Effects of fire regimes on herbaceous biomass and nutrient dynamics in the Brazilian savannaImmaculada Oliveras A C D , Sergio T. Meirelles A , Valter L. Hirakuri B , Cenira R. Freitas B , Heloisa S. Miranda B and Vânia R. Pivello A
A Departamento de Ecologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão, Travessa 14, 05508-090, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
B Departamento de Ecologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade de Brasíla, Asa Norte PO Box 04457, 70919-970, Brasília, DF, Brazil.
C Present address: Environmental Change Institute, School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford, OX13QY Oxford, UK.
D Corresponding author. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
International Journal of Wildland Fire 22(3) 368-380 https://doi.org/10.1071/WF10136
Submitted: 30 November 2010 Accepted: 24 July 2012 Published: 3 October 2012
This study explores the long-term effects of fire treatments on biomass and nutrient pools in an open savanna from Central Brazil. Treatments included early, middle and late dry season burns every 2 years, a middle dry season burn every 4 years, and protection from fire on five 4-ha plots. We quantified aboveground biomass of graminoids and forbs/sub-shurbs, and their nutrient concentrations and stocks in both dry and wet seasons, and below-ground biomass down to 30-cm depth. We found strong differences between wet and dry season, with biomass and nutrient concentrations being highest in the wet season, across all fire treatments. Fire treatments had significant effects on plant nutrient stocks and root distribution, although total biomass was not affected. Concentrations of the most volatile nutrients (N, S, K and P) were higher in the herbaceous aboveground biomass of the quadrennial and the unburnt plots, suggesting that increases in fire frequency would reduce the amount of nutrients in aboveground biomass and increase the concentration of fine roots at the soil surface. Results highlight the role of fire in maintaining community dynamics in the Brazilian savanna. Overall, the quadrennial burn appears to be the optimal fire regime in open Cerrado vegetation.
Additional keywords: aboveground biomass, belowground biomass, Cerrado, fire frequency, fire season, forbs, graminoids, root distribution.
ReferencesAbdala GC, Caldas LS, Haridasan M, Eiten G (1998) Above and below-ground organic matter and root–shoot ratio in a cerrado in central Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Ecology 2, 11–23.
Andrade SMA (1998) Dinâmica do combustível fino e produção primária do estrato rasteiro de áreas de campo sujo de cerrado submetidas a diferentes regimes de queima. MSc thesis, Universidade de Brasília. Brazil. [In Portuguese]
Boerner REJ (1982) Fire and nutrient cycling in temperate ecosystems. Bioscience 32, 187–192.
| Fire and nutrient cycling in temperate ecosystems.CrossRef |
Böhm W (1979) ‘Methods of Studying Root Systems’. Ecological Studies, vol. 33. (Springer-Verlag: Berlin)
Cavalcanti LH (1978) Efeito das cinzas resultantes da queimada sobre a produtividade do estrato herbáceo subarbustivo do Cerrado de Emas. PhD thesis, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil. [In Portuguese]
Chapin FS (1980) The mineral nutrition of wild plants. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 11, 233–260.
| The mineral nutrition of wild plants.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaL3MXivFagug%3D%3D&md5=119f6185f32c751223189c38d4698a5dCAS |
Coutinho LM (1980) As queimadas e seu papel ecológico. Brasil Florestal 10, 15–23. [In Portuguese]
Coutinho LM (1990) Fire in the ecology of Brazilian cerrado. In ’Fire in the tropical biota‘. (Ed. JG Goldammer). pp. 81–105. (Berlin: Springer–Verlag)
De Castro EA, Kauffman JB (1998) Ecosystem structure in the Brazilian Cerrado: a vegetation gradient of aboveground biomass, root mass and consumption by fire. Journal of Tropical Ecology 14, 263–283.
| Ecosystem structure in the Brazilian Cerrado: a vegetation gradient of aboveground biomass, root mass and consumption by fire.CrossRef |
Gavalas NA, Manetas Y (1980) Calcium inhibition of pyrophosphatase in crude plant extracts. Plant Physiology 65, 860–863.
| Calcium inhibition of pyrophosphatase in crude plant extracts.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaL3cXkt1arsrY%3D&md5=a4bc0c898eefa14c553550b9fdac7cfdCAS |
Gibson DJ (2009) ‘Grasses and Grassland Ecology.’ (Oxford University Press: Oxford, UK)
Gottsberger G, Silberbauer-Gottsberger I (2006) ‘Life in de Cerrado. Vol. 1.’ (Reta–Verlag: Ulm)
Hanna WW, Sollenberger LE (2007). Tropical and subtropical grasses. In ‘Forages - The Science of Grassland Agriculture’ (Eds RF Barnes, CJ Nelson, KJ Moore, M Collins) Vol. 2, pp. 245–255. (Blackwell: Ames, IA)
Holm S (1979) A simple sequentially rejective multiple test procedure. Scandinavian Journal of Statistics 6, 65–70.
IBGE (2004) Reserva Ecológica do IBGE – Ambiente e Plantas Vasculares. Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, Estudos e Pesquisas, Informação Geográfica 3. (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil)
Kauffman JB, Cummings DL, Ward DE (1994) Relationships of fire, biomass and nutrient dynamics along a vegetation gradient in the Brazilian cerrado. Journal of Ecology 82, 519–531.
| Relationships of fire, biomass and nutrient dynamics along a vegetation gradient in the Brazilian cerrado.CrossRef |
Klink CA, Machado R (2005) Conservation of the Brazilian cerrado. Conservation Biology 19, 707–713.
| Conservation of the Brazilian cerrado.CrossRef |
Levene H (1960) Robust tests for equality of variances. In ‘Contributions to Probability and Statistics’ (Eds I Olkin, SG Ghurye, W Hoeffding, WG Madow, HB Mann). pp. 278–292. (Stanford University Press: Stanford, CA)
Likens GE, Driscoll CT, Buso DC, Siccama TG, Johnson CE, Lovett GM, Fahey TJ, Reiners WA, Ryan DF, Martin CW, Bailey SW (1998) The biogeochemistry of calcium at Hubbard Brook. Biogeochemistry 41, 89–173.
| The biogeochemistry of calcium at Hubbard Brook.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK1cXisFCqu7s%3D&md5=351e34c595314f11fd6be8c7b3a910cdCAS |
Malavolta E, Vitti GC, Oliveira SA (1989) ‘Avaliação do estado nutricional das plantas; princípios e aplicações.’ (Associação Brasileira para Pesquisa da Potassa e do Fosfato: São Paulo, Brazil)
Miranda AC, Miranda HS, Dias IFO, Dias BFS (1993) Soil and air temperatures during prescribed cerrado fires in Central Brazil. Journal of Tropical Ecology 9, 313–320.
| Soil and air temperatures during prescribed cerrado fires in Central Brazil.CrossRef |
Miranda HS, Sato NS, Nascimento WN, Aires FS (2009) Fires in the cerrado, the Brazilian savanna. In ‘Tropical Fire Ecology: Climate Change, Land Use and Ecosystem Dynamics’ (Ed. MA Cochrane) pp. 427–450. (Springer Praxis Books: Chichester, UK)
Moreira A (2000) Effects of fire protection on savanna structure in Central Brazil. Journal of Biogeography 27, 1021–1029.
| Effects of fire protection on savanna structure in Central Brazil.CrossRef |
Neto WN, Andrade SMA, Miranda HS (1998) The dynamics of the herbaceous layer following prescribed burning: a four year study in the Brazilian savanna. In ‘Proceedings of the 14th Conference on Fire and Forest Meteorology 2.’ (Ed. DX Viegas) pp. 1785–1792. (University of Coimbra: Coimbra, Portugal)
Paruelo JM, Piñero G, Baldi G, Baeza S, Lezama F, Altesor A, Oesterheld M (2010) Carbon stocks and fluxes in rangelands of the Rio de la Plata basin. Rangeland Ecology and Management 63, 94–108.
| Carbon stocks and fluxes in rangelands of the Rio de la Plata basin.CrossRef |
Pivello VR (1992) An expert system for the use of prescribed fires in the management of Brazilian savannas. PhD thesis, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, Ascot, UK.
Pivello VR, Coutinho LM (1992) Transfer of macro-nutrients to the atmosphere during experimental burnings in an open cerrado (Brazilian savanna). Journal of Tropical Ecology 8, 487–497.
| Transfer of macro-nutrients to the atmosphere during experimental burnings in an open cerrado (Brazilian savanna).CrossRef |
Pivello VR, Coutinho LM (1996) A qualitative successional model to assist in the management of Brazilian cerrados. Forest Ecology and Management 87, 127–138.
| A qualitative successional model to assist in the management of Brazilian cerrados.CrossRef |
Pivello VR, Oliveras I, Miranda HS, Haridasan M, Sato MN, Meirelles ST (2010) Effect of fires on soil nutrient availability in an open savanna in Central Brazil. Plant and Soil 337, 111–123.
| Effect of fires on soil nutrient availability in an open savanna in Central Brazil.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXhsVWmtb%2FI&md5=bcc5098a9927705d74abeeb0f98ee619CAS |
Quesada CA, Miranda AC, Hodnett MG, Santos AJB, Miranda HS, Breyer LM (2004) Seasonal and depth variation of soil moisture in a burned open savanna (campo sujo) in central Brazil. Ecological Applications 14, 33–41.
| Seasonal and depth variation of soil moisture in a burned open savanna (campo sujo) in central Brazil.CrossRef |
Quesada CA, Hodnett MG, Breyer LM, Santos AJB, Andrade S, Miranda HS, Miranda AC, Lloyd J (2008) Seasonal variations in soil water in two woodland savannas of central Brazil with different fire history. Tree Physiology 28, 405–415.
| Seasonal variations in soil water in two woodland savannas of central Brazil with different fire history.CrossRef |
Ribeiro JF, Walter BMT (2008) As principais fitofisionomias do bioma Cerrado. In ‘Cerrado – Ecologia e Flora.’ (Eds SM Sano, SP Almeida, JF Ribeiro) pp. 151–212. (Embrapa–Cerrados: Brasilia, Brazil)
Sano SM, Almeida SP, Ribeiro JF (2008) ‘Cerrado: Ecologia e Flora. Vol 2.’ (Embrapa–Cerrados: Brasilia, Brazil)
Shapiro SS, Wilk MB (1965) An analysis of variance test for normality (complete samples). Biometrika 52, 591–611.
Souza A, Sandrin CZ, Calió MFA, Meirelles ST, Pivello VR, Figueiredo-Ribeiro RCL (2010) Seasonal variation of soluble carbohydrates and starch in Echinolaena inflexa, a native grass species from the Brazilian savanna, and in the invasive grass Melinis minutiflora. Brazilian Journal of Biology 70, 395–404.
| Seasonal variation of soluble carbohydrates and starch in Echinolaena inflexa, a native grass species from the Brazilian savanna, and in the invasive grass Melinis minutiflora.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BC3crgsVKqsg%3D%3D&md5=e65553afcf7e4163247559942a963ab7CAS |