Reproduction, Fertility and Development Reproduction, Fertility and Development Society
Vertebrate reproductive science and technology
Reproduction, Fertility and Development

Reproduction, Fertility and Development

Volume 29 Number 7 2017

A unique approach to managing coyote (Canis latrans) depredation is the development of a one-time deliverable chemical sterilant. We hypothesised that exposure to a high dose of a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist would cause prolonged suppression of the reproductive axis. The results of the present study suggest that a plasma concentration of 100 pg mL–1 deslorelin must be maintained and that elevations beyond this threshold are likely to be unimportant.

RD15538Expressions of lipoprotein receptors and cholesterol efflux regulatory proteins during luteolysis in bovine corpus luteum

Kei Horihata, Shin Yoshioka, Masahiro Sano, Yuki Yamamoto, Koji Kimura, Dariusz J. Skarzynski and Kiyoshi Okuda
pp. 1280-1286

Progesterone, which is essential for pregnancy in mammals, is synthesised from cholesterol in the corpus luteum (CL). We investigated the involvement of cholesterol uptake receptors and efflux transporters in bovine CL regression (luteolysis), and found that the expression of scavenger receptor B1, a cholesterol uptake receptor, decreased during luteolysis. The decline in cholesterol uptake may reduce progesterone production in the CL during luteolysis.

RD16026p21-activated kinase 1 activity is required for histone H3 Ser10 phosphorylation and chromatin condensation in mouse oocyte meiosis

Nana Zhang, Xiuhong Li, Xiaoyun Liu, Yan Cao, Dandan Chen, Xiaoyu Liu, Qian Wang, Juan Du, Jing Weng and Wei Ma
pp. 1287-1296

Histone H3 phosphorylation is essential for chromatin condensation, which is a prerequisite for accurate chromosome separation in mitosis or meiosis. The present study demonstrates that p21-activated kinase 1 (Pak1) activity is required for histone H3 phosphorylation and consequent chromatin condensation in mouse oocytes upon the resumption of meiotic progression.

RD15483Variation among individual bulls in the distribution of acrosomal tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins in epididymal and ejaculated spermatozoa

Miyuki M. Arai, Kenta Minami, Yukari Ogura, Nagisa Otsuka, Shohei Hama, Hiroshi Harayama, Mitsuhiro Sakase and Moriyuki Fukushima
pp. 1297-1305

A valid biomarker for sperm molecular characterisation was found in Japanese black cattle. The distribution of acrosomal tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins largely differs among individual bulls. The grades of acrosomal freezability and results of AI with cryopreserved spermatozoa can be predicted by assessing the distribution of acrosomal tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins in spermatozoa before cryopreservation.

RD15391Iloprost supports early development of in vitro-produced porcine embryos through activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT signalling pathway

Pil-Soo Jeong, Seung-Bin Yoon, Seon-A Choi, Bong-Seok Song, Ji-Su Kim, Bo-Woong Sim, Young-Ho Park, Hae-Jun Yang, Seong-Eun Mun, Young-Hyun Kim, Philyong Kang, Kang-Jin Jeong, Youngjeon Lee, Yeung Bae Jin, Jae-Won Huh, Sang-Rae Lee, Deog-Bon Koo, Young Il Park, Sun-Uk Kim and Kyu-Tae Chang
pp. 1306-1318

Despite evidence of the presence of PGI2 in mammalian oviducts, its role in development of early embryos is largely unknown. We revealed that supplementation of PGI2 analog enhanced early development of IVP porcine embryos through activation of AKT cascade. These results indicate that iloprost can be a useful IVC supplement for production of IVP early porcine embryos with high quality.

RD16145Role of Ca2+ in the IVM of spermatozoa from the sterlet Acipenser ruthenus

Olga Bondarenko, Borys Dzyuba, Marek Rodina and Jacky Cosson
pp. 1319-1328

Spermatozoa maturation is a necessary step for the best success in artificial reproduction. This study focused on the role of calcium ions in the acquisition of testicular sturgeon sperm to be able to swim: our results show that an influx of Ca2+ ions is required for finalisation of this maturation process.

The reproductive tract secretes molecules collectively known as embryokines that regulate embryonic growth and development. In this study we tested four growth factors expressed in the endometrium for actions on the bovine preimplantation embryo. All four molecules affected embryonic development or gene expression and may therefore function in the endometrium as embryokines.

RD15309Maternal food restriction in rats of the F0 generation increases retroperitoneal fat, the number and size of adipocytes and induces periventricular astrogliosis in female F1 and male F2 generations

A. O. Joaquim, C. P. Coelho, P. Dias Motta, L. F. Felício, E. F. Bondan, E. Teodorov, M. F. M. Martins, T. B. Kirsten, L. V. Bonamin and M. M. Bernardi
pp. 1340-1348

Transgenerational food restriction and overweightAdverse environmental factors during gestation, such as under- or overnutrition, may predispose individuals to certain diseases later in life by altering their fetal programming. The present study investigated whether prenatal 40% food restriction was able to induce weight, metabolic and neuroimmune disturbances in the next two generations, even if they were normally fed. We showed a transgenerational transmission effect for overweight over two generations, associated with changes in immune and inflammatory patterns, revealing the severe impact of undernutrition over generations.

This study looked at how off-feed incidents or competition for feed can affect hormonal regulation of luteal function and early pregnancy in pigs. We found no effect of a day’s fasting on LH secretion, but progesterone secretion was reduced and fewer piglets were born at subsequent farrowing. Malnutrition in group-housed sows or in periods of hot weather can potentially reduce ovarian progesterone output and fertility.

Stem cell factor (SCF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) play key roles in ovarian folliculogenesis. Herein we report that SCF promotes cat follicle growth by upregulating c-kit mRNA expression and AKT phosphorylation. EGF suppresses the stimulating effect of SCF, leading to a downregulation of FSH receptor mRNA expression. The ability to grow premature follicles in vitro could become a pivotal tool for preserving fertility in animal disease models and endangered felids.

RD15475High glucose levels affect spermatogenesis: an in vitro approach

Renata S. Tavares, Joana M. D. Portela, Maria I. Sousa, Paula C. Mota, João Ramalho-Santos and Sandra Amaral
pp. 1369-1378

Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been associated with male reproductive impairment but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood owing to the diversity of factors involved in the disease. In this study we focused on the in vitro effects of high glucose levels, the primary recognised signature of DM, on spermatogenesis. We found that while mouse testicular luminal area was decreased, Sertoli cell number was increased. These findings suggest an impairment of Sertoli cell function in high-glucose conditions that may impact spermatogenesis.

RD16098Sex of co-twin affects the in vitro developmental competence of oocytes derived from 6- to 8-week-old lambs

Jennifer M. Kelly, David O. Kleemann, Hayley McGrice, Jose A. Len, Karen L. Kind, Will H. E. J. van Wettere and Simon K. Walker
pp. 1379-1383

The effect of birth type (single, twin, triplet) and co-twin sex on in vitro developmental competence of oocytes from 6 to 8-week old lambs significantly increased blastocyst development rates for lambs born with a female co-twin compared with a male co-twin. This indicates a female co-twin enhancement effect on oocyte development. Selection of lambs for embryo production programs based on co-twin sex is warranted.

RD15404Reproductive competency and mitochondrial variation in aged Syrian hamster oocytes

Fang Li, Frank J. Castora, Wentia Ford, Khalid Alarid, Howard W. Jones and R. James Swanson
pp. 1384-1391

Using a hamster model, we found significant changes in mitochondrial number, structure and function as well as fecundity, ova production and follicular number in aged compared to younger animals. Old hamsters had decreased fertility rates, smaller litters, and decreased numbers of preantral follicles and MII oocytes. In addition, old ova contained large areas of collapsed, non-luminal cytoplasmic lamellae. Finally, old hamster ova contained higher levels of reactive oxygen species, lower mitochondrial membrane potential and decreased mitochondrial numbers, all of which could be contributing to the age-related decline in mammalian fertility rates.

RD16061Putrescine supplementation during in vitro maturation of aged mouse oocytes improves the quality of blastocysts

Dandan Liu, Guolong Mo, Yong Tao, Hongmei Wang and X. Johné Liu
pp. 1392-1400

Poor egg quality underlies reproductive aging in mice and in women. Oocyte maturation is a critical stage in determining the quality of eggs and hence embryonic potential. We demonstrated that putrescine supplementation during in vitro maturation of aged mouse oocytes resulted in healthier embryos. Peri-ovulatory putrescine supplementation may be an effective therapy in reproductive aging.

Mammalian males do not produce equal numbers of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm, but factors influencing the variation are unknown. We show that sperm sex ratios and ejaculate traits vary with mating rate in laboratory mice, and hypothesise that males that mate frequently are usually more attractive, and would be advantaged by producing sons that inherit their attractiveness.

RD15514Role of insulin-like growth factor 1 on cross-bred Bos indicus cattle germinal vesicle oocytes exposed to heat shock

Rafaela S. Lima, Pedro H. B. Risolia, Jéssica Ispada, Mayra E. O. A. Assumpção, José A. Visintin, Cássia Orlandi and Fabíola F. Paula-Lopes
pp. 1405-1414

Germinal vesicle oocytes are susceptible to heat stress. The present study demonstrated that the physiological IGF-I concentration of 12.5 ng/ml was able to revert the deleterious effects of heat shock on bovine GV oocyte cellular function and ability to became a blastocyst. This thermoprotective role of IGF1 warrants further in vivo IGF1 manipulation to improve dairy cow fertility during summer.

RD16086In vitro characterisation of fresh and frozen sex-sorted bull spermatozoa

Shauna A. Holden, Craig Murphy, Juan F. Moreno, Stephen T. Butler, Andrew R. Cromie, Patrick Lonergan and Sean Fair
pp. 1415-1425

The use of sex-sorted fresh spermatozoa has the potential to yield higher pregnancy rates than sex-sorted frozen spermatozoa. This study sought to characterise the in vitro quality of X and Y sex-sorted bull spermatozoa and identified the need for tailored diluents for fresh sex-sorted spermatozoa to avoid head-to-head agglutination. The use of fresh sex-sorted spermatozoa, when managed correctly, has enormous potential in the dairy industry.

RD16022Subfertility in androgen-insensitive female mice is rescued by transgenic FSH

K. A. Walters, M. C. Edwards, M. Jimenez, D. J. Handelsman and C. M. Allan
pp. 1426-1434

Androgens (male steroids) interact with the key regulator of female reproduction, FSH, but the nature of their interaction is not clear. Examination of mutant androgen-insensitive mice with and without the expression of human transgenic FSH (Tg-FSH) revealed that subfertility in androgen-insensitive mice is rescued by the presence of Tg-FSH. These findings demonstrate that androgens and FSH actions interact in a synergistic manner to maintain optimal female fertility.

RD16225Thiols of flagellar proteins are essential for progressive motility in human spermatozoa

María Eugenia Cabrillana, María de los Ángeles Monclus, Tania Estefania Sáez Lancellotti, Paola Vanina Boarelli, Amanda Edith Vincenti, Miguel Matias Fornés, Eduardo Alfredo Sanabria and Miguel Walter Fornés
pp. 1435-1446

This work demonstrates that it is necessary for progressive sperm motility that flagellar proteins, like ODF1, maintain reduced cysteines after epididymal transit. To determine how oxidative changes in flagellar proteins affect sperm motility, a sulfhydryl blocker was used; sperm progressive motility was abolished without affecting the level of ATP. Incomplete oxidation in flagellar proteins of asthenozoospermic samples was also observed. Inadequate maturation or an unbalanced thiol status leads to non-progressive motility.

RD16104GRIM-19, a gene associated with retinoid-interferon-induced mortality, affects endometrial receptivity and embryo implantation

Yang Yang, Yanyan Sun, Laiyang Cheng, Anna Li, Yanjun Shen, Ligang Jiang, Xiaohui Deng and Lan Chao
pp. 1447-1455

We present a new hypothesis of the molecular mechanisms responsible for implantation, which could provide an important basis for further understanding of embryo implantation. Our study shows that spontaneous elimination of GRIM-19 is required for endometrial receptivity and the embryo implantation process. Our results demonstrate the involvement of GRIM-19 in the embryo implantation process by regulating adhesion, apoptosis and immune tolerance.

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