Differences between African-American adolescent females with and without human papillomavirus infectionPuja Seth* A B G * , Gina M. Wingood A B , Ralph J. DiClemente A B C D , Richard A. Crosby E F , Laura F. Salazar A B , Eve S. Rose A and Jessica M. Sales A B
A Department of Behavioral Sciences and Health Education, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, 1518 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.
B Center for AIDS Research, Prevention Science Core, Emory University, 1518 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.
C Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases, Epidemiology, and Immunology, 2015 Uppergate Drive, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.
D Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Medicine (Infectious Diseases), 1440 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.
E College of Public Health, University of Kentucky, 121 Washington Avenue, Lexington, KY 40536-0003, USA.
F Rural Center for AIDS and STD Prevention, Indiana University, 801 East 7th Street, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA.
G Corresponding author. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Sexual Health 8(1) 125-127 http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/SH10107
Submitted: 31 August 2010 Accepted: 23 September 2010 Published: 24 January 2011
Background: An important policy question is whether high-risk populations can be identified and prioritised for human papillomavirus (HPV) immunisation. Methods: Data collection included an audio computer-assisted survey interview and testing of Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and HPV among 295 African-American adolescent females. Results: The results indicated that 43.1% tested positive for HPV. Logistic regression analyses indicated that HPV prevalence was not associated with other sexually transmissible infections (prevalence ratio (PR) = 0.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.51–1.41), unprotected vaginal sex (PR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.56–1.92), having sex with an older male partner (PR = 1.12, 95% CI = 0.64–1.96), and having a casual partner (PR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.54–1.48). Additionally, t-tests indicated that HPV prevalence was not associated with frequency of vaginal sex (t = 0.17, P = 0.87), protected sex (t = –0.16, P = 0.87), number of recent (t = 0.40, P = 0.69) or lifetime (t = 1.45, P = 0.15) sexual partners. However, those testing positive for HPV were younger (t = 1.97, P = 0.05) and reported current use of birth control pills (PR = 2.38, 95% CI = 1.00–5.63). Conclusions: It may not be possible to identify those with elevated risk of HPV acquisition. Thus, HPV vaccination, regardless of risk indicators, may be the most efficacious public health strategy.
Additional keywords: African-American, adolescents, human papillomavirus.
References Barr E, Tamms G. Quadrivalent human papillomavirus infection. Clin Infect Dis 2007; 45 609–17.
| Quadrivalent human papillomavirus infection.CrossRef | 17682997PubMed |
 Markowitz LE, Dunne EF, Saraiya M, Lawson HW, Chesson H, Unger ER. Quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep 2007; 56 1–24.
| 17380109PubMed |
 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV/AIDS in the United States 2006. Atlanta: CDC; 2010. Available online at: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/resources/factsheets/us.htm [accessed February 2010].
 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Subpopulation estimates from the HIV Incidence Surveillance System – United States, 2006. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2008; 57 985–9.
| 18784639PubMed |
 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC HIV/AIDS fact sheet: HIV/AIDS among women. Revised August 2008. Atlanta: CDC; 2008. Available online at: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/women/resources/factsheets/women.htm [verified September 2010].
 Seth P, Wingood GM, Robinson LS, DiClemente RJ. Exposure to high-risk genital human papillomavirus and its association with risky sexual practices and laboratory-confirmed Chlamydia among African-American women. Womens Health Issues 2009; 19 344–51.
| Exposure to high-risk genital human papillomavirus and its association with risky sexual practices and laboratory-confirmed Chlamydia among African-American women.CrossRef | 19679492PubMed |
 Manhart LE, Holmes KK, Koutsky LA, Wood TR, Kenney DL, Feng Q, et al Human papillomavirus infection among sexually active young women in the United States: Implications for developing a vaccination strategy. Sex Transm Dis 2006; 33 502–8.
| Human papillomavirus infection among sexually active young women in the United States: Implications for developing a vaccination strategy.CrossRef | 16572039PubMed |
 Wingood GM, Seth P, DiClemente RJ, Robinson LS. Association of sexual abuse with incident high-risk human papillomavirus infection among young African-American women. Sex Transm Dis 2009; 36 784–6.
| Association of sexual abuse with incident high-risk human papillomavirus infection among young African-American women.CrossRef | 19704392PubMed |
 Dunne EF, Unger ER, Sternberg M, McQuillan G, Swan DC, Patel SS, et al Prevalence of HPV infection among females in the United States. JAMA 2007; 297 813–9.
| Prevalence of HPV infection among females in the United States.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXisVShtLc%3D&md5=29dfe6d11788f40828a324fd76b22929CAS | 17327523PubMed |
 Burk RD, Kelly P, Feldman J, Bromberg J, Vermund SH, DeHovitz JA, et al Declining prevalence of cervicovaginal human papillomavirus infection with age is independent of other risk factors. Sex Transm Dis 1996; 23 333–41.
| Declining prevalence of cervicovaginal human papillomavirus infection with age is independent of other risk factors.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaK28vjt12quw%3D%3D&md5=6124ef692374197710d78d691d76869fCAS | 8836027PubMed |