Properties affecting the consumption of sound and rotten coarse woody debris in northern Idaho: a preliminary investigation using laboratory firesJoshua C. Hyde A C , Alistair M. S. Smith A and Roger D. Ottmar B
A Department of Forest, Rangeland and Fire Sciences, College of Natural Resources, University of Idaho, PO Box 441133, Moscow, ID 83844-1133, USA.
B Pacific Wildland Fire Sciences Laboratory, USDA Forest Service, 400 N 34th Street Suite 201, Seattle, WA 98103, USA.
C Corresponding author. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
International Journal of Wildland Fire 21(5) 596-608 http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/WF11016
Submitted: 29 January 2011 Accepted: 20 October 2011 Published: 22 May 2012
This study evaluates the consumption of coarse woody debris in various states of decay. Samples from a northern Idaho mixed-conifer forest were classified using three different classification methods, ignited with two different ignition methods and consumption was recorded. Intrinsic properties that change with decay were measured including carbon to nitrogen ratio, density, heat content, lignin content, moisture content and surface area-to-volume ratio. Consumption for logs in different stages of decay is reported with characterisation of wood properties. Results indicate very decayed coarse woody debris is likely to be consumed to a substantially greater degree than sound coarse woody debris given similar conditions. High consumption occurred in debris with low-density, high-lignin content and high gravimetric heat content; however, lignin content and density showed the highest correlation with consumption. The Maser classification method grouped very rotten logs with high consumption into decay class 4 and the remainder into class 3. Trends in consumption were similar regardless of ignition; however low-intensity long-duration ignition produced higher consumption values. Focus on physical properties is recommended for predictive purposes over any classification method. Logs of other species and in regions with different decomposition and combustion dynamics may display different property ranges and consumption results.
ReferencesAherns DC (2003) ‘Meteorology Today: an Introduction to Weather, Climate, and the Environment, 7th Edn.’ (Brooks/Cole-Thomson: Pacific Grove, CA)
Babrauskas V (2002) Ignition of wood: a review of the state of the art. Journal of Fire Protection Engineering 12, 163–189.
| Ignition of wood: a review of the state of the art.CrossRef |
Bartlett MS (1937) Properties of sufficiency and statistical tests. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A 160, 268–282.
| Properties of sufficiency and statistical tests.CrossRef |
Bell ML, McDermott A, Zeger SL, Samet JM, Dominici F (2004) Ozone and short-term mortality in 95 US urban communities, 1987–2000. Journal of the American Medical Association 292, 2372–2378.
| Ozone and short-term mortality in 95 US urban communities, 1987–2000.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXhtVSktL%2FE&md5=63a96d5eee27bd2fef674e4005a6967bCAS |
Brown JK (1974) Handbook for inventorying downed woody material. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, General Technical Report INT-16. (Ogden, UT)
Cahill CF, Cahill TA, Perry KD (2008) The size and time-resolved composition of aerosols from a sub-Arctic boreal forest prescribed burn. Atmospheric Environment 42, 7553–7559.
| The size and time-resolved composition of aerosols from a sub-Arctic boreal forest prescribed burn.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXhtFOjsLbN&md5=05925356a128bc69073cc83eaefb8218CAS |
Carvalho ER, Veras CAG, Carvalho JA (2002) Experimental investigation of smouldering in biomass. Biomass and Bioenergy 22, 283–294.
| Experimental investigation of smouldering in biomass.CrossRef |
Christian T, Yokelson RJ, Carvalho JA, Griffith DWT, Alvarado EC, Santos JC, Soares Neto TG, Veras CAG, Hao WM (2007) The tropical forest and fire emissions experiment: trace gases emitted by smoldering logs and dung from deforestation and pasture fires in Brazil. Journal of Geophysical Research 112, D18308
| The tropical forest and fire emissions experiment: trace gases emitted by smoldering logs and dung from deforestation and pasture fires in Brazil.CrossRef |
Cooper SV, Neiman KE, Roberts DW (1991) Forest habitat types of northern Idaho: a second approximation. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Service General Technical Report INT-236. (Ogden, UT)
Cribari-Neto F, Zeileis A (2010) Beta regression in R. Journal of Statistical Software 2, 1–24.
Demirbaş A (2001) Relationships between lignin contents and heating values of biomass. Energy Conversion and Management 42, 183–188.
| Relationships between lignin contents and heating values of biomass.CrossRef |
Dobrỳ J, Dziurzyński A, Rypaćĕk P (1986) Relation between combustion heat and chemical wood composition during white and brown rot. Wood Science and Technology 20, 137–144.
Dockery DW, Pope CA, Xu X, Spengler JD, Ware JH, Fay ME, Ferris BG, Speizer FE (1993) An association between air pollution and mortality in six US cities. The New England Journal of Medicine 329, 1753–1759.
| An association between air pollution and mortality in six US cities.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaK2c%2FltVSmtQ%3D%3D&md5=7e81cc6fbba15f7fa29fc7f46ef478bfCAS |
Drysdale D (1998) ‘An Introduction to Fire Dynamics.’ (Wiley: Chichester, UK)
Fernandes PM, Rego F (1998) A new method to estimate fuel surface area-to-volume ratio using water immersion. International Journal of Wildland Fire 8, 121–128.
| A new method to estimate fuel surface area-to-volume ratio using water immersion.CrossRef |
Fogel R, Ogawa M, Trappe JM (1973) Terrestrial decomposition: a synopsis. University of Washington, Coniferous Forest Biome, Internal Report 135. (Seattle, WA)
Hao WM, Babbit RE (2007) Smoke produced from residual combustion. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Final Report JFSP-98-1-9-0. (Missoula, MT)
Hollis JJ, Matthews S, Ottmar RD, Prichard SJ, Slijepcevic A, Burrows ND, Ward B, Tolhurst KG, Anderson WR, Gould JS (2010) Testing woody fuel consumption models for application in Australian southern eucalypt forest fires. Forest Ecology and Management 260, 948–964.
| Testing woody fuel consumption models for application in Australian southern eucalypt forest fires.CrossRef |
Hollis JJ, Matthews S, Anderson WR, Cruz MG, Burrows ND (2011) Behind the flaming zone: predicting woody fuel consumption in eucalypt forest fires in southern Australia. Forest Ecology and Management 261, 2049–2067.
| Behind the flaming zone: predicting woody fuel consumption in eucalypt forest fires in southern Australia.CrossRef |
Hyde JC, Smith AMS, Ottmar RD, Alvarado EC, Morgan P (2011) The combustion of sound and rotten coarse woody debris: a review. International Journal of Wildland Fire 20, 163–174.
| The combustion of sound and rotten coarse woody debris: a review.CrossRef |
Kangas A, Maltimo M (Eds) (2006) ‘Forest Inventory: Methodology and Applications.’ (Springer: Dordrecht, the Netherlands)
Keane RE, Dickinson LJ (2007) The photoload sampling technique: estimating surface fuel loadings from downward-looking photographs of synthetic fuelbeds. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-190. (Fort Collins, CO)
Lentile LB, Holden ZA, Smith AMS, Falkowski MJ, Hudak AT, Morgan P, Lewis SA, Gessler PE, Benson NC (2006) Remote sensing techniques to assess active fire characteristics and post-fire effects. International Journal of Wildland Fire 15, 319–345.
| Remote sensing techniques to assess active fire characteristics and post-fire effects.CrossRef |
Maser C, Anderson RG, Cromack K Jr, Williams JT, Cummins KW (1979) Dead and down woody material. In ‘Wildlife Habitats in Managed Forests, the Blue Mountains of Oregon and Washington’. USDA Forest Service, Agricultural Handbook 553. (Ed. J Thomas) (Washington, DC)
Means JA, Cromack K, MacMillan PC (1985) Comparison of decomposition models using wood density of Douglas-fir logs. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 15, 1092–1098.
| Comparison of decomposition models using wood density of Douglas-fir logs.CrossRef |
Milne TA, Brennan AH, Glenn BH (1989) ‘Sourcebook of Methods of Analysis for Biomass and Biomass Conversion Processes.’ (Elsevier Science Publishers Ltd: New York)
Neter J, Kutner M, Wasserman W, Nachtsheim C (1996) ‘Applied Linear Statistical Models.’ (McGray Hill/Irwin: New York)
Ottmar RD, Sandberg DV, Riccardi CL, Prichard SJ (2007) An overview of the Fuel Characteristic Classification method (FCCS) – quantifying, classifying, and creating fuelbeds for resource planning. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 37, 2383–2393.
| An overview of the Fuel Characteristic Classification method (FCCS) – quantifying, classifying, and creating fuelbeds for resource planning.CrossRef |
Peterson JL (2001) Emissions Inventories. In ‘Smoke Management Guide for Prescribed and Wildland Fire’. (Eds CC Hardy, RD Ottmar, JL Peterson, JE Core, P Seamon) (National Wildfire Coordination Group: Boise, ID)
Prichard SJ, Ottmar RD, Anderson GK (2005) ‘Consume User’s Guide Version 3.0.’ (USDA Forest Service, Pacific Wildland Fire Sciences Laboratory: Seattle, WA)
Pyle C, Brown MM (1999) Heterogeneity of wood decay classes within hardwood logs. Forest Ecology and Management 114, 253–259.
| Heterogeneity of wood decay classes within hardwood logs.CrossRef |
R Development Core Team (2011) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. (R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria) Available at http://www.R-project.org/ [Verified 3 March 2012]
Rabelo ERC, Veras CAG, Carvalho JA, Alvarado EC, Sandberg DV, Santos JC (2004) Log smoldering after an Amazonian deforestation fire. Atmospheric Environment 38, 203–211.
| Log smoldering after an Amazonian deforestation fire.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXptlCitbc%3D&md5=9ba2cefefd54c5ced3321a6c46554a67CAS |
Reardon J, Hungerford R, Ryan K (2007) Factors affecting sustained smouldering in organic soils from pocosin and pond pine woodland wetlands. International Journal of Wildland Fire 16, 107–118.
| Factors affecting sustained smouldering in organic soils from pocosin and pond pine woodland wetlands.CrossRef |
Reinhardt E (2005) Using FOFEM 5.0 to estimate tree mortality, fuel consumption, smoke production and soil heating from wildland fire. (US Forest Service) Available at http://www.fire.org/downloads/fofem/5.2/FOFEM5Using.pdf [Verified 4 October 2011]
Roberts GJ, Wooster MJ (2008) Fire detection and fire characterization over Africa using Meteosat SEVIRI. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 46, 1200–1218.
| Fire detection and fire characterization over Africa using Meteosat SEVIRI.CrossRef |
Schmidt O (2006) ‘Wood and Tree Fungi Biology, Damage, Protection, and Use.’ (Springer-Verlag: Heidelberg, Germany)
Smith AMS, Hudak AT (2005) Estimating combustion of large downed woody debris from residual white ash. International Journal of Wildland Fire 14, 245–248.
| Estimating combustion of large downed woody debris from residual white ash.CrossRef |
Smith AMS, Wooster MJ, Drake NA, Dipotso FM, Perry GLW (2005) Fire in African savanna: testing the impact of incomplete combustion on pyrogenic emissions estimates. Ecological Applications 15, 1074–1082.
| Fire in African savanna: testing the impact of incomplete combustion on pyrogenic emissions estimates.CrossRef |
Sollins P (1982) Input and decay of woody debris in coniferous stands in western Oregon and Washington. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 12, 18–28.
| Input and decay of woody debris in coniferous stands in western Oregon and Washington.CrossRef |
Sollins P, Cline SP, Verhoeven T, Sachs D, Spycher G (1987) Patterns of log decay in old-growth Douglas-fir forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 17, 1585–1595.
| Patterns of log decay in old-growth Douglas-fir forests.CrossRef |
Spearman C (1904) The proof and measurement of association between two things. The American Journal of Psychology 15, 72–101.
| The proof and measurement of association between two things.CrossRef |
Swift MJ, Heal OW, Anderson JM (1979) ‘Decomposition in Terrestrial Ecosystems.’ (Blackwell Scientific Publications: Oxford)
Thunman H, Leckner B (2002) Thermal conductivity of wood – models for different stages of combustion Biomass and Bioenergy 23, 47–54.
| Thermal conductivity of wood – models for different stages of combustionCrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XktlKnt70%3D&md5=cb1a87fe21fdafbdfe7dbe1712d36d77CAS |
Triska FJ, Cromack K Jr (1980) The role of wood in forests and streams. In ‘Forests: Fresh Perspectives from Ecosystem Analysis’. (Ed. Waring RH) (Oregon University State Press: Corvallis, OR)
USDA (2010) FIA DataMart. (USDA Forest Service) Available at http://www.fia.fs.fed.us/tools-data/ [Verified 3 March 2012]
van Wagtendonk J, Sydoriak WM, Benedict JM (1998) Heat content variation of Sierra Nevada conifers. International Journal of Wildland Fire 8, 147–158.
| Heat content variation of Sierra Nevada conifers.CrossRef |
Woldendorp G, Keenan RJ (2005) Coarse woody debris in Australian forest ecosystems: a review. Austral Ecology 30, 834–843.
| Coarse woody debris in Australian forest ecosystems: a review.CrossRef |
Woodall C, Williams MS (2005) Estimation, and analysis procedures for the down woody materials indicator of the FIA program. USDA Forest Service, North Central Research Station, General Technical Report GTR NC-256. (Saint Paul, MN)