Reproduction, Fertility and Development Reproduction, Fertility and Development Society
Vertebrate reproductive science and technology
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Providing a diet containing only maintenance levels of energy and protein during the latter stages of pregnancy resulted in a prolonged delivery time during parturition in rats

Y. Tanaka A B C and H. Kadokawa A C D
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agricultural Science, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi 753-8515, Japan.

B Present address: Department of Veterinary Physiology, Veterinary Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan.

C These authors contributed equally to this work.

D Corresponding author. Email: hiroya@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp

Reproduction, Fertility and Development 24(2) 317-322 https://doi.org/10.1071/RD11049
Submitted: 17 February 2011  Accepted: 23 June 2011   Published: 11 October 2011

Abstract

In mammals, a prolonged delivery time during parturition is dangerous for both mother and fetus, although the mechanisms that prolong delivery are unclear. To investigate whether nutrition affects delivery time, we administered two feeds containing maintenance (L-feed) or higher (H-feed) levels of energy and protein at different points during the latter half of pregnancy and compared the effects of the various treatments on delivery time in rats. After the rats had been maintained on the L-feed and then copulated on pro-oestrus (Day 0), pregnant females were randomly allocated to one of three groups: (1) the no-improvement group, which was fed L-feed throughout gestation; (2) the early group, which was fed L-feed until Day 11 of gestation and then switched to H-feed; and (3) the late group, which was fed L-feed until Day 16 of gestation and then switched to H-feed. There was no significant difference in the number of pups among the three groups. However, delivery time was significantly longer in the no-improvement group (73.7 ± 5.2 min) than the early (46.9 ± 5.6 min) and late (55.4 ± 5.5 min) groups. Consuming a maintenance diet during the latter half of pregnancy resulted in a prolonged delivery time.

Additional keywords: dystocia, stillbirth.


References

Antonijevic, I. A., Douglas, A. J., Dye, S., Bicknell, R. J., Leng, G., and Russell, J. A. (1995). Oxytocin antagonists delay the initiation of parturition and prolong its active phase in rats. J. Endocrinol. 145, 97–103.
Oxytocin antagonists delay the initiation of parturition and prolong its active phase in rats.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK2MXltVWrtb0%3D&md5=6573426f8c86a0258d4b44cfc4709191CAS | 7798035PubMed |

Arrowsmith, S., Wray, S., and Quenby, S. (2011). Maternal obesity and labour complications following induction of labour in prolonged pregnancy. BJOG 118, 578–588.
Maternal obesity and labour complications following induction of labour in prolonged pregnancy.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BC3M3ls1Cnsg%3D%3D&md5=69d405c3b6a6087e96257c6adb1c248eCAS | 21265999PubMed |

Augustine, R. A., and Grattan, D. R. (2008). Induction of central leptin resistance in hyperphagic pseudopregnant rats by chronic prolactin infusion. Endocrinology 149, 1049–1055.
Induction of central leptin resistance in hyperphagic pseudopregnant rats by chronic prolactin infusion.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXisVaqtrw%3D&md5=c0a1ca3039f0c18d19a20612dffaa5a8CAS | 18063686PubMed |

Bamji, M. S., Murthy, P.V., Williams, L., and Vardhana Rao, M. V. (2008). Maternal nutritional status & practices & perinatal, neonatal mortality in rural Andhra Pradesh, India. Indian J. Med. Res. 127, 44–51.
| 18316852PubMed |

Bell, A. W. (1995). Regulation of organic nutrient metabolism during transition from late pregnancy to early lactation. J. Anim. Sci. 73, 2804–2819.
| 1:CAS:528:DyaK2MXotFajsrw%3D&md5=431b85d4bde5db83e8584b739cc310f4CAS | 8582872PubMed |

Chisari, A. N., Giovambattista, A., Perello, M., and Spinedi, E. (2001). Impact of maternal undernutrition on hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and adipocyte functions in male rat offspring. Endocrine 14, 375–382.
Impact of maternal undernutrition on hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and adipocyte functions in male rat offspring.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXksFCmt70%3D&md5=bda816e6d04173badb5e9288e919ca50CAS | 11444436PubMed |

Cho, S. J., Dlamini, B. J., Klindt, J., Schwabe, C., Jacobson, C. D., and Anderson, L. L. (1998). Antiporcine relaxin (antipRLX540) treatment decreases relaxin plasma concentration and disrupts delivery in late pregnant pigs. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 52, 303–316.
Antiporcine relaxin (antipRLX540) treatment decreases relaxin plasma concentration and disrupts delivery in late pregnant pigs.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK1cXmsVSjur8%3D&md5=c4b4ba17d6fd36923b17b4e05af92e51CAS | 9821504PubMed |

Douglas, A. J., Johnstone, L. E., and Leng, G. (2007). Neuroendocrine mechanisms of change in food intake during pregnancy: a potential role for brain oxytocin. Physiol. Behav. 91, 352–365.
Neuroendocrine mechanisms of change in food intake during pregnancy: a potential role for brain oxytocin.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXnsFKrsrY%3D&md5=ec7c0430d34b71d2a7fbfe679bc78831CAS | 17512024PubMed |

Guico-Lamm, M. L., and Sherwood, O. D. (1988). Monoclonal antibodies specific for rat relaxin: II. Passive immunization with monoclonal antibodies throughout the second half of pregnancy disrupts birth in intact rats. Endocrinology 123, 2479–2485.
Monoclonal antibodies specific for rat relaxin: II. Passive immunization with monoclonal antibodies throughout the second half of pregnancy disrupts birth in intact rats.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaL1cXmtVGis7Y%3D&md5=2f67128708f7e4eb804fa78ac46e3bedCAS | 3168930PubMed |

Hâkansson, M. L., Brown, H., Ghilardi, N., Skoda, R. C., and Meister, B. (1998). Leptin receptor immunoreactivity in chemically defined target neurons of the hypothalamus. J. Neurosci. 18, 559–572.
| 9412531PubMed |

Holness, M. J., Changani, K. K., and Sugden, M. C. (1991). Progressive suppression of muscle glucose utilization during pregnancy. Biochem. J. 280, 549–552.
| 1:CAS:528:DyaK3MXmslKltbo%3D&md5=582831be8b25c743ee92185d5ae2902aCAS | 1747130PubMed |

Honda, K., Narita, K., Murata, T., and Higuchi, T. (2002). Leptin affects the electrical activity of neurones in the hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus. Brain Res. Bull. 57, 721–725.
Leptin affects the electrical activity of neurones in the hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XisFWntb4%3D&md5=120e360cbe82127c0d9c25b42c0a5744CAS | 11927377PubMed |

Kamei, Y., Tsutsumi, O., Yamakawa, A., Oka, Y., Taketani, Y., and Imaki, J. (1999). Maternal epidermal growth factor deficiency causes fetal hypoglycemia and intrauterine growth retardation in mice: possible involvement of placental glucose transporter GLUT3 expression. Endocrinology 140, 4236–4243.
Maternal epidermal growth factor deficiency causes fetal hypoglycemia and intrauterine growth retardation in mice: possible involvement of placental glucose transporter GLUT3 expression.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXlslSru74%3D&md5=4c7d05657a57c4d5f2890ea20ae28495CAS | 10465297PubMed |

Konje, J. C., and Ladipo, O. A. (2000). Nutrition and obstructed labor. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 72, 291S–297S.
| 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXkslOkur4%3D&md5=32ff259ae4b37c971914e89223b6ca63CAS | 10871595PubMed |

Kutlu, S., Aydin, M., Alcin, E., Ozcan, M., Bakos, J., Jezova, D., and Yilmaz, B. (2010). Leptin modulates noradrenaline release in the paraventricular nucleus and plasma oxytocin levels in female rats: a microdialysis study. Brain Res. 1317, 87–91.
Leptin modulates noradrenaline release in the paraventricular nucleus and plasma oxytocin levels in female rats: a microdialysis study.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXhs1yisLo%3D&md5=b222c096946a6e0b31545699e93b8385CAS | 20036647PubMed |

Ladyman, S. R., and Grattan, D. R. (2004). Region-specific reduction in leptin-induced phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) in the rat hypothalamus is associated with leptin resistance during pregnancy. Endocrinology 145, 3704–3711.
Region-specific reduction in leptin-induced phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) in the rat hypothalamus is associated with leptin resistance during pregnancy.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXmtlCqs70%3D&md5=3a32a6c1df78601f2b84698796f7da58CAS | 15142988PubMed |

Leng, G., Mansfield, S., Bicknell, R. J., Brown, D., Chapman, C., Hollingsworth, S., Ingram, C. D., Marsh, M. I., Yates, J. O., and Dyer, R. G. (1987). Stress-induced disruption of parturition in the rat may be mediated by endogenous opioids. J. Endocrinol. 114, 247–252.
Stress-induced disruption of parturition in the rat may be mediated by endogenous opioids.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaL2sXkslWnsrg%3D&md5=207b330b215aebc8b3c822fb75447c96CAS | 3655612PubMed |

Leng, G., Mansfield, S., Bicknell, R. J., Blackburn, R. E., Brown, D., Chapman, C., Dyer, R. G., Hollingsworth, S., Shibuki, K., Yates, J. O., and Way, S. (1988). Endogenous opioid actions and effects of environmental disturbance on parturition and oxytocin secretion in rats. J. Reprod. Fertil. 84, 345–356.
Endogenous opioid actions and effects of environmental disturbance on parturition and oxytocin secretion in rats.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaL1cXlvVertrY%3D&md5=cf347940592cb439a3a943c613f21acfCAS | 3184053PubMed |

Lesage, J., Hahn, D., Leonhardt, M., Blondeau, B., Breant, B., and Dupouy, J. P. (2002). Maternal undernutrition during late gestation-induced intrauterine growth restriction in the rat is associated with impaired placental GLUT3 expression, but does not correlate with endogenous corticosterone levels. J. Endocrinol. 174, 37–43.
Maternal undernutrition during late gestation-induced intrauterine growth restriction in the rat is associated with impaired placental GLUT3 expression, but does not correlate with endogenous corticosterone levels.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XlvFeqtb8%3D&md5=d33cc8576c3a2a4c5384cde8120d6abdCAS | 12098661PubMed |

Micke, G. C., Sullivan, T. M., Rolls, P. J., Hasell, B., Greer, R. M., Norman, S. T., and Perry, V. E. (2010). Dystocia in 3-year-old beef heifers; relationship to maternal nutrient intake during early- and mid-gestation, pelvic area and hormonal indicators of placental function. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 118, 163–170.
Dystocia in 3-year-old beef heifers; relationship to maternal nutrient intake during early- and mid-gestation, pelvic area and hormonal indicators of placental function.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXhtVGltbg%3D&md5=a8d8e3ea3dc4834a7a142e1b8ed11b7eCAS | 19762178PubMed |

Miyake, K., Utsumi, K., and Yuhara, Y. (1975). Studies on the transport of the superovulatory egg in the oviduct and its following development in mature rat. Sci. Rep. Facul. Agric. Okayama Univ 46, 46–51.

Morita, Y. (1993). Fetal and maternal 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) in pregnant rats: part I: alteration of serum 1,5-AG in normal pregnant rats. J. Tokyo Women’s Medic. Univ. 63, 191–195.
| 1:CAS:528:DyaK3sXkt1Ggt7g%3D&md5=b77a8d0041eb2b0191c484b4dbf88074CAS |

Pickard, M. R., Sinha, A. K., Ogilvie, L. M., Leonard, A. J., Edwards, P. R., and Ekins, R. P. (1999). Maternal hypothyroxinemia influences glucose transporter expression in fetal brain and placenta. J. Endocrinol. 163, 385–394.
Maternal hypothyroxinemia influences glucose transporter expression in fetal brain and placenta.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXks1agtA%3D%3D&md5=8a8d8bbddcf6eb73f3be05e9b67674d3CAS | 10588811PubMed |

Ramos, P., and Herrera, E. (1995). Reversion of insulin resistance in the rat during late pregnancy by 72-h glucose infusion. Am. J. Physiol. 269, E858–E863.
| 1:CAS:528:DyaK2MXpslOhsL8%3D&md5=64eeffaf3c16fad0bdbc645c53bedaa2CAS | 7491937PubMed |

Scialli, A. R. (2006). Teratology Public Affairs Committee position paper: maternal obesity and pregnancy. Birth Defects Res. A Clin. Mol. Teratol. 76, 73–77.
Teratology Public Affairs Committee position paper: maternal obesity and pregnancy.CrossRef | 16463272PubMed |

Stanton, C., Lawn, J. E., Rahman, H., Wilczynska-Ketende, K., and Hill, K. (2006). Stillbirth rates: delivering estimates in 190 countries. Lancet 367, 1487–1494.
Stillbirth rates: delivering estimates in 190 countries.CrossRef | 16679161PubMed |

Stephanie, L. R., Vedran, L., and Fleming, A. S. (2005). Maternal behavior. In ‘The Behavior of the Laboratory Rat, a Handbook with Tests’. (Eds I. Q. Whishaw and B. Kolb.) pp. 287–297. (Oxford University Press: New York, NY.)

Takahashi, Y. I., Smith, J. E., Winick, M., and Goodman, D. S. (1975). Vitamin A deficiency and fetal growth and development in the rat. J. Nutr. 105, 1299–1310.
| 1:CAS:528:DyaE28XhsF2msA%3D%3D&md5=f2b55bce4b19b61c4aab958b0611377dCAS | 1159522PubMed |

Yakoob, M. Y., Menezes, E. V., Soomro, T., Haws, R. A., Darmstadt, G. L., and Bhutta, Z. A. (2009). Reducing stillbirths: behavioural and nutritional interventions before and during pregnancy. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 9, S301–S335.
Reducing stillbirths: behavioural and nutritional interventions before and during pregnancy.CrossRef |



Rent Article (via Deepdyve) Export Citation

View Altmetrics