhere with Australian guidelines? Sex Transm Infect 2010; 86: 371–6.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[143]  Guy RJ, Spelman T, Stoove M, El-Hayek C, Goller J, Fairley CK, et al Risk factors for HIV seroconversion in men who have sex with men in Victoria, Australia: results from a sentinel surveillance system. Sex Health 2011; 8: 319–29.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[144]  Poynten IM, Jin F, Prestage GP, Kaldor JM, Kippax S, Grulich AE. Defining high HIV incidence subgroups of Australian homosexual men: implications for conducting HIV prevention trials in low HIV prevalence settings. HIV Med 2010; 11: 635–41.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[145]  Prestage GP, Hudson J, Down I, Bradley J, Corrigan N, Hurley M, et al Gay men who engage in group sex are at increased risk of HIV infection and onward transmission. AIDS Behav 2009; 13: 724–30.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[146]  Vodstrcil LA, Fairley CK, Chen MY, Denham I. Risk-based HIV testing of men who have sex with men would result in missed HIV diagnoses. Sex Transm Dis 2012; 39: 492.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[147]  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Prevalence and awareness of HIV infection among men who have sex with men –21 cities, United States, 2008. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2010; 59: 1201–7.
| PubMed |

[148]  National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Increasing the uptake of HIV testing among men who have sex with men: guidance. London:National Health Service; 2011.

[149]  Lucas A, Armbruster B. The cost-effectiveness of expanded HIV screening in the United States. AIDS 2013; 27: 795–801.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[150]  Gray RT, Prestage GP, Down I, Ghaus MH, Hoare A, Bradley J, et al Increased HIV testing will modestly reduce HIV incidence among gay men in NSW and would be acceptable if HIV testing becomes convenient. PLoS ONE 2013; 8: e55449.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[151]  Napierala Mavedzenge S, Baggaley R, Corbett EL. A review of self-testing for HIV: research and policy priorities in a new era of HIV prevention. Clin Infect Dis 2013; 57: 126–38.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[152]  Savage EJ, Marsh K, Duffell S, Ison CA, Zaman A, Hughes G. Rapid increase in gonorrhoea and syphilis diagnoses in England in 2011. Euro Surveill 2012; 17: 20224.
| PubMed |

[153]  Van de Laar MSG. Increasing trends of gonorrhoea and syphilis and the threat of drug-resistant gonorrhoea in Europe. Euro Surveill 2012; 17: 1–3.

[154]  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Update to CDC’s sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2010: o cephalosporins no longer a recommended treatment for gonococcal infections. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2012; 61: 590–4.
| PubMed |

[155]  Cohen SE, Chew Ng RA, Katz KA, Bernstein KT, Samuel MC, Kerndt PR, et al Repeat syphilis among men who have sex with men in California, 2002–2006: implications for syphilis elimination efforts. Am J Public Health 2012; 102: e1–8.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[156]  Hao C, Yan H, Yang H, Huan X, Guan W, Xu X, et al The incidence of syphilis, HIV and HCV and associated factors in a cohort of men who have sex with men in Nanjing, China. Sex Transm Infect 2011; 87: 199–201.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[157]  Chow EPF, Wilson DP, Zhang L. HIV and syphilis co-infection increasing among men who have sex with men in China: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS ONE 2011; 6: e22768.
CrossRef | CAS |

[158]  Heiligenberg M, Rijnders B, Schim van der Loeff MF, de Vries HJ, van der Meijden WI, Geerlings SE, et al High prevalence of sexually transmitted infections in HIV-infected men during routine outpatient visits in the Netherlands. Sex Transm Dis 2012; 39: 8–15.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[159]  Champenois K, Cousien A, Ndiaye B, Soukouna Y, Baclet V, Alcaraz I, et al Risk factors for syphilis infection in men who have sex with men: results of a case-control study in Lille, France. Sex Transm Infect 2013; 89: 128–32.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[160]  Gray RT, Hoare A, Prestage GP, Donovan B, Kaldor JM, Wilson DP. Frequent testing of highly sexually active gay men is required to control syphilis. Sex Transm Dis 2010; 37: 298–305.
| PubMed |

[161]  Tuite AR, Fisman DN, Mishra S. Screen more or screen more often? Using mathematical models to inform syphilis control strategies. BMC Public Health 2013; 13: 606.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[162]  Marcus JL, Katz KA, Bernstein KT, Nieri G, Philip SS. Syphilis testing behavior following diagnosis with early syphilis among men who have sex with men – San Francisco, 2005–2008. Sex Transm Dis 2011; 38: 24–9.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[163]  Guy R, Wand H, Holt M, Mao L, Wilson DP, Bourne C, et al High annual syphilis testing rates among gay men in Australia, but insufficient retesting. Sex Transm Dis 2012; 39: 268–75.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[164]  Jin F, Prestage GP, Zablotska I, Rawstorne P, Imrie J, Kippax SC, et al High incidence of syphilis in HIV-positive homosexual men: data from two community-based cohort studies. Sex Health 2009; 6: 281–4.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[165]  Kalichman SC, Pellowski J, Turner C. Prevalence of sexually transmitted co-infections in people living with HIV/AIDS: systematic review with implications for using HIV treatments for prevention. Sex Transm Infect 2011; 87: 183–90.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[166]  Mayer KH, Bush T, Henry K, Overton ET, Hammer J, Richardson J, et al Ongoing sexually transmitted disease acquisition and risk-taking behavior among US HIV-infected patients in primary care: implications for prevention interventions. Sex Transm Dis 2012; 39: 1–7.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[167]  Rieg G, Lewis RJ, Miller LG, Witt MD, Guerrero M, Daar ES. Asymptomatic sexually transmitted infections in HIV-infected men who have sex with men: prevalence, incidence, predictors, and screening strategies. AIDS Patient Care STDS 2008; 22: 947–54.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[168]  Diaz A, Junquera ML, Esteban V, Martinez B, Pueyo I, Suarez J, et al HIV/STI co-infection among men who have sex with men in Spain. Euro Surveill 2009; 14: 19426.
| PubMed |

[169]  Lee HC, Ko NY, Lee NY, Chang CM, Liu SY, Ko WC. Trends in sexually transmitted diseases and risky behaviors among HIV-infected patients at an outpatient clinic in southern Taiwan. Sex Transm Dis 2010; 37: 86–93.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[170]  Brosh-Nissimov T, Mor Z, Avramovich E, Katchman E, Avidor B, Mor O, et al Syphilis outbreak among men who have sex with men, Tel Aviv, Israel, 2008–2009. Isr Med Assoc J 2012; 14: 152–6.
| PubMed |

[171]  Hoover KW, Butler M, Workowski K, Carpio F, Follansbee S, Gratzer B, et al STD screening of HIV-infected MSM in HIV clinics. Sex Transm Dis 2010; 37: 771–6.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[172]  Baffi CW, Aban I, Willig JH, Agrawal M, Mugavero MJ, Bachmann LH. New syphilis cases and concurrent STI screening in a southeastern U.S. HIV clinic: a call to action. AIDS Patient Care STDS 2010; 24: 23–9.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[173]  Callander D, Baker D, Chen M, Guy R. Including syphilis testing as part of standard HIV management checks and improved syphilis screening in primary care. Sex Transm Dis 2013; 40: 338–40.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[174]  Bissessor M, Fairley CK, Leslie D, Chen MY. Use of a computer alert increases detection of early, asymptomatic syphilis among higher-risk men who have sex with men. Clin Infect Dis 2011; 53: 57–8.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[175]  Bourne C, Knight V, Guy R, Wand H, Lu H, McNulty A. Short message service reminder intervention doubles sexually transmitted infection/HIV re-testing rates among men who have sex with men. Sex Transm Infect 2011; 87: 229–31.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[176]  Zou H, Fairley CK, Guy R, Bilardi J, Bradshaw CS, Garland SM, et al Automated, computer generated reminders and increased detection of gonorrhoea, chlamydia and syphilis in men who have sex with men. PLoS ONE 2013; 8: e61972.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

[177]  Bissessor M, Fairley CK, Leslie D, Howley K, Chen MY. Frequent screening for syphilis as part of HIV monitoring increases the detection of early asymptomatic syphilis among HIV-positive homosexual men. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2010; 55: 211–6.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[178]  Holt M, Bernard D, Race K. Gay men’s perceptions of sexually transmissible infections and their experiences of diagnosis: ‘part of the way of life’ to feeling ‘dirty and ashamed’. Sex Health 2010; 7: 411–6.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[179]  Barber B, Hellard M, Jenkinson R, Spelman T, Stoove M. Sexual history taking and sexually transmissible infection screening practices among men who have sex with men: a survey of Victorian general practitioners. Sex Health 2011; 8: 349–54.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[180]  Baker JR, Arnold-Reed DE, Brett T, Hince DA, O’Ferrall I, Bulsara MK. Perceptions of barriers to discussing and testing for sexually transmitted infections in a convenience sample of general practice patients. Aust J Primary Health 2013; 19: 98–101.
CrossRef |

[181]  Prestage G, Brown G, Keen P. Barriers to HIV testing among Australian gay men. Sex Health 2012; 9: 453–8.
CrossRef | PubMed |

[182]  Fairley CK. Using information technology to control STIs. Sex Transm Infect 2011; 87: ii25–7.
CrossRef | PubMed |


   
 
    
Legal & Privacy | Contact Us | Help

CSIRO

© CSIRO 1996-2014