International Journal of Wildland Fire International Journal of Wildland Fire Society
Journal of the International Association of Wildland Fire
REVIEW

Firebrands and spotting ignition in large-scale fires

Eunmo Koo A E , Patrick J. Pagni B , David R. Weise C and John P. Woycheese D

A Earth and Environmental Sciences Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA.

B Mechanical Engineering Department, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.

C USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Riverside, CA 92507, USA.

D Hughes Associates, Inc., 2551 San Ramon Valley Boulevard, San Ramon, CA 94583, USA.

E Corresponding author. Email: koo_e@lanl.gov

International Journal of Wildland Fire 19(7) 818-843 http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/WF07119
Submitted: 22 August 2007  Accepted: 22 February 2010   Published: 5 November 2010

Abstract

Spotting ignition by lofted firebrands is a significant mechanism of fire spread, as observed in many large-scale fires. The role of firebrands in fire propagation and the important parameters involved in spot fire development are studied. Historical large-scale fires, including wind-driven urban and wildland conflagrations and post-earthquake fires are given as examples. In addition, research on firebrand behaviour is reviewed. The phenomenon of spotting fires comprises three sequential mechanisms: generation, transport and ignition of recipient fuel. In order to understand these mechanisms, many experiments have been performed, such as measuring drag on firebrands, analysing the flow fields of flame and plume structures, collecting firebrands from burning materials, houses and wildfires, and observing firebrand burning characteristics in wind tunnels under the terminal velocity condition and ignition characteristics of fuel beds. The knowledge obtained from the experiments was used to develop firebrand models. Since Tarifa developed a firebrand model based on the terminal velocity approximation, many firebrand transport models have been developed to predict maximum spot fire distance. Combustion models of a firebrand were developed empirically and the maximum spot fire distance was found at the burnout limit. Recommendations for future research and development are provided.

Additional keywords: fire spread, forest fire, post-earthquake fire, urban conflagration, wildland–urban interface fire.


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