CSIRO Publishing blank image blank image blank image blank imageBooksblank image blank image blank image blank imageJournalsblank image blank image blank image blank imageAbout Usblank image blank image blank image blank imageShopping Cartblank image blank image blank image You are here: Journals > Soil Research   
Soil Research
Journal Banner
  Soil, land care and environmental research
blank image Search
blank image blank image
blank image
  Advanced Search

Journal Home
About the Journal
Editorial Structure
For Advertisers
Online Early
Current Issue
Just Accepted
All Issues
Special Issues
Sample Issue
For Authors
General Information
Submit Article
Author Instructions
Open Access
For Referees
Referee Guidelines
Review an Article
Annual Referee Index
For Subscribers
Subscription Prices
Customer Service
Print Publication Dates
Library Recommendation

blue arrow e-Alerts
blank image
Subscribe to our Email Alert or RSS feeds for the latest journal papers.

red arrow Connect with us
blank image
facebook twitter logo LinkedIn

Now Online

Land Resources Surveys


Article     |     Next >>   Contents Vol 52(1)

Association of trace elements and dissolution rates of soil iron oxides

D. Ketrot A B, A. Suddhiprakarn A, I. Kheoruenromne A and B. Singh B C

A Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Kasetsart University, Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand.
B Faculty of Agriculture and Environment, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.
C Corresponding author. Email: balwant.singh@sydney.edu.au

Soil Research 52(1) 1-12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/SR13092
Submitted: 21 March 2013  Accepted: 2 September 2013   Published: 5 February 2014

 Full Text
 PDF (1.5 MB)
 Export Citation

In this study, nine Oxisols and five Ultisols from Thailand were used to determine the association of major and trace elements with iron (Fe) oxides. The Fe oxides were concentrated and the association of elements (Al, Ca, Cu, Cr, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, P, Si, V, Ti, Zn) with Fe was evaluated using batch dissolution in 1 m HCl at 20°C. The dissolution behaviour of Fe oxide concentrates was determined using batch dissolution and flow-through reactors. In addition to Fe, both Al and Ti were present in significant amounts in the Fe oxide concentrates. Manganese was the most abundant trace element, and Cu, Zn, Pb and As concentrations were <250 mg kg–1 in most samples. The dissolution behaviour of Fe-oxide concentrates indicated that Al, Cr and V were mostly substituted for Fe3+ in the structure of goethite and hematite. A significant proportion of Mn, Ni, Co, Pb and Si was also present within the structure of these minerals. Some Mg, Cu, Zn, Ti and Ca was also associated with Fe oxides. The dissolution kinetics of Fe oxide concentrates was well described by three models, i.e. the cube root law, Avrami–Erofejev equation and Kabai equation, with the dissolution rate constants (103k) corresponding to the three models ranging from 0.44 to 6.11 h–1, from 1.01 to 4.40 h–1 and from 0.03 to 4.12 h–1, respectively. The k constants of Fe oxide concentrates in this study were significantly and negatively correlated with the mean crystal dimension derived from [110] and [104] of hematite, the dominant mineral in most samples. The steady-state dissolution rate of a soil Fe-oxide concentrate (sample Kk) was substantially higher than for synthetic goethite under highly acidic conditions; this is possibly due to the greater specific surface area of sample Kk than the synthetic goethite.

Additional keywords: acid dissolution, batch method, Fe oxide concentrate, non-stirred flow through reactor method, total element concentration, tropical red soils.


Agbenin JO (2003) Extractable iron and aluminum effects on phosphate sorption in a savanna Alfisols. Soil Science Society of America Journal 67, 589–595.
CrossRef | CAS |

Alvarez M, Sileo EE, Rueda EH (2005) Effect of Mn(II) incorporation on the transformation of ferrihydrite to goethite. Chemical Geology 216, 89–97.
CrossRef | CAS |

Alvarez M, Rueda EH, Sileo EE (2007) Simultaneous incorporation of Mn and Al in the goethite structure. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 71, 1009–1020.
CrossRef | CAS |

Alvarez M, Sileo EE, Rueda EH (2008) Structure and reactivity of synthetic Co-substituted goethites. The American Mineralogist 93, 584–590.
CrossRef | CAS |

Angove MJ, Wells JD, Johnson BB (1999) The influence of temperature on the adsorption of cadmium(II) and cobalt(II) on goethite. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 211, 281–290.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Aylmore LAG, Sills ID, Quirk JP (1970) Surface area of homoionic illite and montmorillonite clay mineral as measured by the sorption of nitrogen and carbon dioxide. Clays and Clay Minerals 18, 91–96.
CrossRef | CAS |

Bibi I, Singh B, Silvester E (2011) Dissolution of illite in saline-acidic solutions at 25°C. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 75, 3237–3249.
CrossRef | CAS |

Bigham JM, Heckendorn SE, Jaynes WF, Smeck NE (1991) Stability of iron oxides in two soils with contrasting colors. Soil Science Society of America Journal 55, 1485–1492.
CrossRef | CAS |

Börling K, Otabbong E, Barberis E (2001) Phosphorus sorption in relation to soil properties in some cultivated Swedish soils. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 59, 39–46.
CrossRef |

Cervini-Silva J, Sposito G (2002) Steady-state dissolution kinetics of aluminum-goethite in the presence of desferrioxamine-B and oxalate ligands. Environmental Science & Technology 36, 337–342.
CrossRef | CAS |

Cheah SF, Kraemer SM, Cervini-Silva J, Sposito G (2003) Steady-state dissolution kinetics of goethite in the presence of desferrioxamine B and oxalate ligands: implications for the microbial acquisition of iron. Chemical Geology 198, 63–75.
CrossRef | CAS |

Chiarizia R, Horwitz EP (1991) New formulations for iron oxides dissolution. Hydrometallurgy 27, 339–360.
CrossRef | CAS |

Christophi CA, Axe L (2000) Competition of Cd, Cu, and Pb adsorption on goethite. Journal of Environmental Engineering 126, 66–74.
CrossRef | CAS |

Cornell RM, Giovanoli R (1993) Acid dissolution of hematites of different morphologies. Clay Minerals 28, 223–232.
CrossRef | CAS |

Cornell RM, Schwertmann U (2003) ‘The iron oxides: structure, properties, reactions, occurrences and uses.’ 2nd edn (Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co., KGaA: Weinheim, Germany)

da Motta PEF, Kämpf N (1992) Iron oxide properties as support to soil morphological features for prediction of moisture regimes in Oxisols of Central Brazil. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 155, 385–390.
CrossRef | CAS |

Darunsontaya T, Suddhiprakarn A, Kheoruenromne I, Gilkes RJ (2010) Geochemical properties and the nature of kaolin and iron oxides in upland Oxisols and Ultisols under a tropical monsoonal climate, Thailand. Thai Journal of Agricultural Science 43, 197–215.

Fitzpatrick RW, Roux JL, Schwertmann U (1978) Amorphous and crystalline titanium and iron-titanium oxides in synthetic preparations, at near ambient conditions, and in soil clays. Clays and Clay Minerals 26, 189–201.
CrossRef | CAS |

Fontes MPF, Weed SB (1991) Iron oxides in selected Brazilian Oxisols: I. Mineralogy. Soil Science Society of America Journal 55, 1143–1149.
CrossRef | CAS |

Hixson AW, Crowell JH (1931) Dependence of reaction velocity upon surface and agitation. I. Theoretical consideration. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry 23, 923–931.
CrossRef | CAS |

Huynh T, Tong AR, Singh B, Kennedy BJ (2003) Cd substituted goethites-a structural investigation by synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Clays and Clay Minerals 51, 397–402.
CrossRef | CAS |

Kabai J (1973) Determination of specific activation energies of metal oxides and metal oxide hydrates by measurement of the rate of dissolution. Acta Chimica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 78, 57–73.

Kaur N, Gräfe M, Singh B, Kennedy BJ (2009a) Simultaneous incorporation of Cr, Zn, Cd, and Pb in the goethite structure. Clays and Clay Minerals 57, 234–250.
CrossRef | CAS |

Kaur N, Singh B, Kennedy BJ (2009b) Copper substitution alone and in the presence of chromium, zinc, cadmium and lead in goethite (α-FeOOH). Clay Minerals 44, 293–310.
CrossRef | CAS |

Kaur N, Singh B, Kennedy BJ (2010) Dissolution of Cr, Zn, Cd, and Pb single- and multi-metal-substituted goethite: Relationship to structural, morphological, and dehydroxylation properties. Clays and Clay Minerals 58, 415–430.
CrossRef | CAS |

Klug HP, Alexander LE (1974) ‘X-ray diffraction procedures for polycrystalline and amorphous materials.’ (John Wiley: New York)

Lim-Nunez R, Gilkes RJ (1987) Acid dissolution of synthetic metal-containing goethites and hematites. In ‘Proceedings of the International Clay Conference’. Denver, USA 1985. (Eds LG Schultz, H van Olphen, FA Mumpton) pp. 197–204. (The Clay Mineral Society: Bloomington, IN)

Manceau A, Schlegel ML, Musso M, Sole VA, Gauthier C, Petit PE, Trolard F (2000) Crystal chemistry of trace elements in natural and synthetic goethite. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 64, 3643–3661.
CrossRef | CAS |

Marcussen H, Holm PE, Strobel BW, Hansen HC (2009) Nickel sorption to goethite and montmorillonite in presence of citrate. Environmental Science & Technology 43, 1122–1127.
CrossRef | CAS |

Muggler CC, Van Loef JJ, Buurman P, van Doesburg JDJ (2001) Mineralogical and (sub) microscopic aspects of iron oxides in polygenetic Oxisols from Minas Gerais, Brazil. Geoderma 100, 147–171.
CrossRef | CAS |

Parkhurst DL, Appelo CAJ (1999) ‘User’s guide to PHREEQC (version 2)—a computer program for speciation, batch reaction, one-dimensional transport, and inverse geochemical calculations.’ Water-Resources Investigations Report No. 99-4259. (U.S. Geological Survey: Reston, VA)

Perrier N, Gilkes RJ, Colin F (2006) Heating Fe oxide-rich soils increases the dissolution rate of metals. Clays and Clay Minerals 54, 165–175.
CrossRef | CAS |

Prasetyo BH, Gilkes RJ (1994) Properties of iron oxides from red soils derived from volcanic tuff in west Java. Australian Journal of Soil Research 32, 781–794.
CrossRef | CAS |

Quin TG, Long GJ, Benson CG, Mann S, Williams RJP (1988) Influence of silicon and phosphorus on structural and magnetic properties of synthetic goethite and related oxides. Clays and Clay Minerals 36, 165–175.
CrossRef | CAS |

Ruan HD, Gilkes RJ (1995) Acid dissolution of synthetic aluminous goethite before and after transformation to hematite by heating. Clay Minerals 30, 55–65.
CrossRef | CAS |

Schulze DG (1984) The influence of aluminum on iron oxides. VIII. Unit-cell dimensions of Al-substituted goethites and estimation of Al from them. Clays and Clay Minerals 32, 36–44.
CrossRef | CAS |

Schwertmann U (1984) The influence of aluminium on iron oxides; IX. Dissolution of Al-goethites in 6M HCl. Clay Minerals 19, 9–19.
CrossRef | CAS |

Schwertmann U (1988) Goethite and hematite formation in the presence of clay minerals and gibbsite at 25°C. Soil Science Society of America Journal 52, 288–291.
CrossRef | CAS |

Schwertmann U (1991) Solubility and dissolution of iron oxides. Plant and Soil 130, 1–25.
CrossRef | CAS |

Schwertmann U, Cornell RM (2000) ‘Iron oxides in the laboratory: preparation and characterization.’ 2nd edn (Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH: Weinheim, Germany)

Schwertmann U, Taylor RM (1989) Iron oxides. In ‘Minerals in soil environments’. (Eds JB Dixon, SB Weed) pp. 379–438, (Soil Science Society of America: Madison, WI)

Schwertmann U, Fitzpatrick RW, Taylor RM, Lewis DG (1979) The influence of aluminum on iron oxides. Part II. Preparation and properties of Al-substituted hematites. Clays and Clay Minerals 27, 105–112.
CrossRef | CAS |

Singh B, Gilkes RJ (1991a) Concentration of iron oxides from soil clays by 5M NaOH treatment: the complete removal of sodalite and kaolin. Clay Minerals 26, 463–472.
CrossRef | CAS |

Singh B, Gilkes RJ (1991b) Phosphorus sorption in relation to soil properties for the major soils types of South–Western Australia. Australian Journal of Soil Research 29, 603–618.
CrossRef | CAS |

Singh B, Gilkes RJ (1992) Properties and distribution of iron oxides and their association with minor elements in the soils of south-western Australia. Journal of Soil Science 43, 77–98.
CrossRef | CAS |

Singh B, Sherman DM, Gilkes RJ, Wells MA (2002) Incorporation of Cr, Mn and Ni into goethite (α-FeOOH): mechanism from extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. Clay Minerals 37, 639–649.
CrossRef | CAS |

Soil Survey Staff (2006) ‘Keys to Soil Taxonomy.’ 10th edn (USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service: Washington, DC)

Trakoonyingcharoen P, Kheoruenromne I, Suddhiprakarn A, Gilkes RJ (2005) Phosphate sorption in red Oxisols and red Ultisols in Thailand. Soil Science 170, 716–725.
CrossRef | CAS |

Trakoonyingcharoen P, Kheoruenromne I, Suddhiprakarn A, Gilkes RJ (2006) Properties of iron oxides in red Oxisols and red Ultisols as affected by rainfall and soil parent material. Australian Journal of Soil Research 44, 63–70.
CrossRef | CAS |

Trolard F, Bourrie G, Jeanroy E, Herbillon AJ, Martin H (1995) Trace metals in natural iron oxides from laterites: a study using selective kinetic extraction. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 59, 1285–1297.
CrossRef | CAS |

Wells MA, Gilkes RJ, Fitzpatrick RW (2001) Properties and acid dissolution of metal-substituted hematites. Clays and Clay Minerals 49, 60–72.
CrossRef | CAS |

Wells MA, Fitzpatrick RW, Gilkes RJ (2006) Thermal and mineral properties of A1-, Cr-, Mn-, Ni- and Ti-substituted goethite. Clays and Clay Minerals 54, 176–194.
CrossRef | CAS |

Wiriyakitnateekul W, Suddhiprakarn A, Kheoruenromne I, Gilkes RJ (2005) Extractable iron and aluminum predict the P sorption capacity of Thai soils. Australian Journal of Soil Research 43, 757–766.
CrossRef | CAS |

Wiriyakitnateekul W, Suddhiprakarn A, Kheoruenromne I, Smirk MN, Gilkes RJ (2007) Iron oxides in tropical soils on various parent materials. Clay Minerals 42, 437–451.
CrossRef | CAS |

Wisawapipat W, Kheoruenromne I, Suddhiprakarn A, Gilkes RJ (2009) Phosphate sorption and desorption by Thai upland soils. Geoderma 153, 408–415.
CrossRef | CAS |

Legal & Privacy | Contact Us | Help


© CSIRO 1996-2016