The response of partially oxidised acid sulfate soil materials to anoxiaNicholas J. Ward A B , Leigh A. Sullivan A and Richard T. Bush A
A Centre for Acid Sulfate Soil Research, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW 2480, Australia.
B Corresponding author; email: email@example.com
Australian Journal of Soil Research 42(6) 515-525 https://doi.org/10.1071/SR03111
Submitted: 11 July 2003 Accepted: 3 May 2004 Published: 17 September 2004
Four acid sulfate soil (ASS) materials were subjected to anoxia after varying periods of oxidation to determine the geochemical response of these types of soils to flooding. The response of the partially oxidised ASS materials to the exclusion of oxygen was variable. The rate of sulfide oxidation, acidification, and the production of soluble oxidation products such as sulfate, iron, and aluminium generally decreased markedly when subjected to anoxia. However, especially in the highly acidic ASS materials (i.e. pH <3.5), sulfide oxidation and acidification generally continued (albeit at much slower rates), most probably due to oxidation by Fe3+. Rapid sulfide re-formation occurred in the peat ASS material that had been oxidised for 63 days, with 0.47% reduced inorganic sulfur (SCR) formed over 60 days of anoxia. This substantial sulfide re-formation was accompanied by only a slight increase in pH. Minimal sulfide re-formation occurred in 2 of the ASS materials when placed in anoxic conditions, most likely due to a lack of readily available organic matter in these materials. The results show that the imposition of anoxic conditions on partially oxidised ASS materials is generally effective in decreasing the rates of further sulfide oxidation, acidification, and the production of soluble sulfide oxidation products. Biogeochemical sulfide formation consumes acidity; however, sulfide re-formation was ineffective in reversing acidification under the conditions of this experiment. The results indicate that the treatment of sites containing actual ASS materials by management strategies relying on oxygen exclusion need to be accompanied by other strategies that include acidty neutralisation or containment.
Additional keywords: soil acidification, pyrite oxidation, pyrite re-formation, chromium reducible sulfur, reduction, soil incubation.
This research was undertaken as part of Project 1.4 ‘Coastal soil processes and their management for sustainable tourism development’ funded by the Cooperative Research Centre (CRC) for Sustainable Tourism.
Ahern, CR , Stone, Y , and Blunden, B (1998).
Bass Becking LGM, Kaplan IR, Moore D (1960) Limits of the natural environment in terms of pH and oxidation-reduction potentials. Journal of Geology 68, 243–284.
Berner RA (1984) Sedimentary pyrite formation: an update. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 48, 605–615.
| CrossRef |
van Breemen N (1973) Soil forming processes in acid sulphate soils. ‘Proceedings of the International Symposium on Acid Sulphate Soils’. 13–20 August 1972, Wageningen, The Netherlands. ILRI Publication No. 18/1. (Ed. H Dost ) pp. 66–129. (International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement: Wageningen, The Netherlands)
van Breemen N (1976) Genesis and solution chemistry of acid sulfate soils in Thailand. Agricultural Research Reports 848, PUDOC, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
van Breemen N (1988) Redox processes of iron and sulfur involved in the formation of acid sulfate soils. ‘Iron in soils and clay minerals’. (Eds JW Stucki, BA Goodman, U Schwertmann) pp. 825–841. (D. Reidel Publishing Co.: Dordrecht, The Netherlands)
van Breemen N (1993) Environmental aspects of acid sulphate soils. ‘Selected papers of the Ho Chi Minh City Symposium on Acid Sulphate Soils’. ILRI Publication No. 53. (Ed. DL Dent , MEF van Mensvoort ) pp. 391–402. (International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement: Wageningen, The Netherlands)
van Breemen N, Pons LJ (1978) Acid sulfate soils and rice. ‘Soils and rice’. pp. 739–761. (International Rice Research Institute: Los Banos, Philippines)
Bronswijk JJB, Nugroho K, Aribawa IB, Groenenberg JE, Ritsema CJ (1993) Modelling of oxygen transport and pyrite oxidation in acid sulphate soils. Journal of Environmental Quality 22, 544–554.
Bush RT (2000) Iron sulfide micromorphology and mineralogy in acid sulfate soils: their formation and behaviour. PhD thesis, University of NSW, Sydney.
Bush RT, Sullivan LA (1997) Morphology and behaviour of greigite from a Holocene sediment in eastern Australia. Australian Journal of Soil Research 35, 853–861.
| CrossRef |
Bush RT, Sullivan LA (1999) Pyrite micromorphology in three Australian Holocene sediments. Australian Journal of Soil Research 37, 637–653.
Bush RT, Sullivan LA, Lin C (2000a) Iron monosulfide distribution in three coastal floodplain acid sulfate soils, eastern Australia. Pedosphere 10, 237–245.
Bush RT, Sullivan LA, Prince K, White I (2000) Contemporary pyrite formation at the oxidation front in a coastal acid sulfate soil. ‘Soil 2000: New horizons for a new century. Australian and New Zealand Second Joint Soils Conference’. Lincoln University. Vol. 2, Oral Papers. (Ed. JA Adams , AK Metherell ) pp. 41–42. (New Zealand Society of Soil Science: New Zealand)
Connell WE, Patrick WH (1968) Sulphate reduction in soil: effect of redox potential and pH. Science 159, 86–87.
| PubMed |
Dent, D (1986).
Evangelou, VP (1995).
Fanning DS, Rabenhorst MC, Burch SN, Islam KR, Tangren SA (2002) Sulfides and sulfates. ‘Soil mineralogy with environmental applications’. SSSA Book Series No. 7., pp. 229–260. (Soil Science Society of America: Madison, WI)
Giblin AE (1988) Pyrite formation in marshes during early diagenesis. Geomicrobiology Journal 6, 77–97.
Howarth RW (1979) Pyrite: its rapid formation in a salt marsh and its importance in ecosystem metabolism. Science 203, 49–51.
Isbell, RF (1996).
Ivarson KC, Ross GJ, Miles NM (1982) Microbiological transformations of iron and sulfur and their application to acid sulfate soils and tidal marshes. ‘Acid sulfate weathering’. SSSA Special Publication No. 10,(Eds JA Kittrick, DS Fanning, LR Hossner) pp. 57–75. (Soil Science Society of America: Madison, WI)
Konsten CJM, van Breemen N, Suping S, Aribawa IB, Groenenberg JE (1994) Effects of flooding on pH of rice-producing, acid sulfate soils in Indonesia. Soil Science Society of America Journal 58, 871–883.
Magdoff FR, Bartlett JR (1985) Soil pH buffering revisited. Soil Science Society of America Journal 49, 145–148.
Moses CO, Herman JS (1991) Pyrite oxidation at circumneutral pH. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 55, 471–482.
| CrossRef |
Moses CO, Nordstrom DK, Hermann JS, Mills AL (1987) Aqueous pyrite oxidation by dissolved oxygen and by ferric iron. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 51, 1561–1571.
| CrossRef |
Nhung MM, Ponnamperuma FN (1966) Effects of calcium carbonate, manganese dioxide, ferric hydroxide and prolonged flooding on chemical and electrochemical changes and growth of rice in a flooded acid sulfate soil. Soil Science 102, 29–41.
Nordstrom DK (1982) Aqueous pyrite oxidation and the consequent formation of secondary iron minerals. ‘Acid sulfate weathering’. SSSA Special Publication No. 10,(Eds JA Kittrick, DS Fanning, LR Hossner) pp. 37–56. (Soil Science Society of America: Madison, WI)
van Oploo P, White I, Melville MD, Ford PW (1998) Use of peepers to sample pore waters in acid sulfate soils. ‘ASSSI National Soils Conference Proceedings—Environmental Benefits of Soil Management’. (Ed. P Mulvey ) pp. 7–16. (Australian Soil Science Society Inc.: Sydney)
Ponnamperuma FN (1972) The chemistry of submerged soils. Advances in Agronomy 24, 29–96.
Ponnamperuma FN, Attanandana T, Beye G (1973) Amelioration of three acid sulphate soils for lowland rice. ‘Proceedings of the International Symposium on Acid Sulphate Soils’. 13–20 August 1972, Wageningen, The Netherlands. ILRI Publication No. 18/2. (Ed. H Dost ) pp. 391–405. (International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement: Wageningen, The Netherlands)
Pons LJ, Van Breemen N, Driessen PM (1982) Physiography of coastal sediments and development of potential soil acidity. ‘Acid sulfate weathering’. SSSA Special Publication No. 10,(Eds JA Kittrick, DS Fanning, LR Hossner) pp. 1–18. (Soil Science Society of America: Madison, WI)
Rabenhorst MC, James BR (1992) Iron sulfidization in tidal marsh soils. ‘Biomineralization processes of iron and manganese—modern and ancient environments’. No. 21,(Eds HCW Skinner, RW Fitzpatrick) pp. 203–217. (Catena Verlag: Cremlingen-Destedt, Germany)
Rayment, GE , and Higginson, FR (1992).
Rickard D, Luther GW (1997) Kinetics of pyrite formation by the H2S oxidation of iron (II) monosulfide in aqueous solutions between 25 and 125°C: the mechanism. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 61, 135–147.
| CrossRef |
Rosicky M, Slavich P, Sullivan L, Hughes M, Wood M (2000) Acid sulfate scalds on the NSW coast: characterisation and potential vegetation techniques. ‘Proceedings of Workshop on Remediation and Assessment of Broadacre Acid Sulfate Soils’. 31 August–2 September 1999. (Ed. P Slavich ) pp. 111–121. (Acid Sulfate Soil Management Advisory Committee, Southern Cross University: NSW)
Rosicky MA, Sullivan LA, Slavich PG (2002) Pyrite concentration and surface reformation in and around acid sulfate soil scalds on the NSW coast. ‘Proceedings of the 5th International Acid Sulfate Soils Conference. Sustainable management of acid sulfate soils’. Tweed Heads, NSW. Conference Abstracts, Oral Papers. (Ed. BCT Macdonald , AF Keene , G Carlin , LA Sullivan ) pp. 30–31. (Tweed Shire Council: Murwillumbah, NSW)
Soil Survey Staff (1999).
Soil Survey Staff (2003).
Sullivan LA, Bush RT (1997) Quantitative elemental microanalysis of rough-surfaced soil specimens in the scanning electron microscope using a peak-to-background method. Soil Science 162, 749–757.
| CrossRef |
Sullivan LA, Bush RT, McConchie DM (2000) A modified chromium-reducible sulfur method for reduced inorganic sulfur: optimum reaction time for acid sulfate soil. Australian Journal of Soil Research 38, 729–734.
Tuong TP (1993) An overview of water management of acid sulphate soils. ‘Selected papers of the Ho Chi Minh City Symposium on Acid Sulphate Soils’. ILRI Publication No. 53. (Ed. DL Dent , MEF van Mensvoort ) pp. 265–279. (International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement: Wageningen, The Netherlands)
Wang Q, Morse JW (1995) Laboratory simulation of pyrite formation in anoxic sediments. ‘Geochemical transformations of sedimentary sulfur’. (Eds MA Vairavamurthy, MAA Schoonen) pp. 206–223. (American Chemical Society: Washington, DC)
Ward NJ, Sullivan LA, Bush RT (2002a) Sulfide oxidation and acidification of acid sulfate soil materials treated with CaCO3 and seawater-neutralised bauxite refinery residue. Australian Journal of Soil Research 40, 1057–1067.
Ward NJ, Sullivan LA, Bush RT (2004a) Soil pH, oxygen availability and the rate of sulfide oxidation in acid sulfate soil materials: implications for environmental hazard assessment. Australian Journal of Soil Research 42, 509–514.
| CrossRef |
Ward NJ, Sullivan LA, Bush RT, Lin C (2002b) Assessment of peroxide oxidation for acid sulfate soil analysis. 2. Acidity determination. Australian Journal of Soil Research 40, 443–454.
Ward NJ, Sullivan LA, Fyfe DM, Bush RT, Ferguson AJP (2004b) The process of sulfide oxidation in some acid sulfate soil materials. Australian Journal of Soil Research 42, 449–458.
| CrossRef |
White, I , and Melville, MD (1996).
White I, Melville MD, Sammut J, Wilson BP, Bowman GM (1996) Downstream impacts from acid sulfate soils. ‘Downstream effects of land use’. (Eds HM Hunter, AG Eyles, GE Rayment) pp. 165–172. (Department of Natural Resources: Brisbane, Qld)
White I, Melville MD, Wilson BP, Sammut J (1997) Reducing acidic discharges from coastal wetlands in eastern Australia. Wetlands Ecology and Management 5, 55–72.
| CrossRef |
Wilson BP, White I, Melville MD (1999) Floodplain hydrology, acid discharge and change in water quality associated with a drained acid sulfate soil. Marine and Freshwater Research 50, 149–157.