Screening and management of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in HIV-positive patients attending an Australian urban sexual health clinicSheena Kakar A , Douglas Drak B , Tahiya Amin C , Jason Cheung D , Catherine O’Connor A E F and David Gracey D F G
A RPA Sexual Health Clinic, Community Health, Sydney Local Health District, Sydney, NSW 2050, Australia.
B Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.
C Faculty of Medicine, UNSW, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia.
D Renal Unit, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney Local Health District, Sydney, NSW 2050, Australia.
E Kirby Institute, UNSW, NSW 2052, Australia.
F Central Clinical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.
G Corresponding author. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Sexual Health - http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/SH16106
Submitted: 2 June 2016 Accepted: 27 September 2016 Published online: 11 November 2016
Background: Few data exist regarding cardiovascular risk among HIV-infected patients attending sexual health clinics (SHC) in Australia. Methods: The medical records of 188 patients attending an inner-city SHC between August 2013 and July 2014 were retrospectively reviewed for cardiovascular risk factors and associated screening and management practices. Results: Cardiovascular risk factors were common among attendees of the SHC, including smoking (38%), hypertension (14%) and dyslipidaemia (11%). Of the 188 patients, 23% reported using potentially cardiotoxic recreational drugs, 25% of dyslipidaemic patients were not on therapy and 10% of patients were hypertensive; none were prescribed treatment. A smoking cessation program was offered to all patients. Conclusion: A high prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease was demonstrated. Modification of risk factors could be improved.
References Chan D, Gracey D, Bailey M, Richards D, Dalton B. Screening and management of cardiovascular disease in Australian adults with HIV infection. Sex Health 2013; 10 495–501.
| Screening and management of cardiovascular disease in Australian adults with HIV infection.CrossRef |
 Grierson JPM, Koelmeyer R. HIV futures seven: the health and wellbeing of HIV positive people in Australia. Melbourne: The Australian Research Centre in Sex, Health and Society, LaTrobe University; 2013.
 The Kirby Institute. Australian HIV observational database annual report 2015. Sydney: The Kirby Institute, University of New South Wales; 2015.
 National Vascular Disease Prevention Alliance (NVDPA). Guidelines for the management of absolute cardiovascular disease risk. NVDAP; 2012.
 National Heart Foundation of Australia and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand. Reducing risk in heart disease: an expert guide to clinical practice for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. Melbourne: National Heart Foundation of Australia; 2012.
 Friis-Moller N, Sabin CA, Weber R, d’Arminio Monforte A, El-Sadr WM, Reiss P, et al Combination antiretroviral therapy and the risk of myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 2003; 349 1993–2003.
| Combination antiretroviral therapy and the risk of myocardial infarction.CrossRef |
 Rotger M, Glass TR, Junier T, Lundgren J, Neaton JD, Poloni ES, et al Contribution of genetic background, traditional risk factors, and HIV-related factors to coronary artery disease events in HIV-positive persons. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2013; 57 112–21.
| 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3sXptFelt70%3D&md5=b5818e6c5db591ae8e9ac49d56c21ec8CAS |
 Kaye S, McKetin R, Duflou J, Darke S. Methamphetamine and cardiovascular pathology: a review of the evidence. Addiction 2007; 102 1204–11.
| Methamphetamine and cardiovascular pathology: a review of the evidence.CrossRef |
 Schwartz BG, Rezkalla S, Kloner RA. Cardiovascular effects of cocaine. Circulation 2010; 122 2558–69.
| Cardiovascular effects of cocaine.CrossRef |
 Thylstrup B, Clausen T, Hesse M. Cardiovascular disease among people with drug use disorders. Int J Public Health 2015; 60 659–68.
| Cardiovascular disease among people with drug use disorders.CrossRef |
 D’Agostino RB, Vasan RS, Pencina MJ, Wolf PA, Cobain M, Massaro JM, Kannel WB. General cardiovascular risk profile for use in primary care: the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation 2008; 117 743–53.
| General cardiovascular risk profile for use in primary care: the Framingham Heart Study.CrossRef |