Reproduction, Fertility and Development Reproduction, Fertility and Development Society
Vertebrate reproductive science and technology
REVIEW

Negative impact of endocrine-disrupting compounds on human reproductive health

Damjan Balabanič A B E , Marjan Rupnik C and Aleksandra Krivograd Klemenčič D

A Pulp and Paper Institute, Bogišićeva ulica 8, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.

B University of Nova Gorica, Vipavska 13, SI-5000 Nova Gorica, Slovenia.

C Institute of Physiology, Medical Faculty, University of Maribor, Slomškov trg 15, SI-2000 Maribor, Slovenia.

D Department of Sanitary Engineering, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ljubljana, Zdravstvena pot 5, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.

E Corresponding author. Email: damjan.balabanic@gmail.com

Reproduction, Fertility and Development 23(3) 403-416 http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/RD09300
Submitted: 10 September 2009  Accepted: 9 September 2010   Published: 3 February 2011

Abstract

There is increasing concern about chemical pollutants that are able to mimic hormones, the so-called endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), because of their structural similarity to endogenous hormones, their ability to interact with hormone transport proteins or because of their potential to disrupt hormone metabolic pathways. Thus, the effects of endogenous hormones can be mimicked or, in some cases, completely blocked. A substantial number of environmental pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalates, bisphenol A, pesticides, alkylphenols and heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury), have been shown to disrupt endocrine function. These compounds can cause reproductive problems by decreasing sperm count and quality, increasing the number of testicular germ cells and causing male breast cancer, cryptorchidism, hypospadias, miscarriages, endometriosis, impaired fertility, irregularities of the menstrual cycle, and infertility. Although EDCs may be released into the environment in different ways, the main sources is industrial waste water. The present paper critically reviews the current knowledge of the impact of EDCs on reproductive disorders in humans.

Additional keywords: environment, reproductive problems, waste water.


References

Abernathy, C. O., Thomas, D. J., and Calderon, R. L. (2003). Health effects and risk assessment of arsenic. J. Nutr. 133, 1536–1538.. open url image1

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) (1997). ‘Toxicological Profile for Selected Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Update.’ (US Department of Health and Social Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry: Atlanta, GA.)

Al-Saleh, I., Khalil, M., and Taylor, A. (1995). Lead, erythrocyte protoporphyrin and haematological parameters in normal maternal and umbilical cord blood from subjects of the Riyadh region. Arch. Environ. Health 50, 66–73.
Lead, erythrocyte protoporphyrin and haematological parameters in normal maternal and umbilical cord blood from subjects of the Riyadh region.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaK2M3jtlyhsQ%3D%3D&md5=8e580c0f04e74e40c93077859dd81cd2CAS | 7717771PubMed | open url image1

Andersen, H. R., Cook, S. J., and Waldbillig, D. (2002). Effects of currently used pesticides in assays for estrogenicity, androgenicity, and aromatase activity in vitro. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 179, 1–12.
Effects of currently used pesticides in assays for estrogenicity, androgenicity, and aromatase activity in vitro.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38Xhs1ylur4%3D&md5=b6d7becb396b7c624852d8bbd6320b7cCAS | 11884232PubMed | open url image1

Anderson, H. A., and Wolff, M. S. (2000). Environmental contaminants in human milk. J. Expo. Anal. Environ. Epidemiol. 10, 755–760.
Environmental contaminants in human milk.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXjsFGqug%3D%3D&md5=c8c33210959b6f746ac130aac33cf813CAS | 11138667PubMed | open url image1

Auger, J., Kunstmann, J. M., Czyglik, F., and Jouannet, P. (1995). Decline in semen quality among fertile man in Paris during the past 20 years. N. Engl. J. Med. 332, 281–285.
Decline in semen quality among fertile man in Paris during the past 20 years.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaK2M7hsFOitg%3D%3D&md5=c5f366a55c8cc23a8b820c7c6a6f3cb9CAS | 7816062PubMed | open url image1

Baccarelli, A., Pesatori, A. C., Masten, S. A., Patterson, D. G., Needham, L. L., Mocarelli, P., Caporaso, N. E., Consonni, D., Grassman, J. A., Bertazzi, P. A., and Landi, M. T. (2004). Aryl-hydrocarbon receptor-dependent pathway and toxic effects of TCDD in humans: a population-based study in Seveso, Italy. Toxicol. Lett. 149, 287–293.
Aryl-hydrocarbon receptor-dependent pathway and toxic effects of TCDD in humans: a population-based study in Seveso, Italy.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXjtFamtLo%3D&md5=1c52a0471719057f9738322efab3f8e0CAS | 15093275PubMed | open url image1

Balabanič D., and Krivograd Klemenčič A.(2011). Presence of phthalates, bisphenol A, and nonylphenol in paper mill wastewaters in Slovenia and efficiency of aerobic and combined aerobic-anaerobic biological wastewater treatment plants for their removal. Fresen. Environ. Bull. 20, 86–92.

Balabanič D., Zule J., and Krivograd Klemenčič A. (2009). Are biological waste water treatment plants efficient for removal of potential endocrine disrupters? Papir 37, 25–28. [In Slovene]

Barlow, N. J., Phillips, S. L., Wallace, D. G., Sar, M., Gaido, K. W., and Foster, P. M. (2003). Quantitative changes in gene expression in fetal testis following exposure to di(n-butyl) phthalate. Toxicol. Sci. 73, 431–441.
Quantitative changes in gene expression in fetal testis following exposure to di(n-butyl) phthalate.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXktVCnsrk%3D&md5=e751811c9608ce55dcccb357dccc9537CAS | 12700402PubMed | open url image1

Baskin, L. S., Himes, K., and Colborn, T. (2001). Hypospadias and endocrine disruption: is there a connection? Environ. Health Perspect. 109, 1175–1183.
Hypospadias and endocrine disruption: is there a connection?CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XivV2nsg%3D%3D&md5=235affbd3fe32a1d0054ca53ba9e73c5CAS | 11713004PubMed | open url image1

Bellinger, D. C. (2005). Teratogen update: lead and pregnancy. Birth Defects Res. A Clin. Mol. Teratol. 73, 409–420.
Teratogen update: lead and pregnancy.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXlsFWhsbs%3D&md5=42ae411f14c256cc206e4b69a2b07748CAS | 15880700PubMed | open url image1

Bergeron, R. M., Thompson, T. B., Leonard, L. S., Pluta, L., and Gaido, K. W. (1999). Estrogenicity of bisphenol A in a human endometrial carcinoma cell line. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 150, 179–187.
Estrogenicity of bisphenol A in a human endometrial carcinoma cell line.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXjtFWltrg%3D&md5=1fd403e9d93aa9dac6328d65715daa6bCAS | 10411312PubMed | open url image1

Birkett J. W. (2003). Scope of the problem. In ‘Endocrine Disrupters in Wastewater and Sludge Treatment Processes’. (Eds J. W. Birkett and J. N. Lester.) pp. 1–34. (Lewis Publishers: London.)

Brody, J. G., and Rudel, R. A. (2003). Environmental pollutants and breast cancer. Environ. Health Perspect. 111, 1007–1019..
| 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXlvF2ksr4%3D&md5=32e078356708477258926240bf498d9eCAS | 12826474PubMed | open url image1

Brotons, J. A., Olea-Serrano, M. F., Villalobos, M., and Olea, N. (1995). Xenoestrogens released from lacquer coating in food cans. Environ. Health Perspect. 103, 608–612.
Xenoestrogens released from lacquer coating in food cans.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK2MXmslCntbg%3D&md5=3d4ddd26fee1a6a81dde8e84da2560cdCAS | 7556016PubMed | open url image1

Carbone, P., Giordano, F., Nori, F., Mantovani, A., Taruscio, D., Lauria, L., and Figà-Talamanca, I. (2006). Cryptorchidism and hypospadias in the Sicilian district of Ragusa and the use of pesticides. Reprod. Toxicol. 22, 8–12.
Cryptorchidism and hypospadias in the Sicilian district of Ragusa and the use of pesticides.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XmsFSktb4%3D&md5=efda881f2d759caa76f62973457961e3CAS | 16530380PubMed | open url image1

Carlsen, E., Giwercman, A., Keiding, N., and Skakkebaek, N. E. (1992). Evidence for decreasing quality of semen during the past 50 years. BMJ 305, 609–613.
Evidence for decreasing quality of semen during the past 50 years.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaK3s%2Fgs1Citw%3D%3D&md5=433eda1219c93e2c4208199562085be1CAS | 1393072PubMed | open url image1

Carlsen, E., Giwercman, A., Keiding, N., and Skakkebaek, N. E. (1995). Declining semen quality and increasing incidence of testicular cancer: is there a common cause? Environ. Health Perspect. 103, 137–139.
Declining semen quality and increasing incidence of testicular cancer: is there a common cause?CrossRef | 8593860PubMed | open url image1

Chamarro, E., Marco, A., and Esplugas, S. (2001). Use of Fenton reagent to improve organic chemical biodegradability. Water Res. 35, 1047–1051.
Use of Fenton reagent to improve organic chemical biodegradability.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXhvVKiur0%3D&md5=17349132dbe43d68b58034f7d02ae461CAS | 11235870PubMed | open url image1

Chang, S., Wait, D. T., Schafer, A. I., and Fane, A. G. (2003). Adsorption of the endocrine-active compound estrone on micro-filtration hollow fiber membranes. Environ. Sci. Technol. 37, 3158–3163.
Adsorption of the endocrine-active compound estrone on micro-filtration hollow fiber membranes.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXkt1CltLw%3D&md5=444e03053ee9bc4863f586b44f685b7eCAS | 12901665PubMed | open url image1

Chitra, K. C., Latchoumycandane, C., and Mathur, P. P. (2003). Induction of oxidative stress by bisphenol A in the epididymal sperm of rats. Toxicology 185, 119–127.
Induction of oxidative stress by bisphenol A in the epididymal sperm of rats.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XpslSitb8%3D&md5=dcaee379c4c0d77a4ade01073c7abf8fCAS | 12505450PubMed | open url image1

Choy, C. M. Y., Lam, C. W. K., Cheung, L. T. F., Briton-Jones, C. M., Cheung, L. P., and Haines, C. J. (2003). Infertility, blood mercury concentrations and dietary seafood consumption: a case-control study. Obstet. Gynecol. Surv. 58, 325–326.
Infertility, blood mercury concentrations and dietary seafood consumption: a case-control study.CrossRef | open url image1

Choi, S. M., Yoo, S. D., and Lee, B. M. (2004). Toxicological characteristics of endocrine-disrupting chemicals: developmental toxicity, carcinogenicity, and mutagenicity. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health B Crit. Rev. 7, 1–24..
| 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXpvV2ltbc%3D&md5=740a4fb1601d9b8c3031ad186cf5d90eCAS | 14681080PubMed | open url image1

Cincinelli, A., Stortini, A. M., Checchini, L., Martellini, T., Del Bubba, M., and Lepri, L. (2005). Enrichment of organic pollutants in the sea surface microlayer (SML) at Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica: influence of SML on superficial snow composition. J. Environ. Monit. 7, 1305–1312.
Enrichment of organic pollutants in the sea surface microlayer (SML) at Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica: influence of SML on superficial snow composition.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXht1ers7zI&md5=479d414057449667328590e33d95e934CAS | 16307088PubMed | open url image1

Clarkson, T. W. (2002). The three modern faces of mercury. Environ. Health Perspect. 110, 11–23..
| 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38Xnt1Srt78%3D&md5=e5813392bf021d6c19c5386b5e391c24CAS | 11834460PubMed | open url image1

Colburn T., and Clement C. (1992). ‘Chemically Induced Alterations in Sexual and Functional Development: The Wildlife/Human Connection. Advances in Modern Environmental Toxicology, vol. 12.’ (Princeton Scientific Publishing: Princeton, NJ.)

Dargnat, C., Teil, M. J., Chevreuil, M., and Blanchard, M. (2009). Phthalate removal throughout wastewater treatment plant. Case study of Marne Aval station (France). Sci. Total Environ. 407, 1235–1244.
Phthalate removal throughout wastewater treatment plant. Case study of Marne Aval station (France).CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXhsVOmsr3N&md5=8c1af003aaecb1aec5b4a276d879c07bCAS | 19036415PubMed | open url image1

Davis, D. L., Bradlow, H. L., Wolff, M., Woodruff, T., Howl, D. G., and Anton-Culver, H. (1993). Medical hypothesis: xenoestrogens as preventable causes of breast cancer. Environ. Health Perspect. 101, 372–377.
Medical hypothesis: xenoestrogens as preventable causes of breast cancer.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK2cXnsVCksg%3D%3D&md5=48321f6f876299b12f49fadfc65184e1CAS | 8119245PubMed | open url image1

Davis, B. J., Price, H. C., O’Connor, R. W., Fernando, R., Rowland, A. S., and Morgan, D. L. (2001). Mercury vapor and female reproductive toxicity. Toxicol. Sci. 59, 291–296.
Mercury vapor and female reproductive toxicity.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXovVemsw%3D%3D&md5=cd1694daf67e4b755350ae6ad32d7168CAS | 11158722PubMed | open url image1

Daxenberger, A. A. (2002). Pollutants with androgen-disrupting potency. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 104, 124–130.
Pollutants with androgen-disrupting potency.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XitVSltro%3D&md5=767647119055c423ef40c1011e3cff7aCAS | open url image1

Drewes, J. E., Hemming, J., Ladenburger, S. J., Schauer, J., and Sonzogni, W. (2005). An assessment of endocrine disrupting activity changes during wastewater treatment through the use of bioassays and chemical measurements. Water Environ. Res. 77, 12–23.
An assessment of endocrine disrupting activity changes during wastewater treatment through the use of bioassays and chemical measurements.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXhs1OgtLk%3D&md5=c3e033e15b8e5339e7c48ac8480e9e55CAS | 15765931PubMed | open url image1

Egeland, G. M., Sweeney, M. H., Fingerhut, M. A., Wille, K. K., Schnorr, T. M., and Halperin, W. E. (1994). Total serum testosterone and gonadotropins in workers exposed to dioxin. Am. J. Epidemiol. 139, 272–281..
| 1:STN:280:DyaK2c7mtV2kuw%3D%3D&md5=90da08f1e51e0763af4352a0a7c12b3bCAS | 8116602PubMed | open url image1

Ernst, E., and Lauritsen, J. G. (1991). Effect of organic and inorganic mercury on human sperm motility. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 68, 440–444.
Effect of organic and inorganic mercury on human sperm motility.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK3MXkvVOjtb0%3D&md5=12b2b7920c2cd2c627035019529e7c77CAS | 1653954PubMed | open url image1

Esplugas, S., Bila, D. M., Krause, L. G. T., and Dezotti, M. (2007). Ozonation and advanced oxidation technologies to remove endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in water effluents. J. Hazard. Mater. 149, 631–642.
Ozonation and advanced oxidation technologies to remove endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in water effluents.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXht1GhsbvK&md5=59c1f11da9319fc64901234cca8d8093CAS | 17826898PubMed | open url image1

Faqi, A. S., Dalsenter, P. R., Merker, H. J., and Chahoud, I. (1998). Reproductive toxicity and tissue concentrations of low doses of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in male offspring rats exposed throughout pregnancy and lactation. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 150, 383–392.
Reproductive toxicity and tissue concentrations of low doses of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in male offspring rats exposed throughout pregnancy and lactation.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK1cXksVyitr4%3D&md5=02708452019b38c23addf3edfe707ea1CAS | 9653070PubMed | open url image1

Finizio, A., Vighi, M., and Sandroni, D. (1997). Determination of n-octanol/water partition coefficient (Kow) of pesticide. Chemosphere 34, 131–161.
Determination of n-octanol/water partition coefficient (Kow) of pesticide.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK2sXlsV2qtQ%3D%3D&md5=1170f46b3c155fb108685d836c44a317CAS | open url image1

Fisher, B. E. (1999). Most unwanted. Environ. Health Perspect. 107, 18–23.. open url image1

Fisher, J. S. (2004). Environmental anti-androgens and male reproductive health: focus on phthalates and testicular dysgenesis syndrome. Reproduction 127, 305–315.
Environmental anti-androgens and male reproductive health: focus on phthalates and testicular dysgenesis syndrome.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXjt1Ols78%3D&md5=037239af0bf9ccae6a8fa27c11b036caCAS | 15016950PubMed | open url image1

Fisher, J. S., Macpherson, S., Marchetti, N., and Sharpe, R. M. (2003). Human ‘testicular dysgenesis syndrome’: a possible model using in utero exposure of the rat to dibutyl phthalate. Hum. Reprod. 18, 1383–1394.
Human ‘testicular dysgenesis syndrome’: a possible model using in utero exposure of the rat to dibutyl phthalate.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXmt1eru7w%3D&md5=32a07e1b0bf6e6d49f9d6cf76b246bfeCAS | 12832361PubMed | open url image1

Fukushima, M., and Tatsumi, K. (2001). Degradation of pentachlorophenol by photo-Fenton systems in the presence of iron(III), humic acid, and hydrogen peroxide. Environ. Sci. Technol. 35, 1771–1778.
Degradation of pentachlorophenol by photo-Fenton systems in the presence of iron(III), humic acid, and hydrogen peroxide.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXitVyrs7o%3D&md5=0b4bd18176f5406a99ff03fef56b5e03CAS | 11355191PubMed | open url image1

Garcia-Sanchez, A., Antona, J. F., and Urrutia, M. (1992). Geochemical prospection of cadmium in a high incidence area of prostate cancer, Sierra de Gata, Salamanca, Spain. Sci. Total Environ. 116, 243–251.
Geochemical prospection of cadmium in a high incidence area of prostate cancer, Sierra de Gata, Salamanca, Spain.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK38Xks1Clt7Y%3D&md5=7632c085f86d44d898248a065c3e6f65CAS | 1615308PubMed | open url image1

Gardella, J. R., and Hill, J. A. (2000). Environmental toxins associated with recurrent pregnancy loss. Semin. Reprod. Med. 18, 407–424.
Environmental toxins associated with recurrent pregnancy loss.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD3M3mtlamsQ%3D%3D&md5=e8f08c5f681064f3415dc1fe56b3e510CAS | 11355800PubMed | open url image1

Garry, V. F. (2004). Pesticides and children. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 198, 152–163.
Pesticides and children.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXlsVSnsLk%3D&md5=df080eb8b512c877c36d191eb79a0955CAS | 15236951PubMed | open url image1

Gilpin R. K., Wagel D. J., and Solch J. G. (2003). Production, distribution, and fate of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and related organohalogens in the environment. In ‘Dioxins and Health’, 2nd edn. (Eds A. Schecter and T. A. Gasiewicz.) pp. 89–136. (Wiley: Hoboken, NJ.)

Giusti, R. M., Iwamoto, K., and Hatch, E. E. (1995). Diethylstilbestrol revisited: a review of the long-term health effects. Ann. Intern. Med. 122, 778–788..
| 1:CAS:528:DyaK2MXlvFGms7o%3D&md5=542c5bf2c899094ca46df2662d438394CAS | 7717601PubMed | open url image1

Giwercman, A., Carlsen, E., Keiding, N., and Skakkebaek, N. E. (1993). Evidence for increasing incidence of abnormalities of the human testis: a review. Environ. Health Perspect. 101, 65–71.
Evidence for increasing incidence of abnormalities of the human testis: a review.CrossRef | 7902273PubMed | open url image1

Goad, R. T., Goad, J. T., Atieh, B. H., and Gupta, R. C. (2004). Carbofuran-induced endocrine disruption in adult male rats. Toxicol. Mech. Methods 14, 233–239.
Carbofuran-induced endocrine disruption in adult male rats.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXlslSgtrw%3D&md5=a08752ad79a2c3cfe8400e804da58625CAS | 20021136PubMed | open url image1

Goldman, L., Falk, H., Landrigan, P. J., Balk, S. J., Reigart, R., and Etzel, R. A. (2004). Environmental pediatrics and its impact on government health policy. Pediatrics 113, 1146–1157..
| 15060212PubMed | open url image1

Gray, L. E., Wolf, C., Lambright, C., Mann, P., Price, M., Cooper, R. L., and Ostby, J. (1999). Administration of potentially antiandrogenic pesticides (procymidone, linuron, iprodione, chlozolinate, p,p′-DDE, and ketoconazole) and toxic substances (dibutyl- and diethylhexyl phthalate, PCB 169, and ethane dimethane sulphonate) during sexual differentiation produces diverse profiles of reproductive malformations in the male rat. Toxicol. Ind. Health 15, 94–118.
Administration of potentially antiandrogenic pesticides (procymidone, linuron, iprodione, chlozolinate, p,p′-DDE, and ketoconazole) and toxic substances (dibutyl- and diethylhexyl phthalate, PCB 169, and ethane dimethane sulphonate) during sexual differentiation produces diverse profiles of reproductive malformations in the male rat.CrossRef | 10188194PubMed | open url image1

Grova, N., Feidt, C., Crépineau, C., Laurent, C., Lafargue, P. E., Hachimi, A., and Rychen, G. (2002). Detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon levels in milk collected near potential contamination sources. J. Agric. Food Chem. 50, 4640–4642.
Detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon levels in milk collected near potential contamination sources.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XltVahtbs%3D&md5=ec19c7754bb530db75fa08b2437823f5CAS | 12137489PubMed | open url image1

Gültekin, I., and Ince, N. H. (2007). Synthetic endocrine disruptors in the environment and water remediation by advanced oxidation processes. J. Environ. Manage. 85, 816–832.
Synthetic endocrine disruptors in the environment and water remediation by advanced oxidation processes.CrossRef | 17768001PubMed | open url image1

Gwinn, M. R., Whipkey, D. L., Tennant, L. B., and Weston, A. (2005). Differential gene expression in normal human mammary epithelial cells treated with malathion monitored by DNA microarrays. Environ. Health Perspect. 113, 1046–1051.
Differential gene expression in normal human mammary epithelial cells treated with malathion monitored by DNA microarrays.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXpslSkurc%3D&md5=9886038c3d4bcbaae6fb551e9c134b75CAS | 16079077PubMed | open url image1

Haddow, A., Roe, F. J. C., Dukes, C. E., and Mitchley, B. C. V. (1964). Cadmium neoplasia: sarcomata at the site of injection of cadmium sulphate in rats and mice. Br. J. Cancer 18, 667–673..
| 1:CAS:528:DyaF2MXosFynsw%3D%3D&md5=44ec16634e237403052c4b68a0f86440CAS | 14264930PubMed | open url image1

Hamm, U., Oller, H.-J., and Kuwan, K. (2005a). Endokrine Substanzen in Abwassern der Papierindustrie. IPW 1, 45–48.. open url image1

Hamm, U., Oller, H.-J., and Kuwan, K. (2005b). Endokrine Substanzen in Abwassern der Papierindustrie (II). IPW 2, 47–49.. open url image1

Hardell, L., Van Bavel, B., Lindström, G., Eriksson, M., and Carlberg, M. (2006). In utero exposure to persistent organic pollutants in relation to testicular cancer risk. Int. J. Androl. 29, 228–234.
In utero exposure to persistent organic pollutants in relation to testicular cancer risk.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XjslWit7s%3D&md5=477659325ba81a9eea799348e4120de0CAS | 16371110PubMed | open url image1

Harris, C. A., Henttu, P., Parker, M. G., and Sumpter, J. P. (1997). The estrogenic activity of phthalate esters in vitro. Environ. Health Perspect. 105, 802–811.
The estrogenic activity of phthalate esters in vitro.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK2sXnt1GjurY%3D&md5=69e7c577fc8bc9017269e8f14aace609CAS | 9347895PubMed | open url image1

Hayes, T. B., Collins, A., Lee, M., Mendoza, M., Noriega, N., Stuart, A., and Vonk, A. (2002). Hermaphroditic, demasculinized frogs after exposure to the herbicide atrazine at low ecologically relevant doses. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 99, 5476–5480.
Hermaphroditic, demasculinized frogs after exposure to the herbicide atrazine at low ecologically relevant doses.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XjtFKlsbc%3D&md5=33cd6272d7116f1a439d4ac766d31f9fCAS | open url image1

Hayes, T. B., Hoang, A., Haeffele, C., Haston, K., Tsui, M., and Vonk, A. (2003). Atrazine-induced hermaphroditism at 0.1 ppb in American leopard frogs (Rana pipiens): laboratory and field evidence. Environ. Health Perspect. 111, 568–575.
Atrazine-induced hermaphroditism at 0.1 ppb in American leopard frogs (Rana pipiens): laboratory and field evidence.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXjtlKrsr4%3D&md5=e57389ae3fc41eb072e1c76fa9afdae9CAS | 12676617PubMed | open url image1

Homma-Takeda, S., Kugenuma, Y., Iwamuro, T., Kumagai, Y., and Shimojo, N. (2001). Impairment of spermatogenesis in rats by methyl mercury: involvement of stage- and cell-specific germ cell apoptosis. Toxicology 169, 25–35.
Impairment of spermatogenesis in rats by methyl mercury: involvement of stage- and cell-specific germ cell apoptosis.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXotFSmtbk%3D&md5=134c1bf31cc180cd654266f3fbec49d9CAS | 11696407PubMed | open url image1

Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) (2005). ‘Environmental Protection Agency. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs). Last Updated: 23rd January 2008.’ Available at http://www.epa.gov/iris/subst/0294.htm [Verified 24 November 2010].

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) (1983). Polynuclear aromatic compounds, Part 1, chemical, environmental and experimental data. In ‘Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans’, vol. 32. pp. 1–447. (IARC: Lyon.)

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) (1998). ‘Polychlorinated Biphenyls, vol. 18, 1978, p. 43. Last Updated: 27th March 1998.’ Available at http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol18/volume18.pdf [Verified 24 November 2010].

Ishihara, A., Nishiyama, N., Sugiyama, S., and Yamauchi, K. (2003). The effect of endocrine disrupting chemicals on thyroid hormone binding to Japanese quail transthyretin and thyroid hormone receptor. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 134, 36–43.
The effect of endocrine disrupting chemicals on thyroid hormone binding to Japanese quail transthyretin and thyroid hormone receptor.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXnt1ant7k%3D&md5=610fd680dbb18e3c09ad8737aefff428CAS | 13129501PubMed | open url image1

Järup, L. (2003). Hazards of heavy metal contamination. Br. Med. Bull. 68, 167–182.
Hazards of heavy metal contamination.CrossRef | 14757716PubMed | open url image1

Jeong, S. H., Kim, B. Y., Kang, H. G., Ku, H. K., and Cho, J. H. (2006). Effect of chlorpyrifos-methyl on steroid and thyroid hormones in rat F0- and F1-generations. Toxicology 220, 189–202.
Effect of chlorpyrifos-methyl on steroid and thyroid hormones in rat F0- and F1-generations.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XhvVWksL4%3D&md5=152fe3af62c2fd07d4c7499a81fdbb16CAS | 16472551PubMed | open url image1

Jiang, K., Li, L. J., Chen, Y. D., and Jin, J. (1997). Determination of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in Chinese commercial PCBs and emissions from a testing PCB incinerator. Chemosphere 34, 941–950.
Determination of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in Chinese commercial PCBs and emissions from a testing PCB incinerator.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK2sXitF2rt78%3D&md5=518a70397fda10fa4399419282a4b810CAS | open url image1

Jobling, S., Sheahan, D., Osborne, J. A., Matthissen, P., and Sumpter, J. P. (1996). Inhibition of testicular growth in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to estrogenic alkylphenolic chemicals. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 15, 194–202..
| 1:CAS:528:DyaK28XpsFymtQ%3D%3D&md5=c9e8a3b27b44a41f1e54cf51fc60870dCAS | open url image1

Johansson, M., Nilsson, S., and Lund, B. O. (1998). Interactions between methylsulfonyl PCBs and the glucocorticoid receptor. Environ. Health Perspect. 106, 769–772.
Interactions between methylsulfonyl PCBs and the glucocorticoid receptor.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXhtFyjtrs%3D&md5=c992b0bce0ced0c9d5d2615e8fdb603fCAS | 9831536PubMed | open url image1

Kang, H. G., Jeong, S. H., Cho, J. H., Kim, D. G., Park, J. M., and Cho, M. H. (2004). Chlropyrifos-methyl shows anti-androgenic activity without estrogenic activity in rats. Toxicology 199, 219–230.
Chlropyrifos-methyl shows anti-androgenic activity without estrogenic activity in rats.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXktVCntbs%3D&md5=0f6d898e91269b34afec8aad3167e4b5CAS | 15147795PubMed | open url image1

Katsumata, H., Kawabe, S., Kaneco, S., Suzuki, T., and Ohta, K. (2004). Degradation of bisphenol A in water by the photo-Fenton reaction. J. Photochem. Photobiol. Chem. 162, 297–305.
Degradation of bisphenol A in water by the photo-Fenton reaction.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXhs1Cqu7o%3D&md5=451cc03786d9b69f60a98d6d129f8d19CAS | open url image1

Kawauchi, H., Suzuki, K., Yamazaki, T., Moriyama, S., Nozaki, M., Yamaguchi, K., Takahashi, A., Youson, J., and Sower, S. A. (2002). Identification of growth hormone in the sea lamprey, an extant representative of a group of the most ancient vertebrates. Endocrinology 143, 4916–4921.
Identification of growth hormone in the sea lamprey, an extant representative of a group of the most ancient vertebrates.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38Xpt1eltbs%3D&md5=8c865610f0e0fcfbd2a5b635d7f03304CAS | 12446619PubMed | open url image1

Kelce, W. R., and Wilson, E. M. (1997). Environmental anti-androgens: developmental effects, molecular mechanisms and clinical implications. J. Mol. Med. 75, 198–207.
Environmental anti-androgens: developmental effects, molecular mechanisms and clinical implications.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK2sXisF2gt7w%3D&md5=c20400dc11ca0bd313cc074d4af53c0eCAS | 9106076PubMed | open url image1

Kester, M. H. A., Bulduk, S., Tibboel, D., Meinl, W., Glatt, H., Falany, C. N., Coughtrie, M. W. H., Bergman, A., Safe, S. H., Kuiper, G., Schuur, A. G., Brouwer, A., and Visser, T. J. (2000). Potent inhibition of estrogen sulfotransferase by hydroxylated PCB metabolites: a novel pathway explaining the estrogenic activity of PCBs. Endocrinology 141, 1897–1900.
Potent inhibition of estrogen sulfotransferase by hydroxylated PCB metabolites: a novel pathway explaining the estrogenic activity of PCBs.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXlt1Wnsbo%3D&md5=b5674b4a99f22d05e208e9a50df52d52CAS | 10803601PubMed | open url image1

Kim, I. Y., Shin, J. H., Kim, H. S., Lee, S. J., Kang, I. H., Kim, T. S., Moon, H. J., Choi, K. S., Moon, A., and Han, S. Y. (2004). Assessing estrogenic activity of pyrethroid insecticides using in vitro combination assays. J. Reprod. Dev. 50, 245–255.
Assessing estrogenic activity of pyrethroid insecticides using in vitro combination assays.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXltlKhtbo%3D&md5=3c898dff40116d9a2430dfec3556448cCAS | 15118252PubMed | open url image1

Kolonel, L. N. (1996). Nutrition and prostate cancer. Cancer Causes Control 7, 83–94.
Nutrition and prostate cancer.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaK2s%2FgtlSqug%3D%3D&md5=8552f7f40474c1c6e5d65a09c31b986dCAS | 8850437PubMed | open url image1

Kuiper, G. G. J. M., Enmark, E., Pelto-Huikko, M., Nilsson, S., and Gustafsson, J. Å. (1996). Cloning of a novel estrogen receptor expressed in rat prostate and ovary. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 5925–5930..
| 1:CAS:528:DyaK28Xjs1Ojs7c%3D&md5=515d754d7e4fc6a506c40f1f1471a31eCAS | open url image1

Kuiper, G. G. J. M., Carlsson, B., Grandien, K., Enmark, E., Häggblad, J., Nilsson, S., and Gustafsson, J. Å. (1997). Comparison of the ligand binding specificity and transcript tissue distribution of estrogen receptors α and β. Endocrinology 138, 863–870..
| 1:CAS:528:DyaK2sXht1OksrY%3D&md5=1bf543ffa18fa6dc5746e6a45eb64c8fCAS | 9048584PubMed | open url image1

Kulbat, E., Olańczuk-Neyman, K., Quant, B., Geneja, M., and Haustein, E. (2003). Heavy metals removal in the mechanical–biological wastewater treatment plant ‘Wschód’ in Gdańs. Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 12, 635–641..
| 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXovV2htrc%3D&md5=6637d6d76817ca94223948d948b6f7d0CAS | open url image1

Lemaire, G., Terouanne, B., Mauvais, P., Michel, S., and Rahmani, R. (2004). Effect of organochlorine pesticides on human androgen receptor activation in vitro. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 196, 235–246.
Effect of organochlorine pesticides on human androgen receptor activation in vitro.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXjtVCgtrs%3D&md5=d6d8ea471ffecd3115d4ab7d02aa4e9dCAS | 15081270PubMed | open url image1

Li, M. H., and Hansen, L. G. (1997). Consideration of enzyme and endocrine interactions in the risk assessment of PCBs. Rev. Toxicol. 1, 71–156..
| 1:CAS:528:DyaK2sXjtVGgu74%3D&md5=3605ff03f34f2b5eea0870e6cdda4a66CAS | open url image1

Li, C. T., Lin, Y. C., Lee, W. J., and Tsai, P. J. (2003). Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their carcinogenic potencies from cooking sources to the urban atmosphere. Environ. Health Perspect. 111, 483–487.
Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their carcinogenic potencies from cooking sources to the urban atmosphere.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXjtlKkurk%3D&md5=4e9d3e0505d16b6ec0d91d1d7a2414eeCAS | 12676603PubMed | open url image1

Liu, Z. H., Kanjo, Y., and Mizutani, S. (2009). Removal mechanisms for endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in wastewater treatment: physical means, biodegradation, and chemical advanced oxidation: a review. Sci. Total Environ. 407, 731–748.
Removal mechanisms for endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in wastewater treatment: physical means, biodegradation, and chemical advanced oxidation: a review.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXhsVOisrrK&md5=05acd1db25914daeb9851c99a1cda8f2CAS | 18992918PubMed | open url image1

Loganathan, B., and Kannan, K. (1994). Global organochlorine contamination trends: an overview. Ambio 23, 187–189.. open url image1

Lu, S. Y., Liao, J. W., Kuo, M. L., Wang, S. C., Hwang, J. S., and Ueng, T. H. (2004). Endocrine-disrupting activity in carbendazim-induced reproductive and developmental toxicity in rats. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health A 67, 1501–1515.
Endocrine-disrupting activity in carbendazim-induced reproductive and developmental toxicity in rats.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXntlOksLY%3D&md5=a32e9aec33257e8045ed59cbaa4f849cCAS | 15371226PubMed | open url image1

Mabilia, R., Cecinato, A., Tomasi Scianò, M. C., Di Palo, V., and Possanzini, M. (2004). Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and carbonyl compounds in diesel exhaust emissions. Ann. Chim. 94, 733–740.
Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and carbonyl compounds in diesel exhaust emissions.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXoslyqsL8%3D&md5=cdc3bbb3664e9e4aba4f05d5bd240c12CAS | 15506624PubMed | open url image1

Mackenzie, C. A., and Constanze, A. (2005). Declining sex ratio in a first nation community. Environ. Health Perspect. 113, 1295–1298.
Declining sex ratio in a first nation community.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXhtFOgsL%2FO&md5=bfb28864234d4cc30ccfeb5877190cc6CAS | 16203237PubMed | open url image1

Malato, S., Caceras, J., Aguera, A., Mezcua, M., Hernando, D., Vial, J., and Fernandez-Alba, A. R. (2001). Degradation of imidacloprid in water by photo-Fenton and TiO2 photocatalysis at a solar pilot plant: a comparative study. Environ. Sci. Technol. 35, 4359–4366.
Degradation of imidacloprid in water by photo-Fenton and TiO2 photocatalysis at a solar pilot plant: a comparative study.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXntF2itbY%3D&md5=ba3b0b8c55be80abca87dce9c3b4202cCAS | 11718357PubMed | open url image1

Malato, S., Blanco, J., Cáceres, J., Fernández-Alba, A. R., Agüera, A., and Rod?ýguez, A. (2002). Photocatalytic treatment of water-soluble pesticides by photo-Fenton and TiO2 using solar energy. Catal. Today 76, 209–220.
Photocatalytic treatment of water-soluble pesticides by photo-Fenton and TiO2 using solar energy.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XoslyqtLs%3D&md5=137acba6ab6364ffe4e31f72012c10e2CAS | open url image1

Mankame, T., Hokanson, R., Chowdhary, R., and Busbee, D. (2004). Altered gene expression in human cells induced by the agricultural chemical Enable. Toxicol. Ind. Health 20, 89–102.
Altered gene expression in human cells induced by the agricultural chemical Enable.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXltlWntbw%3D&md5=95a8b4937d979cffe2ccfefec47f0b82CAS | 15942997PubMed | open url image1

Markey, C. M., Luque, E. H., Munoz de Toro, M., Sonnenschein, C., and Soto, A. M. (2001). In utero exposure to bisphenol A alters the development and tissue organization of the mouse mammary gland. Biol. Reprod. 65, 1215–1223..
| 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXnt1CmsLs%3D&md5=0882c3ebfa2a9d633f3d1711f0426c62CAS | 11566746PubMed | open url image1

Mascolo, G., Ciannarella, R., Balest, L., and Lopez, A. (2008). Effectiveness of UV-based advanced oxidation processes for the remediation of hydrocarbon pollution in the groundwater: a laboratory investigation. J. Hazard. Mater. 152, 1138–1145.
Effectiveness of UV-based advanced oxidation processes for the remediation of hydrocarbon pollution in the groundwater: a laboratory investigation.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXjt12mt78%3D&md5=d36d30f58d0a93f0253d2047621ceacdCAS | 17890002PubMed | open url image1

Mathur, V., Bhatnagar, P., Sharma, R. G., Acharya, V., and Sexana, R. (2002). Breast cancer incidence and exposure to pesticides among women originating from Jaipur. Environ. Int. 28, 331–336.
Breast cancer incidence and exposure to pesticides among women originating from Jaipur.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XnvFSqsb0%3D&md5=bf496ed47d1ad653f9fd9637d1668f69CAS | 12437282PubMed | open url image1

McIntyre, B. S., Barlow, N. J., and Foster, P. M. D. (2001). Androgen-mediated development in the male rat offspring exposed to flutamide in utero: permanence and correlation of early postnatal changes in anogenital distance and nipple retention with malformations in androgen-dependent tissues. Toxicol. Sci. 62, 236–249.
Androgen-mediated development in the male rat offspring exposed to flutamide in utero: permanence and correlation of early postnatal changes in anogenital distance and nipple retention with malformations in androgen-dependent tissues.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXlslSns7w%3D&md5=dc37cb1e370db9990bc9596414ef49efCAS | 11452136PubMed | open url image1

McRill, C., Boyer, L. V., Flood, T. J., and Ortega, L. (2000). Mercury toxicity due to use of a cosmetic cream. J. Occup. Environ. Med. 42, 4–7.
Mercury toxicity due to use of a cosmetic cream.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXptVehtA%3D%3D&md5=af9223abebe5b4b7c872be144c718cc5CAS | 10652682PubMed | open url image1

Menchini-Fabris, F., Rossi, P., Palego, P., Simi, S., and Turchi, P. (1996). Declining sperm counts in Italy during the past 20 years. Andrologia 28, 304.
Declining sperm counts in Italy during the past 20 years.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaK2s7ntlWksw%3D%3D&md5=d14ae3b9df8901c6fe3d4ef3ed1cd665CAS | 9021039PubMed | open url image1

Mendola, P., Buck, G. M., Sever, L. E., Zielezny, M., and Vena, J. E. (1997). Consumption of PCB-contaminated freshwater fish and shortened menstrual cycle length. Am. J. Epidemiol. 146, 955–960..
| 1:STN:280:DyaK1c%2Fmt1yltw%3D%3D&md5=2bf6d778b2af1afea872b56fe3e23613CAS | 9400337PubMed | open url image1

Metzler M., and Pfeiffer E. (2001). Chemistry of natural and antropogenic endocrine active compounds. In ‘Endocrine Disruptors Part I’. (Ed. M. Metzler.) pp. 63–80. (Springer: Berlin.)

Meulenberg, E. E. (2002). A new test to identify endocrine disruptors using sex hormone-binding globulins from human serum. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 104, 131–136.
A new test to identify endocrine disruptors using sex hormone-binding globulins from human serum.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XitVSltrs%3D&md5=5085950eee8db43a6d252a4ed975c50bCAS | open url image1

Mocarelli, P., Gerthoux, P. M., Patterson, D. G., Milani, S., Limonta, G., Bertona, M., Signorini, S., Tramacere, P., Colombo, L., Crespi, C., Brambilla, P., Sarto, C., Carreri, V., Sampson, E. J., Turner, W. E., and Needham, L. L. (2008). Dioxin exposure, from infancy through puberty, produces endocrine disruption and affects human semen quality. Environ. Health Perspect. 116, 70–77.
Dioxin exposure, from infancy through puberty, produces endocrine disruption and affects human semen quality.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXhs12nsrc%3D&md5=4a8ffefb0e0fc5945af5f5b504348c40CAS | 18197302PubMed | open url image1

Morinaga, H., Yanase, T., Nomura, M., Okabe, T., Goto, K., Harada, N., and Nawata, H. (2004). A benzimidazole fungicide, benomyl, and its metabolite, carbendazim, induce aromatase activity in a human ovarian granulose-like tumor cell line (KGN). Endocrinology 145, 1860–1869.
A benzimidazole fungicide, benomyl, and its metabolite, carbendazim, induce aromatase activity in a human ovarian granulose-like tumor cell line (KGN).CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXis1SisL4%3D&md5=9c7d60745d4f9315285de02d540bc08eCAS | 14691014PubMed | open url image1

Muir, D., Braune, B., DeMarch, B., Norstrom, R., Wagemann, R., Lockhart, L., Hargrave, B., Bright, D., Addison, R., Payne, J., and Reimer, K. (1999). Spatial and temporal trends and effects of contaminants in the Canadian Artic marine ecosystem: a review. Sci. Total Environ. 230, 83–144.
Spatial and temporal trends and effects of contaminants in the Canadian Artic marine ecosystem: a review.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXltlamsrc%3D&md5=2546c5d830cc65ff9a74997f726ac25cCAS | 10466228PubMed | open url image1

Mukherjee, A., Sengupta, M. K., Hossain, M. A., Ahamed, S., Das, B., Nayak, B., Lodh, D., Rahman, M. M., and Chakraborti, D. (2006). Arsenic contamination in groundwater: a global perspective with emphasis on the Asian scenario. J. Health Popul. Nutr. 24, 142–163..
| 17195556PubMed | open url image1

Muñoz de Toro, M., Markey, C. M., Wadia, P. R., Luque, E. H., Rubin, B. S., Sonnenschein, C., and Soto, A. M. (2005). Perinatal exposure to bisphenol A alters peripubertal mammary gland development in mice. Endocrinology 146, 4138–4147.
Perinatal exposure to bisphenol A alters peripubertal mammary gland development in mice.CrossRef | 15919749PubMed | open url image1

Mylchreest, E., Cattley, R. C., and Foster, P. M. D. (1998). Male reproductive tract malformations in rats following gestational and lactational exposure to di(n-butyl) phthalate: an antiandrogenic mechanism? Toxicol. Sci. 43, 47–60..
| 1:CAS:528:DyaK1cXjslOqu74%3D&md5=4c4b1c5cac499a796188a2178fed55e8CAS | 9629619PubMed | open url image1

Mylchreest, E., Sar, M., Cattley, R. C., and Foster, P. M. D. (1999). Disruption of androgen-regulated male reproductive development by di(n-butyl) phthalate during late gestation in rats is different from flutamide. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 156, 81–95.
Disruption of androgen-regulated male reproductive development by di(n-butyl) phthalate during late gestation in rats is different from flutamide.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXit1yktbw%3D&md5=31a03eec9475b0b3cba258705d84c35dCAS | 10198273PubMed | open url image1

Nadal, M., Schuhmacher, M., and Domingo, J. L. (2004). Levels of PAHs in soil and vegetation samples from Tarragona County, Spain. Environ. Pollut. 132, 1–11.
Levels of PAHs in soil and vegetation samples from Tarragona County, Spain.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXmtVahs74%3D&md5=d2d61ff9f141894b5a8a628adf8206fdCAS | 15276268PubMed | open url image1

Nampoothiri, L. P., and Gupta, S. (2006). Simultaneous effect of lead and cadmium on granulosa cells: a cellular model for ovarian toxicity. Reprod. Toxicol. 21, 179–185.
Simultaneous effect of lead and cadmium on granulosa cells: a cellular model for ovarian toxicity.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XksVeisg%3D%3D&md5=85fa7c4d38e356c1e8f2142de64e291cCAS | 16159707PubMed | open url image1

Nicolopoulou-Stamati, P., and Pitsos, M. A. (2001). The impact of endocrine disrupters on the female reproductive system. Hum. Reprod. Update 7, 323–330.
The impact of endocrine disrupters on the female reproductive system.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXkt1Okurs%3D&md5=9bb4dad5d1fc09ee4e4c4363a7aefd0dCAS | 11392379PubMed | open url image1

Nimrod, A. C., and Benson, W. H. (1996). Environmental estrogenic effects of alkylphenol ethoxylates. Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 26, 335–364.
Environmental estrogenic effects of alkylphenol ethoxylates.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK28XktVeiu78%3D&md5=042c5c44cab095a8ea3ea168c8fc1c94CAS | 8726166PubMed | open url image1

Nogueira, R. F. P., Silva, M. R. A., and Trovó, A. G. (2005). Influence of the iron source on the solar photo-Fenton degradation of different classes of organic compounds. Sol. Energy 79, 384–392.
Influence of the iron source on the solar photo-Fenton degradation of different classes of organic compounds.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXhtVeru7fI&md5=edc526c2d10cc553cbbf93180eb23c1eCAS | open url image1

Nordström, S., Beckman, L., and Nordenson, I. (1979). Occupational and environmental risks in and around a smelter in northern Sweden. V. Spontaneous abortion among female employees and decreased birth weight in their offspring. Hereditas 90, 291–296.
Occupational and environmental risks in and around a smelter in northern Sweden. V. Spontaneous abortion among female employees and decreased birth weight in their offspring.CrossRef | 437992PubMed | open url image1

Olie, K., Vermeulen, P. L., and Hutzinger, O. (1977). Chlorodibenzo-p-dioxins and chlorodibenzofurans are trace components of fly ash and flue gas of some municipal incinerators in the Netherlands. Chemosphere 6, 455–459.
Chlorodibenzo-p-dioxins and chlorodibenzofurans are trace components of fly ash and flue gas of some municipal incinerators in the Netherlands.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaE2sXmtVGkur0%3D&md5=ff07f70440909bf2e878e07cc91474c1CAS | open url image1

Parks, L. G., Ostby, J. S., Lambright, C. R., Abbott, B. D., Klinefelter, G. R., Barlow, N. J., and Earl Gray, L. (2000). The plasticizer diethylhexyl phthalate induces malformations by decreasing fetal testosterone synthesis during sexual differentiation in the male rat. Toxicol. Sci. 58, 339–349.
The plasticizer diethylhexyl phthalate induces malformations by decreasing fetal testosterone synthesis during sexual differentiation in the male rat.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXovFynsLk%3D&md5=3c7f9882548e0498a4f64425b0b08c90CAS | 11099646PubMed | open url image1

Perera, F., Hemminke, K., Jedrychowski, W., Whyatt, R., Campbell, U., Hsu, Y., Santella, R., Albertini, R., and O’Neill, J. P. (2002). In utero DNA damage from environmental pollution is associated with somatic gene mutation in newborns. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 11, 1134–1137..
| 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38Xos1eku70%3D&md5=d7fbe346336896f036f9a5aefe2a75d8CAS | 12376523PubMed | open url image1

Perera, F. P., Tang, D., Rauh, V., Lester, K., Tsai, W. Y., Tu, Y. H., Weiss, L., Hoepner, L., King, J., Del Priore, G., and Lederman, S. A. (2005). Relationships among polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: DNA adducts, proximity to the World Trade Center, and effects on fetal growth. Environ. Health Perspect. 113, 1062–1067.
Relationships among polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: DNA adducts, proximity to the World Trade Center, and effects on fetal growth.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXpslSku78%3D&md5=87c581f4bdae8ea0a48c9390ab5df6deCAS | 16079080PubMed | open url image1

Peterson, R. E., Theobald, H. M., and Kimmel, G. L. (1993). Developmental and reproductive toxicity of dioxins and related compounds: cross-species comparisons. Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 23, 283–335.
Developmental and reproductive toxicity of dioxins and related compounds: cross-species comparisons.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK2cXhsFGqtbk%3D&md5=14741005cfd72a04766c7f7baac411efCAS | 8260069PubMed | open url image1

Petrovic, M., Eljarrate, E., Lopez De Alda, M. J., and Barcelo, D. (2004). Endocrine disrupting compounds and other emerging contaminants in the environment: a survey on new monitoring strategies and occurrence data. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 378, 549–562.
Endocrine disrupting compounds and other emerging contaminants in the environment: a survey on new monitoring strategies and occurrence data.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXhtVars7k%3D&md5=3a221aefb9459b434eba59fdc5183324CAS | 12955281PubMed | open url image1

Pokhrel, D., and Viraraghavan, T. (2004). Treatment of pulp and paper mill effluent: a review. Sci. Total Environ. 333, 37–58.
Treatment of pulp and paper mill effluent: a review.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXnsFSgsrk%3D&md5=ac33202ece9023abde79a7549d8418e6CAS | 15364518PubMed | open url image1

Przyrembel, H., Heinrich-Hirsch, B., and Vieth, B. (2000). Exposition to and health effects of residues in human milk. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 478, 307–325.
Exposition to and health effects of residues in human milk.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXktlCnuro%3D&md5=fbdc261a43debb4882265d11a0e0b21eCAS | 11065082PubMed | open url image1

Pulgar, R., Olea-Serrano, M. F., Novillo-Fertrell, A., Rivas, A., Pazos, P., Pedraza, V., Navajas, J. M., and Olea, N. (2000). Determination of bisphenol A and related aromatic compounds released from bis-GMA-based composites and sealants by high performance liquid chromatography. Environ. Health Perspect. 108, 21–27.
Determination of bisphenol A and related aromatic compounds released from bis-GMA-based composites and sealants by high performance liquid chromatography.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXns1ynsQ%3D%3D&md5=fa6b63df63691ebf6868db27c79dcd7eCAS | 10620520PubMed | open url image1

Rai U. N., and Pal A. (2002). ‘Health Hazards of Heavy Metals.’ Available at http://isebindia.com/01_04/02-01-2.html [Verified 24 November 2010].

Roman B. L., and Peterson R. E. (1998). Developmental male reproductive toxicology of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and PCBs. In ‘Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology’. (Ed. K. S. Korach.) pp. 593–624. (Marcel Dekker: New York.)

Ross, G. (2004). The public health implications of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the environment. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 59, 275–291.
The public health implications of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the environment.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXnvVyqs7s%3D&md5=9c86b6348cae583e9080b189a2098342CAS | 15388267PubMed | open url image1

Rubin, B. S., and Soto, A. M. (2009). Bisphenol A: perinatal exposure and body weight. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 304, 55–62.
Bisphenol A: perinatal exposure and body weight.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXls1yls7c%3D&md5=8b68aab32a456d3ef309db9b51d2a34eCAS | 19433248PubMed | open url image1

Santodonato, J. (1997). Review of the estrogenic and antiestrogenic activity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: relationship to carcinogenicity. Chemosphere 34, 835–848.
Review of the estrogenic and antiestrogenic activity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: relationship to carcinogenicity.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK2sXhsl2gtb0%3D&md5=ecb8fafb7929b0c39711e7f2b5a5fce9CAS | 9569946PubMed | open url image1

Satarug, S., and Moore, M. R. (2004). Adverse health effects of chronic exposure to low-level cadmium in foodstuffs and cigarette smoke. Environ. Health Perspect. 112, 1099–1103.
Adverse health effects of chronic exposure to low-level cadmium in foodstuffs and cigarette smoke.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXps1agsbg%3D&md5=ee7905daa12fb363f68f5a2ad653e2faCAS | 15238284PubMed | open url image1

Satoh, H. (2003). Behavioral teratology of mercury and its compounds. Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 201, 1–9.
Behavioral teratology of mercury and its compounds.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXpsVWjt7o%3D&md5=09cc500804f66ae0bddbf4a967c425e0CAS | 14609255PubMed | open url image1

Schantz, S. L., and Widholm, J. J. (2001). Cognitive effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in animals. Environ. Health Perspect. 109, 1197–1206.
Cognitive effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in animals.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38Xit1anurk%3D&md5=797479906f64cbf17c5b6bdf960fbf71CAS | 11748026PubMed | open url image1

Schönfelder, G., Wittfoht, W., Hopp, H., Talsness, C. E., Paul, M., and Chahoud, I. (2002). Parent bisphenol A accumulation in the human maternal–fetal–placental unit. Environ. Health Perspect. 110, A703–A707.
Parent bisphenol A accumulation in the human maternal–fetal–placental unit.CrossRef | 12417499PubMed | open url image1

Schreinemachers, D. M. (2003). Birth malformations and other adverse perinatal outcomes in four US wheat-producing states. Environ. Health Perspect. 111, 1259–1264.
Birth malformations and other adverse perinatal outcomes in four US wheat-producing states.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXmsVektbc%3D&md5=f0c868a8858f80e1fa21a9c4932ec761CAS | 12842783PubMed | open url image1

Schuurs, A. H. B. (1999). Reproductive toxicity of occupational mercury. A review of the literature. J. Dent. 27, 249–256.
Reproductive toxicity of occupational mercury. A review of the literature.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaK1M3gvFWrsw%3D%3D&md5=e0104c36287ae9596e1a79a275a47884CAS | 10193101PubMed | open url image1

Scippo, M.-L. (2004). Recombinant human estrogen, androgen and progesterone receptors for detection of potential endocrine disruptors. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 378, 664–669.
Recombinant human estrogen, androgen and progesterone receptors for detection of potential endocrine disruptors.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXhtVartrs%3D&md5=e716cc0c6e646be84418efa819c8d112CAS | 14579009PubMed | open url image1

Sharara, F. I., Seifer, D. B., and Flaws, J. A. (1998). Environmental toxicants and female reproduction. Fertil. Steril. 70, 613–622.
Environmental toxicants and female reproduction.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaK1M%2FhtFWisg%3D%3D&md5=624e5b2e1ef7e0b38e3ac62d7033dd75CAS | 9797086PubMed | open url image1

Sharpe, R. M. (2003). ‘The oestrogen hypothesis’: where do we stand now? Int. J. Androl. 26, 2–15.
‘The oestrogen hypothesis’: where do we stand now?CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXhsFais74%3D&md5=610875e83c0eef0160ca81a28e8f129eCAS | 12534932PubMed | open url image1

Sharpe, R. M. (2006). Pathways of endocrine disruption during male sexual differentiation and masculinisation. Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 20, 91–110.
Pathways of endocrine disruption during male sexual differentiation and masculinisation.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28Xit1Ojs7c%3D&md5=c231382a1d4e939ed9d7ca35ebcd13d3CAS | 16522522PubMed | open url image1

Sharpe, R. M., and Irvine, D. S. (2004). How strong is the evidence of a link between environmental chemicals and adverse effects on human reproductive health? BMJ 328, 447–451.
How strong is the evidence of a link between environmental chemicals and adverse effects on human reproductive health?CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXitlyltr4%3D&md5=95dcda4f628ba038db99ec9d0ce6002eCAS | 14976101PubMed | open url image1

Sharpe, R. M., and Skakkebaek, N. E. (1993). Are estrogens involved in falling sperm counts and disorders of the male reproductive tract? Lancet 341, 1392–1396.
Are estrogens involved in falling sperm counts and disorders of the male reproductive tract?CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaK3s3mvVShuw%3D%3D&md5=4e3c92ad87ff4fa6d35b640acafa5506CAS | 8098802PubMed | open url image1

Shen W., Chen Y., Li C., and Ji Q. (2000). Effect of mercury chloride on the reproductive function and visceral organ of female mouse. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 29, 75–77. [In Chinese] 12725078

Shultz, V. D., Phillips, S., Sar, M., Foster, P. M., and Gaido, K. W. (2001). Altered gene profiles in fetal rat testes after in utero exposure to di(n-butyl) phthalate. Toxicol. Sci. 64, 233–242.
Altered gene profiles in fetal rat testes after in utero exposure to di(n-butyl) phthalate.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXptValtbo%3D&md5=6680271201f57b3d5ecbd1042de8fe13CAS | 11719706PubMed | open url image1

Silbergeld, E. K. (1991). Lead in bone: implications for toxicology during pregnancy and lactation. Environ. Health Perspect. 91, 63–70.
Lead in bone: implications for toxicology during pregnancy and lactation.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaK3M3kvFOmsQ%3D%3D&md5=d66502414802a213ba6d0b926d647697CAS | 2040252PubMed | open url image1

Simko, P. (2002). Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in smoked meat products and smoke flavouring food additives. J. Chromatogr. B Anal. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci. 770, 3–18.
Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in smoked meat products and smoke flavouring food additives.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XisFWhu7c%3D&md5=562cc13ed3e99352c4ff00022a4d5487CAS | open url image1

Simoncini, T., and Genazzani, A. R. (2003). Non-genomic actions of sex steroid hormones. Eur. J. Endocrinol. 148, 281–292.
Non-genomic actions of sex steroid hormones.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXis1amt7g%3D&md5=0488dcc3a2719a6bd3796bc63e3d9b29CAS | 12611608PubMed | open url image1

Sinawat, S. (2000). The environmental impact on male fertility. J. Med. Assoc. Thai. 83, 880–885..
| 1:STN:280:DC%2BD3cvkslGgtw%3D%3D&md5=2dc4bf71e40507b457d6ee1d88dab6d6CAS | 10998841PubMed | open url image1

Singer, P. L. (1949). Occupational oligospermia. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 140, 1249. open url image1

Siu, E. R., Mruk, D. D., Porto, C. S., and Cheng, C. Y. (2009). Cadmium-induced testicular injury. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 238, 240–249.
Cadmium-induced testicular injury.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXosVaqsrc%3D&md5=33e8ede941d1c6fb69a19e95c1c278ccCAS | 19236889PubMed | open url image1

Skakkebæk, N. E. (2002). Endocrine disrupters and testicular dysgenesis syndrome. Horm. Res. 57, 43.
Endocrine disrupters and testicular dysgenesis syndrome.CrossRef | open url image1

Skakkebæk, N. E., Rajpert-De Meyts, E., and Main, K. M. (2001). Testicular dysgenesis syndrome: an increasingly common developmental disorder with environmental aspects. Hum. Reprod. 16, 972–978.
Testicular dysgenesis syndrome: an increasingly common developmental disorder with environmental aspects.CrossRef | 11331648PubMed | open url image1

Smith, A. H., Hopenhayn-Rich, C., Bates, M. N., Goeden, H. M., Hertz-Picciotto, I., Duggan, H. M., Wood, R., Kosnett, M. J., and Smith, M. T. (1992). Cancer risks from arsenic in drinking water. Environ. Health Perspect. 97, 259–267.
Cancer risks from arsenic in drinking water.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK38Xls1Gktb8%3D&md5=a0d4cdc59da1b4712025f2c11d3b10e2CAS | 1396465PubMed | open url image1

Snyder, S. A., Westerhoff, P., Yoon, Y., and Sedlak, D. L. (2003). Pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and endocrine disruptors in water: Implications for the water industry. Environ. Eng. Sci. 20, 449–469..
| 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXntV2msr8%3D&md5=29486929367367f41b70233889209f15CAS | open url image1

Soares, A., Guieysse, B., Jefferson, B., Cartmell, E., and Lester, J.-N. (2008). Nonylphenol in the environment: a critical review on occurrence, fate, toxicity and treatment in wastewaters. Environ. Int. 34, 1033–1049.
Nonylphenol in the environment: a critical review on occurrence, fate, toxicity and treatment in wastewaters.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXhtV2qt7rK&md5=a076b7190099d0ce999bcc3dbcbcf419CAS | 18282600PubMed | open url image1

Soto, A. M., Justicia, H., Wray, J. W., and Sonnenschein, C. (1991). p-Nonylphenol: an estrogenic xenobiotic released from ‘modified’ polystrene. Environ. Health Perspect. 92, 167–173.
p-Nonylphenol: an estrogenic xenobiotic released from ‘modified’ polystrene.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK3MXmt1Gltrs%3D&md5=2e62fcdbe89f1438e78ccfcaf425c8ceCAS | 1935846PubMed | open url image1

Soto, A. M., Chung, K. L., and Sonnenschein, C. (1994). The pesticides endosulfan, toxaphene, and dieldrin have estrogenic effects on human estrogen sensitive cells. Environ. Health Perspect. 102, 380–383.
The pesticides endosulfan, toxaphene, and dieldrin have estrogenic effects on human estrogen sensitive cells.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK2cXkslGksLc%3D&md5=01969397cad2cf22d2af3b16cb703cadCAS | 7925178PubMed | open url image1

Soto, A. M., Sonnenschein, C., Chung, K. L., Fernandez, M. F., Olea, N., and Olea-Serrano, M. F. (1995). The E-SCREEN assay as a tool to identify estrogens: an update on estrogenic environmental pollutants. Environ. Health Perspect. 103, 113–122.
The E-SCREEN assay as a tool to identify estrogens: an update on estrogenic environmental pollutants.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK28XlvFeitQ%3D%3D&md5=41bc25ead4c7bf28e4bca88592b93068CAS | open url image1

Staples, C. A., Dorn, P. B., Klečka, G. M., O’Block, S. T., and Harris, L. R. (1998). A review of the environmental fate, effects, and exposures of bisphenol A. Chemosphere 36, 2149–2173.
A review of the environmental fate, effects, and exposures of bisphenol A.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK1cXitFaksLg%3D&md5=446ea366968238f6bbda8c8fe7229189CAS | 9566294PubMed | open url image1

Stillman, R. J. (1982). In utero exposure to diethylstilbestrol: adverse effects on the reproductive tract and reproductive performance and male and female offspring. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 142, 905–921..
| 1:STN:280:DyaL387lsleltw%3D%3D&md5=d0ab37660a6ceb2469e1f962b45aa165CAS | 6121486PubMed | open url image1

Storrs, S. I., and Kiesecker, J. M. (2004). Survivorship patterns of larval amphibians exposed to low concentrations of atrazine. Environ. Health Perspect. 112, 1054–1057.
Survivorship patterns of larval amphibians exposed to low concentrations of atrazine.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXps1agsLc%3D&md5=61c39b381de4cd16e3478385ae783260CAS | 15238276PubMed | open url image1

Sultan, C., Balaguer, P., Terouanne, B., Georget, V., Paris, F., Jeandel, C., Lumbroso, S., and Nicolas, J. C. (2001). Environmental xenoestrogens, antiandrogens and disorders of male sexual differentiation. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 178, 99–105.
Environmental xenoestrogens, antiandrogens and disorders of male sexual differentiation.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXktlWntLg%3D&md5=d08c0a1a0c6096637b0fba6f4a46bfbdCAS | 11403899PubMed | open url image1

Swan, S. H., Elkin, E. P., and Fenster, L. (2000). The question of declining sperm density revisited: an analysis of 101 studies published 1934–1996. Environ. Health Perspect. 108, 961–966.
The question of declining sperm density revisited: an analysis of 101 studies published 1934–1996.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD3M%2FlvV2ntg%3D%3D&md5=b840ae13546b09b654b51ea12e371a13CAS | 11049816PubMed | open url image1

Tang, H. W., Huel, G., Campagna, D., Hellier, G., Boissinot, C., and Blot, P. (1999). Neurodevelopmental evaluation of 9-month-old infants exposed to low levels of lead in utero: involvement of monoamine neurotransmitters. J. Appl. Toxicol. 19, 167–172.
Neurodevelopmental evaluation of 9-month-old infants exposed to low levels of lead in utero: involvement of monoamine neurotransmitters.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXjtlantro%3D&md5=31653936f9185296b9e6231dc261025bCAS | 10362267PubMed | open url image1

Tao, S., Cui, Y. H., Xu, F. L., Li, B. G., Cao, J., Liu, W. X., Schmitt, G., Wang, X. J., Shen, W. R., Qing, B. P., and Sun, R. (2004). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in agricultural soil and vegetables from Tianjin. Sci. Total Environ. 320, 11–24.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in agricultural soil and vegetables from Tianjin.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXhsV2mu70%3D&md5=da7fea88028cb1861c05653321b9b0a2CAS | 14987923PubMed | open url image1

Tapio, S., and Grosche, B. (2006). Arsenic in the aetiology of cancer. Mutat. Res. 612, 215–246.
Arsenic in the aetiology of cancer.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XltFCqu78%3D&md5=9ff6106e51725c8e71fcfe5b8f4279e4CAS | 16574468PubMed | open url image1

The European Parliament and the Council of the European Union (2000). Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2000 establishing a framework for community action in the field of water policy. Off. J. Eur. Communities 327, 1–73. Available at http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2000:327:0001:0072:EN:PDF

The European Parliament and the Council of the European Union (2008). Directive 2008/105/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2008, on environmental quality standards in the field of water policy, amending and subsequently repealing Council Directives 82/176/EEC, 83/513/EEC, 84/156/EEC, 84/491/EEC, 86/280/EEC and amending Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council. Off. J. Eur. Communities 384, 84–97. Available at http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2008:348:0084:0097:EN:PDF

Theobald H. M., Kimmel G. L., and Peterson R. E. (2003). Developmental and reproductive toxicity of dioxins and related compounds. In ‘Dioxins and Health’, 2nd edn. (Eds A. Schecter and T. A. Gasiewicz.) pp. 329–431. (John Wiley and Sons: Hoboken, NJ.)

Thomas, J. A., and Thomas, M. J. (1984). Biological effects of di-(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate and other phthalic acid esters. Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 13, 283–317.
Biological effects of di-(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate and other phthalic acid esters.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaL2MXhsVSq&md5=0f73fba24971b057f0205be0e6780ebaCAS | 6386344PubMed | open url image1

Thompson, C. J., Ross, S. M., and Gaido, K. W. (2004). Di(n-butyl) phthalate impairs cholesterol transport and steroidogenesis in the fetal rat testis through a rapid and reversible mechanism. Endocrinology 145, 1227–1237.
Di(n-butyl) phthalate impairs cholesterol transport and steroidogenesis in the fetal rat testis through a rapid and reversible mechanism.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXhs1Wisbg%3D&md5=103be3b945b5bb537c17348051ed4e0aCAS | 14617579PubMed | open url image1

Thompson, G., Swain, J., Kay, M., and Forster, C. F. (2001). The treatment of pulp and paper mill effluent: a review. Bioresour. Technol. 77, 275–286.
The treatment of pulp and paper mill effluent: a review.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXis1Ortbc%3D&md5=39a858035bf1bed09291faa4f4c6fc91CAS | 11272013PubMed | open url image1

Tilson, H. A. (1998). Developmental neurotoxicology of endocrine disruptors and pesticides: identification of information gaps and research needs. Environ. Health Perspect. 106, 807–811.
Developmental neurotoxicology of endocrine disruptors and pesticides: identification of information gaps and research needs.CrossRef | open url image1

Tong, S., and McMichael, A. J. (1999). The magnitude, persistence and public health significance of cognitive effects of environmental lead exposure in childhood. J. Environ. Med. 1, 103–110.
The magnitude, persistence and public health significance of cognitive effects of environmental lead exposure in childhood.CrossRef | open url image1

Toppari, J., Larsen, J. C., Christiansen, P., Giwercman, A., Grandjean, P., Guillette, L. J., Jégou, B., Jensen, T. K., Jouannet, P., Keiding, N., Leffers, H., McLachlan, J. A., Meyer, O., Müller, J., Rajpert-de Meyts, E., Scheike, T., Sharpe, R., Sumpter, J., and Skakkebaek, N. E. (1996). Male reproductive health and environmental xenoestrogens. Environ. Health Perspect. 104, 741–803.
Male reproductive health and environmental xenoestrogens.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK28XlsVajsLs%3D&md5=ed9a7da60af67089791d7514dd212a3aCAS | 8880001PubMed | open url image1

Truss, M., and Beato, M. (1993). Steroid hormone receptors: interaction with deoxyribonucleic acid and transcription factors. Endocr. Rev. 14, 459–479..
| 1:CAS:528:DyaK3sXlvFGku7w%3D&md5=1194ef2835b379c9697f91539ff8ff90CAS | 8223341PubMed | open url image1

Tsapakis, M., and Stephanou, E. G. (2005). Occurrence of gaseous and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the urban atmosphere: study of sources and ambient temperature effect on the gas/particle concentration and distribution. Environ. Pollut. 133, 147–156.
Occurrence of gaseous and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the urban atmosphere: study of sources and ambient temperature effect on the gas/particle concentration and distribution.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXmvFylu7g%3D&md5=f50ab7a7769a868055a85d387ffbffa5CAS | 15327865PubMed | open url image1

US Environmental Protection Agency (1984). ‘Health Effect Assessment for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH). EPA 540/1–86–013.’ (Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office: Cincinnati, OH.)

Vasseur, P., and Cossu-Leguille, C. (2006). Linking molecular interactions to consequent effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) upon populations. Chemosphere 62, 1033–1042.
Linking molecular interactions to consequent effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) upon populations.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XhtlCqs7s%3D&md5=e1a4196f1660dae91def8476d6756a6eCAS | 16055165PubMed | open url image1

Vethaak, A. D., Lahr, J., Schrap, S. M., Belfroid, A. C., Rijs, G. B. J., Gerritsen, A., de Boer, J., Bulder, A. S., Grinwis, G. C., Kuiper, R. V., Legler, J., Murk, T. A., Peijnenburg, W., Verhaar, H. J., and de Voogt, P. (2005). An integrated assessment of estrogenic contamination and biological effects in the aquatic environment of The Netherlands. Chemosphere 59, 511–524.
An integrated assessment of estrogenic contamination and biological effects in the aquatic environment of The Netherlands.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXisFGltLg%3D&md5=6da8b0f64ffab06f22bddccf8ce59a9eCAS | 15788174PubMed | open url image1

Vidal, G., and Diez, M. C. (2005). Methanogenic toxicity of wood processing effluents. J. Environ. Manage. 74, 317–325.
Methanogenic toxicity of wood processing effluents.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXktFyhtrc%3D&md5=ff355be23e63e470b63b6961b370209eCAS | 15737456PubMed | open url image1

Vinceti, M., Venturelli, M., Sighinolfi, C., Trerotoli, P., Bonvicini, F., Ferrari, A., Bianchi, G., Serio, G., Bergomi, M., and Vivoli, G. (2007). Case-control study of toenail cadmium and prostate cancer risk in Italy. Sci. Total Environ. 373, 77–81.
Case-control study of toenail cadmium and prostate cancer risk in Italy.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXnsFOksw%3D%3D&md5=8234ec738a981cc7bb0b162670c56c27CAS | 17175009PubMed | open url image1

Waliszewski, S. M., Aguirre, A. A., Infanzón, R. M., and Siliceo, J. (2000). Carry-over of persistent organochlorine pesticides through placenta to fetus. Salud Publica Mex. 42, 384–390.
Carry-over of persistent organochlorine pesticides through placenta to fetus.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD3M%2FntVaitQ%3D%3D&md5=8b2c89c22d56b3df6bdaf304198e2fd8CAS | 11125622PubMed | open url image1

Walter, B. A., Agha, B. J., and Digenis, G. A. (1988). Disposition of [14C]nonoxynol-9 after intravenous or vaginal administration to female Sprague-Dawley rats. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 96, 258–268.
Disposition of [14C]nonoxynol-9 after intravenous or vaginal administration to female Sprague-Dawley rats.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaL1MXltFCitw%3D%3D&md5=61fe42a8445fe01218b64a113b7e783bCAS | 2848334PubMed | open url image1

Watanabe, C., Inaoka, T., Matsui, T., Ishigaki, K., Murayama, N., and Ohtsuka, R. (2003). Effects of arsenic on younger generations. J. Environ. Sci. Health A Tox. Hazard. Subst. Environ. Eng. 38, 129–139.
Effects of arsenic on younger generations.CrossRef | 12635823PubMed | open url image1

Weltje, L., vom Saal, F. S., and Oehlmann, J. (2005). Reproductive stimulation by low doses of xenoestrogens contrasts with the view of hormesis as an adaptive response. Hum. Exp. Toxicol. 24, 431–437.
Reproductive stimulation by low doses of xenoestrogens contrasts with the view of hormesis as an adaptive response.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXhtFyitLbL&md5=52cba443bf6daca5a2738e2f3c28ee18CAS | 16235731PubMed | open url image1

White, R., Jobling, S., Hoare, S. A., Sumpter, J. P., and Parker, M. G. (1994). Environmentally persistent alkylphenolic compounds are estrogenic. Endocrinology 135, 175–182.
Environmentally persistent alkylphenolic compounds are estrogenic.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK2cXkslGlsL8%3D&md5=bd257f7c11c2c07d3d2dc40e1a3d4fc4CAS | 8013351PubMed | open url image1

Will, I. B. S., Moraes, J. E. F., Teixeira, A. C. S. C., Guardani, R., and Nascimento, C. A. O. (2004). Photo-Fenton degradation of wastewater containing organic compounds in solar reactor. Separ. Purif. Tech. 34, 51–57.
Photo-Fenton degradation of wastewater containing organic compounds in solar reactor.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXislagtA%3D%3D&md5=920af295662b7bd611acee439680b022CAS | open url image1

Wintgens, T., Gallenkemper, M., and Melin, T. (2002). Endocrine disrupter removal from wastewater using membrane bioreactor and nanofiltration technology. Desalination 146, 387–391.
Endocrine disrupter removal from wastewater using membrane bioreactor and nanofiltration technology.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XnsFyju7o%3D&md5=38d6f98090309f2ebf71d70972090c47CAS | open url image1

World Health Organization (WHO) (1991). ‘Environmental Health Criteria 118: Inorganic Mercury.’ (WHO: Geneva.)

Xu, C., Johnson, J. E., Singh, P. K., Jones, M. M., Yan, H., and Carter, C. E. (1996). In vivo studies of cadmium-induced apoptosis in testicular tissue of the rat and its modulation by a chelating agent. Toxicology 107, 1–8.
In vivo studies of cadmium-induced apoptosis in testicular tissue of the rat and its modulation by a chelating agent.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK28XnslemtA%3D%3D&md5=575c8898c945c4f15810bc8499086cd2CAS | 8597027PubMed | open url image1

Xu, X. R., Li, S. X., Li, X. Y., Gu, J. D., Chen, F., Li, X. Z., and Li, H. B. (2009). Degradation of n-butyl benzyl phthalate using TiO2/UV. J. Hazard. Mater. 164, 527–532.
Degradation of n-butyl benzyl phthalate using TiO2/UV.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXjsVCksb0%3D&md5=75fff66e75dc4f366472bf257fe2426eCAS | 18818016PubMed | open url image1

Yoon, Y., Westerhoff, P., Yoon, J., and Snyder, S. A. (2004). Removal of 17β estradiol and fluoranthene by nanofiltration and ultrafiltration. J. Environ. Eng. 130, 1460–1467.
Removal of 17β estradiol and fluoranthene by nanofiltration and ultrafiltration.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXhtVSitb%2FE&md5=bf29ed0c4590747d30115ab9912417f9CAS | open url image1

Yoon, Y., Westerhoff, P., Snyder, S. A., and Wert, E. C. (2006). Nanofiltration and ultrafiltration of endocrine disrupting compounds, pharmaceuticals and personal care products. J. Membr. Sci. 270, 88–100.
Nanofiltration and ultrafiltration of endocrine disrupting compounds, pharmaceuticals and personal care products.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XotFOisQ%3D%3D&md5=f20a49fe099e91b30ee8f924e70337fcCAS | open url image1

Yoshida, M. (2002). Placental to fetal transfer of mercury and fetotoxicity. Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 196, 79–88.
Placental to fetal transfer of mercury and fetotoxicity.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XjtlClsL0%3D&md5=cfa3b2be95b98bb562296e0915557c42CAS | 12498319PubMed | open url image1

Zahir, F., Rizwi, S. J., Haq, S. K., and Khan, R. H. (2005). Low dose mercury toxicity and human health. Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 20, 351–360.
Low dose mercury toxicity and human health.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXmvFSit74%3D&md5=c9e287a6b4b3b219aa543eb45cecb4f7CAS | open url image1

Zhao, J., Li, Y., Zhang, C., Zeng, Q., and Zhou, Q. (2008). Sorption and degradation of bisphenol A by aerobic activated sludge. J. Hazard. Mater. 155, 305–311.
Sorption and degradation of bisphenol A by aerobic activated sludge.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXlsFCqsbg%3D&md5=1dd15e36743d054bc24d15eceb6facd5CAS | 18179868PubMed | open url image1



Export Citation