Soil Research Soil Research Society
Soil, land care and environmental research
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Characterisation of the hydroxy-interlayered vermiculite from the weathering of illite in Jiujiang red earth sediments

Ke Yin A E , Hanlie Hong A B , Gordon Jock Churchman C , Zhaohui Li D , Wen Han A and Chaowen Wang A

A Faculty of Earth Sciences, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, Hubei, 430074, China.

B Key Laboratory of Geobiology and Environmental Geology, the Ministry of Education, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, Hubei, 430074, China.

C School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, Waite Campus, The University of Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia.

D Geosciences Department, University of Wisconsin – Parkside, Kenosha, WI 53141-2000, USA.

E Corresponding author. Email: yinke1984@qq.com

Soil Research 52(6) 554-561 http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/SR14014
Submitted: 16 January 2013  Accepted: 8 April 2014   Published: 14 August 2014

Abstract

The clay mineralogy and formation of hydroxy-interlayered vermiculite (HIV) in the Jiujiang red earth sediments were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) analyses. The 1.4-nm peak of HIV did not change after Mg2+ saturation and glycol solvation, but it exhibited partial collapse to 1.0 nm after K+ saturation followed by heat treatment at successively higher temperatures. HIV was also characterised by FTIR adsorption bands at ~3485 cm–1 and ~3415 cm–1, which did not change with increasing temperature. DSC analysis revealed that the dehydroxylation of hydroxides in the interlayer of HIV began at ~400°C, and a further dehydroxylation was confirmed by the XRD of the sample heated to ~600°C. The ICP-AES analysis of sodium citrate extracts showed that the Al concentration was higher than that of Fe, indicating that the Al was probably present as hydroxy-Al in the interlayer of HIV. The presence of hydroxy-Al polymers in the interlayer influenced both expandability and thermal properties of HIV clays from Jiujiang red earth sediments.

Additional keywords: climate, hydroxy-interlayered vermiculite, Jiujiang, mineralogy, red earth sediments.


References

Ahlrichs JL (1968) Hydroxyl stretching frequencies of synthetic Ni-, AI-, and Mg-hydroxy interlayers in expanding clays. Clays and Clay Minerals 16, 63–71.
Hydroxyl stretching frequencies of synthetic Ni-, AI-, and Mg-hydroxy interlayers in expanding clays.CrossRef | open url image1

Aspandiar MF, Eggleton RA (2002) Weathering of chlorite: I. Reactions and products in microsystems controlled by the primary mineral. Clays and Clay Minerals 50, 685–698.
Weathering of chlorite: I. Reactions and products in microsystems controlled by the primary mineral.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XpslCktL0%3D&md5=c8074c50f5ccd01c040c9f49e71200a8CAS | open url image1

Banfield JF, Murakami T (1998) Atomic-resolution transmission electron microscope evidence for the mechanism by which chlorite weathers to 1 : 1 semi-regular chlorite-vermiculite. The American Mineralogist 83, 348–357.

Banfield JF, Barker WW, Welch SA, Taunton A (1999) Biological impact on mineral dissolution: application of the lichen model to understanding mineral weathering in the rhizosphere. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 96, 3404–3411.
Biological impact on mineral dissolution: application of the lichen model to understanding mineral weathering in the rhizosphere.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXjslCisbc%3D&md5=5bac20578a898f8b367d09a979d63e2bCAS | 10097050PubMed | open url image1

Barnhisel RI, Bertsch PM (1989) Chlorites and hydroxyl-interlayered vermiculite and smectite. In ‘Minerals in soil environments’. (Eds JB Dixon, SB Weed) pp. 728–788. (Soil Science Society of America: Madison, WI, USA)

Bertrand S, Charlet F, Charlier B, Renson V, Fagel N (2008) Climate variability of southern Chile since the Last Glacial Maximum: a continuous sedimentological record from Lago Puyehue (40 S). Journal of Paleolimnology 39, 179–195.
Climate variability of southern Chile since the Last Glacial Maximum: a continuous sedimentological record from Lago Puyehue (40 S).CrossRef | open url image1

Bonifacio E, Falsone G, Simonov G, Sokolova T, Tolpeshta I (2009) Pedogenic processes and clay transformations in bisequal soils of the Southern Taiga zone. Geoderma 149, 66–75.
Pedogenic processes and clay transformations in bisequal soils of the Southern Taiga zone.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXhtF2nurg%3D&md5=c85a49d504f8255995a88af60befe26dCAS | open url image1

Brindley GW (1980) Order-disorder in clay mineral structures. In ‘Crystal structures of clay minerals and their X-ray identification’. (Eds GW Brindley, G Brown) pp. 125–196. (Mineralogical Society: London)

Bronger A, Winter R, Sedov S (1998) Weathering and clay mineral formation in two Holocene soils and in buried paleosols in Tadjikistan: towards a Quaternary paleoclimatic record in Central Asia. Catena 34, 19–34.
Weathering and clay mineral formation in two Holocene soils and in buried paleosols in Tadjikistan: towards a Quaternary paleoclimatic record in Central Asia.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXlsFynsg%3D%3D&md5=cb622e295b17ea727fd5579d45808324CAS | open url image1

Brown G, Brindley GW (1980) X-ray diffraction procedures for clay mineral identification. In ‘Crystal structures of clay minerals and their X-ray identification’. (Eds GW Brindley, G Brown) pp. 305–359. (Mineralogical Society: London)

Chen Y, Li X, Han Z, Yang S, Wang Y, Yang D (2008) Chemical weathering intensity and element migration features of the Xiashu loess profile in Zhenjiang, Jiangsu Province. Journal of Geographical Sciences 18, 341–352.
Chemical weathering intensity and element migration features of the Xiashu loess profile in Zhenjiang, Jiangsu Province.CrossRef | open url image1

Chiang HC, Wang MK, Houng KH, White N, Dixon J (1999) Mineralogy of B horizons in alpine forest soils of Taiwan. Soil Science 164, 111–122.
Mineralogy of B horizons in alpine forest soils of Taiwan.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXhtlGns7Y%3D&md5=8f46831ba9a78edddbcea2d84240905fCAS | open url image1

Churchman GJ, Slade PG, Self PG, Janik LJ (1994) Nature of interstratified kaolin-smectites in some Australian soils. Australian Journal of Soil Research 32, 805–822.
Nature of interstratified kaolin-smectites in some Australian soils.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK2cXmtVCit7Y%3D&md5=ad009cc99c7254640598c0f3e6d4f2beCAS | open url image1

Darunsontaya T, Suddhiprakarn A, Kheoruenromne I, Prakongkep N, Gilkes RJ (2012) The forms and availability to plants of soil potassium as related to mineralogy for upland Oxisols and Ultisols from Thailand. Geoderma 170, 11–24.
The forms and availability to plants of soil potassium as related to mineralogy for upland Oxisols and Ultisols from Thailand.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC38Xhsl2hu7k%3D&md5=91809dba53bfea3407ddbd70737c17baCAS | open url image1

Douglas LA (1989) Vermiculites. In ‘Minerals in soil environments’. 2nd edn (Eds JB Dixon, SB Weed) pp. 635–674. (Soil Science Society of America: Madison, WI, USA)

Egli M, Mirabella A, Sartori G, Giaccai D, Zanelli R, Plotze M (2007) Effect of slope aspect on transformation of clay minerals in Alpine soils. Clay Minerals 42, 373–398.
Effect of slope aspect on transformation of clay minerals in Alpine soils.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXhtlSksb%2FI&md5=cd87a53ebb32e4fc273ad046447cc7efCAS | open url image1

Falsone G, Celi L, Caimi A, Simonov G, Bonifacio E (2012) The effect of clear cutting on podzolisation and soil carbon dynamics in boreal forests (Middle Taiga zone, Russia). Geoderma 177–178, 27–38.
The effect of clear cutting on podzolisation and soil carbon dynamics in boreal forests (Middle Taiga zone, Russia).CrossRef | open url image1

Farmer VC (1974) ‘The infrared spectra of minerals.’ (Mineralogical Society: London)

Frouin M, Ploquin F, Soressi M, Rendu W, Macchiarelli R, El Albani A, Meunier A (2013) Clay minerals of late Pleistocene sites (Jonzac and Les Cottés, SW France): applications of X-ray Diffraction analyses to local paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental reconstructions. Quaternary International 302, 184–198.
Clay minerals of late Pleistocene sites (Jonzac and Les Cottés, SW France): applications of X-ray Diffraction analyses to local paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental reconstructions.CrossRef | open url image1

Furquim SAC, Graham RC, Barbiero L, de Queiroz Neto JP, Vallès V (2008) Mineralogy and genesis of smectites in an alkaline-saline environment of Pantanal wetland, Brazil. Clays and Clay Minerals 56, 579–595.
Mineralogy and genesis of smectites in an alkaline-saline environment of Pantanal wetland, Brazil.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXitlGh&md5=94553a7b74b41bf476ab854482b93d61CAS | open url image1

Guggenheim S (2001) Baseline studies of the clay minerals society source clays: thermal analysis. Clays and Clay Minerals 49, 433–443.
Baseline studies of the clay minerals society source clays: thermal analysis.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXotFWhtLw%3D&md5=824ac707115f266f1bda1cfa7eb0629dCAS | open url image1

Hao Q, Guo Z, Qiao Y, Xu B, Oldfield F (2010) Geochemical evidence for the provenance of middle Pleistocene loess deposits in southern China. Quaternary Science Reviews 29, 3317–3326.
Geochemical evidence for the provenance of middle Pleistocene loess deposits in southern China.CrossRef | open url image1

Harris W, White GN (2008) X-ray diffraction techniques for soil mineral identification. In ‘Methods of soil analysis. Part 5. Mineralogical methods’. (Eds AL Ulery, R Drees) (Soil Science Society of America Book Series: Madison, WI, USA)

Harris WG, Morrone AA, Coleman SE (1992a) Occluded mica in hydroxy-interlayered vermiculite grains from a highly-weathered soil. Clays and Clay Minerals 40, 32–39.
Occluded mica in hydroxy-interlayered vermiculite grains from a highly-weathered soil.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK38XktFWmsbs%3D&md5=80df46a6146a00783161230a5981cef3CAS | open url image1

Harris WG, Hollien KA, Bates SR, Acree WA (1992b) Dehydration of hydroxy-interlayered vermiculite as a function of time and temperature. Clays and Clay Minerals 40, 335–340.
Dehydration of hydroxy-interlayered vermiculite as a function of time and temperature.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK3sXitlOku7w%3D&md5=23dc115f8f6c0aaab5548251c2b67831CAS | open url image1

Hong H, Li Z, Xue H, Zhu Y, Zhang K, Xiang S (2007) Oligocene clay mineralogy of the Linxia Basin: evidence of Paleoclimatic evolution subsequent to the initial-stage uplift of the Tibetan Plateau. Clays and Clay Minerals 55, 491–503.
Oligocene clay mineralogy of the Linxia Basin: evidence of Paleoclimatic evolution subsequent to the initial-stage uplift of the Tibetan Plateau.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXhtlemsr7P&md5=b7b058c090a9d8ebc42b5f98e82fe14cCAS | open url image1

Hong H, Gu Y, Li R, Zhang K, Li Z (2010a) Clay mineralogy and geochemistry and their palaeoclimatic interpretation of the Pleistocene deposits in the Xuancheng section, southern China. Journal of Quaternary Science 25, 662–674.
Clay mineralogy and geochemistry and their palaeoclimatic interpretation of the Pleistocene deposits in the Xuancheng section, southern China.CrossRef | open url image1

Hong H, Zhang K, Li Z (2010b) Climatic and tectonic uplift evolution since ~ 7 Ma in Gyirong basin, southwestern Tibet plateau: clay mineral evidence. International Journal of Earth Sciences 99, 1305–1315.
Climatic and tectonic uplift evolution since ~ 7 Ma in Gyirong basin, southwestern Tibet plateau: clay mineral evidence.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXhtVaqt73K&md5=4393f1b43a723639952cd794334e3071CAS | open url image1

Hong H, Gu Y, Yin K, Wang C, Li Z (2013) Clay record of climate change since the mid-Pleistocene in Jiujiang, south China. Boreas 42, 173–183.
Clay record of climate change since the mid-Pleistocene in Jiujiang, south China.CrossRef | open url image1

Hu X, Cheng T, Wu H (2003) Do multiple cycles of aeolian deposit-pedogenesis exist in the reticulate red clay sections in southern China? Chinese Science Bulletin 48, 1251–1258.
Do multiple cycles of aeolian deposit-pedogenesis exist in the reticulate red clay sections in southern China?CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXmsF2jtLo%3D&md5=5c9e16212d4ed600c704c64e9deda641CAS | open url image1

Hu X, Zhu Y, Shen M (2005) Grain-size evidence for multiple origins of the reticulate red clay in southern China. Chinese Science Bulletin 50, 910–918.
Grain-size evidence for multiple origins of the reticulate red clay in southern China.CrossRef | open url image1

Hu XF, Wei J, Xu LF, Zhang GL, Zhang WG (2009) Magnetic susceptibility of the Quaternary Red Clay in subtropical China and its paleoenvironmental implications. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 279, 216–232.
Magnetic susceptibility of the Quaternary Red Clay in subtropical China and its paleoenvironmental implications.CrossRef | open url image1

Huang C, Zhao W, Liu F, Tan W, Koopal LK (2011) Environmental significance of mineral weathering and pedogenesis of loess on the southernmost Loess Plateau, China. Geoderma 163, 219–226.
Environmental significance of mineral weathering and pedogenesis of loess on the southernmost Loess Plateau, China.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXnt1amsro%3D&md5=8e68e0b6c0cafe348346d3146d5cd1ffCAS | open url image1

Kirkland DL, Hajek BF (1972) Formula derivation of Al-interlayered vermiculite in selected soil clays. Soil Science 114, 317–322.
Formula derivation of Al-interlayered vermiculite in selected soil clays.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaE38Xls1Ois7o%3D&md5=4a6eac8da654ebdbf9244f5e47ae6f4fCAS | open url image1

Li XS, Yang DY, Lu HY, Han HY (1997) The grain-size features of Quaternary aeolian-dust deposition sequence in south Anhui and their significance. Marine Geology and Quaternary Geology 17, 73–87. [in Chinese with English abstract]

Li X, Yang D, Lu H (2001) Grain-size features and genesis of the Xiashu loess in Zhenjiang. Marine Geology and Quaternary Geology 21, 25–32. [in Chinese with English abstract]

Lin CW, Hseu ZY, Chen ZS (2002) Clay mineralogy of Spodosols with high clay contents in the subalpine forests of Taiwan. Clays and Clay Minerals 50, 726–735.
Clay mineralogy of Spodosols with high clay contents in the subalpine forests of Taiwan.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XpslCktLg%3D&md5=29ff2a78ceaede6e7d1144228ba6f2a9CAS | open url image1

Liu T (1985) ‘Loess and the environment.’ (China Ocean Press: Beijing) [in Chinese]

Madejová J, Komadel P (2001) Baseline studies of the clay minerals society source clays: infrared methods. Clays and Clay Minerals 49, 410–432.
Baseline studies of the clay minerals society source clays: infrared methods.CrossRef | open url image1

Mavris C, Plötze M, Mirabella A, Giaccai D, Valboa G, Egli M (2011) Clay mineral evolution along a soil chronosequence in an Alpine proglacial area. Geoderma 165, 106–117.
Clay mineral evolution along a soil chronosequence in an Alpine proglacial area.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXhtValtL3K&md5=e99697c349a92e2401db4feb73d3bd2bCAS | open url image1

Meunier A (2007) Soil hydroxy-interlayered minerals: a re-interpretation of their crystallochemical properties. Clays and Clay Minerals 55, 380–388.
Soil hydroxy-interlayered minerals: a re-interpretation of their crystallochemical properties.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXhtVKqt7jI&md5=2b3bc7bcf5eacfe2aeb5e7fd2bf3e462CAS | open url image1

Pai CW, Wang MK, Chiu CY (2007) Clay mineralogical characterization of a toposequence of perhumid subalpine forest soils in northeastern Taiwan. Geoderma 138, 177–184.
Clay mineralogical characterization of a toposequence of perhumid subalpine forest soils in northeastern Taiwan.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXhvVyls7s%3D&md5=fbe05a4f7c81810beed552d7e75bef55CAS | open url image1

Pal DK, Wani SP, Sahrawat KL (2012a) Vertisols of tropical Indian environments: Pedology and edaphology. Geoderma 189–190, 28–49.
Vertisols of tropical Indian environments: Pedology and edaphology.CrossRef | open url image1

Pal DK, Bhattacharyya T, Sinha R, Srivastava P, Dasgupta AS, Chandran P, Ray SK, Nimje A (2012b) Clay minerals record from Late Quaternary drill cores of the Ganga Plains and their implications for provenance and climate change in the Himalayan foreland. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 356–357, 27–37.
Clay minerals record from Late Quaternary drill cores of the Ganga Plains and their implications for provenance and climate change in the Himalayan foreland.CrossRef | open url image1

Perez-Maqueda LA, Maqueda C, Perez-Rodriguez JL, Subrt J, Cerny Z, Balek V (2012) Thermal behaviour of ground and unground acid leached vermiculite. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 107, 431–438.
Thermal behaviour of ground and unground acid leached vermiculite.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC38XpvVKgtA%3D%3D&md5=736945bc9a4c58fd68ef5041575480e4CAS | open url image1

Qiao Y, Guo Z, Hao Q, Wu W, Jiang W, Yuan B, Zhang Z, Wei J, Zhao H (2003) Loess-soil sequences in southern Anhui Province: Magnetostratigraphy and paleoclimatic significance. Chinese Science Bulletin 48, 2088–2093.
Loess-soil sequences in southern Anhui Province: Magnetostratigraphy and paleoclimatic significance.CrossRef | open url image1

Reichenbach HGV, Beyer J (1994) Dehydration and rehydration of vermiculites: I. Phlogopitic Mg-vermiculite. Clay Minerals 29, 327–340.
Dehydration and rehydration of vermiculites: I. Phlogopitic Mg-vermiculite.CrossRef | open url image1

Rich CI (1968) Hydroxy interlayers in expansible layer silicates. Clays and Clay Minerals 16, 15–30.
Hydroxy interlayers in expansible layer silicates.CrossRef | open url image1

Shaw JN, Hajek BF, Beck JM (2010) Highly weathered mineralogy of select soils from Southeastern US Coastal Plain and Piedmont landscapes. Geoderma 154, 447–456.
Highly weathered mineralogy of select soils from Southeastern US Coastal Plain and Piedmont landscapes.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXhs1Wltb%2FJ&md5=83dd9becc42e33eb01df7070396ceae3CAS | open url image1

Sheldon ND, Tabor NJ (2009) Quantitative paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic reconstruction using paleosols. Earth-Science Reviews 95, 1–52.
Quantitative paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic reconstruction using paleosols.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXmtFSju7c%3D&md5=e2b115b4258ea2df0f8b14a2d25c8c0bCAS | open url image1

Stern R, Ben-Hur M, Shainberg I (1991) Clay mineralogy effect on rain infiltration, seal formation and soil losses. Soil Science 152, 455–462.
Clay mineralogy effect on rain infiltration, seal formation and soil losses.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK38XhtVGitro%3D&md5=0939ce2dcc80153594ab27a9f41473d8CAS | open url image1

Tamura T (1958) Identification of clay minerals from acid soils. Journal of Soil Science 9, 141–147.
Identification of clay minerals from acid soils.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaF3cXisFahug%3D%3D&md5=784a8c565cf1a03aa987721337364244CAS | open url image1

Toksoy-Köksal F, Türkmenoğlu AG, Göncüoğlu MC (2001) Vermiculitization of phlogopite in metagabbro, Central Turkey. Clays and Clay Minerals 49, 81–91.
Vermiculitization of phlogopite in metagabbro, Central Turkey.CrossRef | open url image1

Vanderaveroet P, Bout-Roumazeilles V, Fagel N, Chamley H, Deconinck JF (2000) Significance of random illite-vermiculite mixed layers in Pleistocene sediments of the northwestern Atlantic Ocean. Clay Minerals 35, 679–691.
Significance of random illite-vermiculite mixed layers in Pleistocene sediments of the northwestern Atlantic Ocean.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXmtV2nurs%3D&md5=6112674bd462afdbc885f7631e0d8367CAS | open url image1

Velde B, Meunier A (2008) ‘The origin of clay minerals in soils and weathered rocks.’ (Springer-Verlag: New York, Berlin)

Vicente MA, Elsass F, Molina E, Robert M (1997) Palaeoweathering in slates from the Iberian Hercynian Massif (Spain); investigation by TEM of clay mineral signatures. Clay Minerals 32, 435–451.
Palaeoweathering in slates from the Iberian Hercynian Massif (Spain); investigation by TEM of clay mineral signatures.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK2sXnt1aksbo%3D&md5=ac020b6718ea7b4c14fe4119144e3b74CAS | open url image1

Wada K, Kakuto Y (1983) Intergradient vermiculite-kaolin mineral in a Korean Ultisol. Clays and Clay Minerals 31, 183–190.
Intergradient vermiculite-kaolin mineral in a Korean Ultisol.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaL3sXkt1Gmu7g%3D&md5=e1b0c703e923d7f5a5adeb68dd8e69b3CAS | open url image1

Wang CW, Hong HL, Song BW, Yin K, Li ZH, Zhang KX, Ji JL (2011) The early-Eocene climate optimum (EECO) event in the Qaidam basin, northwest China: clay evidence. Clay Minerals 46, 649–661.
The early-Eocene climate optimum (EECO) event in the Qaidam basin, northwest China: clay evidence.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXhs1OrsbbJ&md5=abccc323fcb90d1ef664079519ddf3daCAS | open url image1

Xiong SF, Liu TS, Ding ZL (2000) The weathering sequence of the red earth over southern China. Journal of Mountain Science 18, 7–12. [in Chinese with English abstract]

Xiong S, Sun D, Ding Z (2002) Aeolian origin of the red earth in southeast China. Journal of Quaternary Science 17, 181–191.
Aeolian origin of the red earth in southeast China.CrossRef | open url image1

Yang D, Han H, Zhou L, Fang Y (1991) Eolian deposit and environmental change of middle-late Pleistocene in Xuancheng, Anhui Province south of the lower reaches of the Changjiang River. Marine Geology and Quaternary Geology 11, 97–104. [in Chinese with English abstract]

Yang SY, Li CX, Yang DY, Li XS (2004) Chemical weathering of the loess deposits in the lower Changjiang Valley, China, and paleoclimatic implications. Quaternary International 117, 27–34.
Chemical weathering of the loess deposits in the lower Changjiang Valley, China, and paleoclimatic implications.CrossRef | open url image1

Yeo SJ, Kim SJ, Bain DC (1999) Occurrence of fine chlorite (<0.2 µm) and its significance in the soils from the Ulsan area, Korea. Clay Minerals 34, 533–541.
Occurrence of fine chlorite (<0.2 µm) and its significance in the soils from the Ulsan area, Korea.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXnslygsLw%3D&md5=29c40b4fa0222e6fa217963e10dd9e39CAS | open url image1

Yin K, Hong H, Han W, Li R, Wu Y, Gao W, Jia J (2012) Mineralogy and genesis of mixed-layer clay minerals in the Jiujiang net-kike red soil. Spectroscopy and Spectral Analysis 32, 2765–2769.

Yin K, Hong H, Churchman GJ, Li R, Li Z, Wang C, Han W (2013) Hydroxy-interlayered vermiculite genesis in Jiujiang late-Pleistocene red earth sediments and significance to climate. Applied Clay Science 74, 20–27.
Hydroxy-interlayered vermiculite genesis in Jiujiang late-Pleistocene red earth sediments and significance to climate.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC38XhsFWit7rL&md5=8dd6770dea600ae3a067f4039445e15aCAS | open url image1

Zhang W, Yu L, Lu M, Zheng X, Shi Y (2007) Magnetic properties and geochemistry of the Xiashu Loess in the present subtropical area of China, and their implications for pedogenic intensity. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 260, 86–97.
Magnetic properties and geochemistry of the Xiashu Loess in the present subtropical area of China, and their implications for pedogenic intensity.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXns12iurg%3D&md5=eac6b8aaf17ffe23d2ac2556cb582149CAS | open url image1

Zhao Q, Yang H (1995) A preliminary study on red earth and changes of Quaternary environment in south China. Quaternary Sciences 15, 107–115.



Export Citation