International Journal of Wildland Fire International Journal of Wildland Fire Society
Journal of the International Association of Wildland Fire
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Short-term physiological effects of smoke on grapevine leaves

T. L. Bell A B D , S. L. Stephens C and M. A. Moritz C

A Faculty of Agriculture and Environment, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2015, Australia.

B Bushfire Cooperative Research Centre, East Melbourne, Vic. 3002, Australia.

C Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.

D Corresponding author. Email: tina.bell@sydney.edu.au

International Journal of Wildland Fire 22(7) 933-946 http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/WF12140
Submitted: 21 August 2012  Accepted: 15 March 2013   Published: 23 July 2013

Abstract

In recent years, bushfires and prescribed burns have caused substantial economic loss to the wine industry due to smoke taint, which makes wine unpalatable. Considerable research is being done to ameliorate smoke taint but the information available about the effect of smoke on grapevines is limited. We examined the physiological effects of short-term exposure to smoke on leaves of several varieties of grapevines. Gas exchange was measured before and after short-term exposure of leaves to smoke that was produced by combustion of two different fuels. For most varieties, short-term exposure to smoke had little effect on leaf physiology. For varieties that were affected by smoke, patterns of recovery of leaf physiology depended on fuel type. Short-term exposure to smoke had, at best, no significant effect and, at worst, only temporary effects on functioning of leaves. All varieties had recovered to pre-smoke functioning within 48 h. This study will contribute to the growing body of information relevant to fire and land management agencies and the wine industry in fire-prone areas including Australia, North and South America and Europe.

Additional keywords: bushfire, gas exchange, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration.


References

Andreae MO, Merlet P (2001) Emissions of trace gases and aerosols from biomass burning. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 15, 955–966.
Emissions of trace gases and aerosols from biomass burning.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XjtV2iuw%3D%3D&md5=97bbef209e6448c582d57158ccda567eCAS | open url image1

Beer T, Williams AA (1995) Estimating Australian forest fire danger under conditions of doubled carbon dioxide concentrations. Climatic Change 29, 169–188.
Estimating Australian forest fire danger under conditions of doubled carbon dioxide concentrations.CrossRef | open url image1

Bell TL, Adams MA (2009) Smoke from wildfires and prescribed burning in Australia: effects on human health and ecosystems. In ‘Developments in Environmental Science. Vol. 8: Wildland fires and air pollution’. (Eds A Bytnerowicz, MJ Arbaugh, AR Riebau, C Andersen) pp. 289–316. (Elsevier: Amsterdam, the Netherlands)

Ben-Asher J, Tsuyuki I, Bravdo B-A, Sagih M (2006) Irrigation of grapevines with saline water. I. Leaf area index, stomatal conductance, transpiration and photosynthesis. Agricultural Water Management 83, 13–21.
Irrigation of grapevines with saline water. I. Leaf area index, stomatal conductance, transpiration and photosynthesis.CrossRef | open url image1

Bergmann E, Bender J, Weigel HJ (1995) Growth responses and foliar sensitivities of native herbaceous species to ozone exposures. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 85, 1437–1442.
Growth responses and foliar sensitivities of native herbaceous species to ozone exposures.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK28Xit1ejtLs%3D&md5=dd058b1a6207054c6f8a6b1c8fa14db2CAS | open url image1

Black VJ, Black CR, Roberts JA, Stewart CA (2000) Impact of ozone on the reproductive development of plants. Tansley Review No. 115 New Phytologist 147, 421–447.
Impact of ozone on the reproductive development of plants. Tansley Review No. 115CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXnsVKqs70%3D&md5=05086196eda6259bc3bef91adaef8009CAS | open url image1

Boland DJ, Brooke MIH, Chippendale GM, Hall N, Hyland BPM, Johnston RD, Kleinig DA, McDonald MW, Turner JD (2006) ‘Forest Trees of Australia’. (CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne)

Bramley RGV (2005) Understanding variability in winegrape production systems. 2. Within vineyard variation in quality over several vintages. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research 11, 33–42.
Understanding variability in winegrape production systems. 2. Within vineyard variation in quality over several vintages.CrossRef | open url image1

Bramley RGV, Hamilton RP (2004) Understanding variability in winegrape production systems. 1. Within vineyard variation in yield over several vintages. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research 10, 32–45.
Understanding variability in winegrape production systems. 1. Within vineyard variation in yield over several vintages.CrossRef | open url image1

Calder WJ, Lifferth G, Moritz MA, St Clair SB (2010) Physiological effects of smoke exposure on deciduous and conifer tree species. International Journal of Forestry Research 2010, 438930 doi:10.1155/2010/438930

CalFlora (2012) Information of California plants for education, research and conservation. (The Calflora Database: Berkeley, CA) Available at http://www.calflora.org [Verified 14 May 2013]

Cape JN (2003) Effects of airborne volatile organic compounds on plants. Environmental Pollution 122, 145–157.
Effects of airborne volatile organic compounds on plants.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXjtFOrsQ%3D%3D&md5=de73f466bcfa8eefe73c55dc057dd2c9CAS | 12535603PubMed | open url image1

Chaves MM, Zarrouk O, Francisco R, Costa JM, Santos T, Regalado AP, Rodrigues ML, Lopes CM (2010) Grapevine under deficit irrigation: hints from physiological and molecular data. Annals of Botany 105, 661–676.
Grapevine under deficit irrigation: hints from physiological and molecular data.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BC3c3ovFGnsg%3D%3D&md5=c8d1a757d554904a767b521c9bb7837fCAS | 20299345PubMed | open url image1

Christen D, Schönmann S, Jermini M, Strasser RJ, Défago G (2007) Characterization and early detection of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) stress responses to esca disease by in situ chlorophyll fluorescence and comparison with drought stress. Environmental and Experimental Botany 60, 504–514.
Characterization and early detection of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) stress responses to esca disease by in situ chlorophyll fluorescence and comparison with drought stress.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXntFyhtbY%3D&md5=59636ebfd27e2350c7cddb19361bb38dCAS | open url image1

Crutzen PJ, Andreae MO (1990) Biomass burning in the tropics: impacts on atmospheric chemistry and biogeochemical cycles. Science 250, 1669–1678.
Biomass burning in the tropics: impacts on atmospheric chemistry and biogeochemical cycles.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK3MXmsF2htQ%3D%3D&md5=c08a9472273ac1fc82ecd35989835895CAS | 17734705PubMed | open url image1

Darrall NM (1989) The effect of air pollutants on physiological processes in plants. Plant, Cell & Environment 12, 1–30.
The effect of air pollutants on physiological processes in plants.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaL1MXitVOht7g%3D&md5=ba5241df14d1092baa375fc03bbc33d8CAS | open url image1

Davies SJ, Unam L (1999) Smoke-haze from the 1997 Indonesian forest fires: effects on pollution levels, local climate, atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and tree photosynthesis. Forest Ecology and Management 124, 137–144.
Smoke-haze from the 1997 Indonesian forest fires: effects on pollution levels, local climate, atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and tree photosynthesis.CrossRef | open url image1

Dixon KW, Merritt DJ, Flematti GR, Ghisalberti EL (2009) Karrikinolide – a phytoreactive compound derived from smoke with application in horticulture, ecological restoration and agriculture. Acta Horticulturae 813, 155–170.

Edwards EJ, Smithson L, Graham DC, Clingeleffer PR (2011) Grapevine canopy response to a high-temperature event during deficit irrigation. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research 17, 153–161.
Grapevine canopy response to a high-temperature event during deficit irrigation.CrossRef | open url image1

Ellis S, Kanowski P, Whelan R (2004) National inquiry on bushfire mitigation and management. (Commonwealth of Australia: Canberra) Available at http://www.coagbushfireenquiry.gov.au/findings.htm [Verified 15 May 2013]

Fangmeier A, Hadwiger-Fangmeier A, Van der Eerden L, Jäger H-J (1994) Effects of atmospheric ammonia on vegetation – a review. Environmental Pollution 86, 43–82.
Effects of atmospheric ammonia on vegetation – a review.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK2cXkslGnsrc%3D&md5=74f2d719c2ca1c149da534d8e68e3751CAS | 15091648PubMed | open url image1

Ferrini F, Mattii GB, Nicese FP (1995) Effects of temperature on key physiological responses of grapevine leaf. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 46, 375–379.

Fudge AL, Ristic R, Wollan D, Wilkinson KL (2011) Amelioration of smoke taint in wine by reverse osmosis and solid phase adsorption. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research 17, S41–S48.
Amelioration of smoke taint in wine by reverse osmosis and solid phase adsorption.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXpsFGnuro%3D&md5=ead73af55be487f4caa6c04c2ba22feaCAS | open url image1

Gilbert ME, Ripley BS (2002) The effect of smoke on the photosynthetic gas exchange of Chrysanthemoides monilifera. South African Journal of Botany 68, 525–531.

Giribaldi M, Giuffrida G (2010) Heard it through the grapevine: proteomic perspective on grape and wine. Journal of Proteomics 73, 1647–1655.
Heard it through the grapevine: proteomic perspective on grape and wine.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXovFygt7c%3D&md5=884824266b228af07b4f6174ab94a559CAS | 20580953PubMed | open url image1

Grantz DA, Garner JHB, Johnson DW (2003) Ecological effects of particulate matter. Environment International 29, 213–239.
Ecological effects of particulate matter.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXis1arur0%3D&md5=8752d4870f731968e9517fbab9859e71CAS | 12676209PubMed | open url image1

Greer DH, Weston C (2010) Heat stress affects flowering, berry growth, sugar accumulation and photosynthesis of Vitis vinifera cv. Semillon grapevines grown in controlled environment. Functional Plant Biology 37, 206–214.
Heat stress affects flowering, berry growth, sugar accumulation and photosynthesis of Vitis vinifera cv. Semillon grapevines grown in controlled environment.CrossRef | open url image1

Guenther A, Hewitt CN, Erickson D, Fall R, Geron C, Graedel T, Harley P, Klinger L, Lerdau M, McKay WA, Pierce T, Scholes B, Steinbrecher R, Tallamraju R, Taylor J, Zimmerman P (1995) A global model of natural volatile organic compound emissions. Journal of Geophysical Research Atmosphere 100, 8873–8892.
A global model of natural volatile organic compound emissions.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK2MXmvFKrsb0%3D&md5=977e19d5b04bfca5c596c7888610c4c5CAS | open url image1

Hayasaka Y, Baldock GE, Pollnitz AP (2005) Contributions of mass spectrometry in the Australian Wine Research Institute to advances in knowledge of grape and wine constituents. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research 11, 188–204.
Contributions of mass spectrometry in the Australian Wine Research Institute to advances in knowledge of grape and wine constituents.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXpsVarurw%3D&md5=ce71d7e53ec379bcc7db17859d17d765CAS | open url image1

Hayasaka Y, Baldock GA, Parker M, Pardon KH, Black CA, Herderich MJ, Jeffery DW (2010) Glycosylation of smoke-derived volatiles in grapes as a consequence of grapevine exposure to bushfire smoke. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 58, 10 989–10 998.

Hirano T, Kiyota M, Aiga I (1995) Physical effects of dust on leaf physiology of cucumber and kidney bean plants. Environmental Pollution 89, 255–261.
Physical effects of dust on leaf physiology of cucumber and kidney bean plants.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK2MXms1emt78%3D&md5=b8336326a6b5cfbe399556dd163f2c74CAS | 15091515PubMed | open url image1

Jackson DI, Lombard PB (1993) Environmental and management practices affecting grape composition and wine quality – a review. American Society for Enology and Viticulture 44, 409–430.

Jain N, Van Staden J (2006) A smoke-derived butenolide improves early growth of tomato seedlings. Plant Growth Regulation 50, 139–148.
A smoke-derived butenolide improves early growth of tomato seedlings.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28Xht1Gnu7zL&md5=29664476f68c7041a7c7529c23cf0772CAS | open url image1

Jiranek V (2011) Smoke taint compounds in wine: nature, origin, measurement and amelioration of affected wines. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research 17, S2–S4.
Smoke taint compounds in wine: nature, origin, measurement and amelioration of affected wines.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXpsFGntbs%3D&md5=d76c9d1e06181d6db12b3c22a7738541CAS | open url image1

Kadir S (2006) Thermostability of photosynthesis of Vitis aestivalis and V. vinifera. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 131, 476–483.

Keller M (2005) Deficit irrigation and vine mineral nutrition. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 56, 267–283.

Keller M (2010) Managing grapevines to optimise fruit development in a challenging environment: a climate change primer for viticulturists. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research 16, 56–69.
Managing grapevines to optimise fruit development in a challenging environment: a climate change primer for viticulturists.CrossRef | open url image1

Kennison KR, Wilkinson KL, Williams HG, Smith JH, Gibberd MR (2007) Smoke-derived taint in wine: effects of postharvest smoke exposure of grapes on the chemical composition and sensory characteristics of wine. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 55, 10 897–10 901.
Smoke-derived taint in wine: effects of postharvest smoke exposure of grapes on the chemical composition and sensory characteristics of wine.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXhtlynu7rE&md5=86507e4b8bfcdc2cb9d4508d3a2e2f7fCAS | open url image1

Kennison KR, Wilkinson KL, Pollnitz AP, Williams HG, Gibberd MR (2011) Effect of smoke application to field-grown Merlot grapevines at key phenological growth stages on wine sensory and chemical properties. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research 17, S5–S12.
Effect of smoke application to field-grown Merlot grapevines at key phenological growth stages on wine sensory and chemical properties.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXpsFGntbg%3D&md5=1df0a6fefa9bcfb435e5ef374babff59CAS | open url image1

Koundouras S, Tsialtas IT, Zioziou E, Nikolaou N (2008) Rootstock effects on the adaptive strategies of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. cabernet-sauvignon) under contrasting water status: leaf physiological and structural responses. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 128, 86–96.
Rootstock effects on the adaptive strategies of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. cabernet-sauvignon) under contrasting water status: leaf physiological and structural responses.CrossRef | open url image1

Krupa SV, Manning WJ (1988) Atmospheric ozone: formation and effects on vegetation. Environmental Pollution 50, 101–137.
Atmospheric ozone: formation and effects on vegetation.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaL1cXhvVWms7Y%3D&md5=ef8e685c4687fc626c5ff9b717ef972dCAS | 15092655PubMed | open url image1

Kulkarni MG, Ascough GD, Verschaeve L, Baeten K, Arruda MP, van Staden L (2010) Effect of smoke-water and a smoke-isolated butenolide on the growth and genotoxicity of commercial onion. Scientia Horticulturae 124, 434–439.
Effect of smoke-water and a smoke-isolated butenolide on the growth and genotoxicity of commercial onion.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXksFKjsrs%3D&md5=d6e1070cc91367b03325f525794a0376CAS | open url image1

Light ME, Daws MI, Van Staden J (2009) Smoke-derived butenolide: towards understanding its biological effects. South African Journal of Botany 75, 1–7.
Smoke-derived butenolide: towards understanding its biological effects.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXivVGqtr4%3D&md5=20c58919ea2aaf4407f0a28a336b38b9CAS | open url image1

Lovisolo C, Perrone I, Carra A, Ferrandino A, Flexas J, Medrano H, Schubert A (2010) Drought-induced changes in development and function of grapevine (Vitis spp.) organs and their hydraulic and non-hydraulic interactions at the whole-plant level: a physiological and molecular update. Functional Plant Biology 37, 98–116.
Drought-induced changes in development and function of grapevine (Vitis spp.) organs and their hydraulic and non-hydraulic interactions at the whole-plant level: a physiological and molecular update.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXhtlyhsrs%3D&md5=87fde9864c23ad812d346a8864d79708CAS | open url image1

Luo H-B, Ma L, Xi H-F, Duan W, Li S-H, Loescher W, Wang J-F, Wang L-J (2011) Photosynthetic responses to heat treatments at different temperatures and following recovery in grapevine (Vitis amurensis L.) leaves. PLoS ONE 6, e23033
Photosynthetic responses to heat treatments at different temperatures and following recovery in grapevine (Vitis amurensis L.) leaves.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXht1Sqt73N&md5=91824b97766e47355be1a15dc6d3341cCAS | 21887227PubMed | open url image1

Maleknia SD, Bell TL, Adams MA (2007) PTR-MS analysis of reference and plant-emitted volatile organic compounds. International Journal of Mass Spectrometry 262, 203–210.
PTR-MS analysis of reference and plant-emitted volatile organic compounds.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXjsVWms7w%3D&md5=c4b23672a1e409cabcdc853c7336f3d3CAS | open url image1

Maleknia SD, Bell TL, Adams MA (2009) Eucalypt smoke and wildfires: temperature dependent emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds. International Journal of Mass Spectrometry 279, 126–133.
Eucalypt smoke and wildfires: temperature dependent emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXksVCnug%3D%3D&md5=2f32dc916ce6b4995db7aae84922a617CAS | open url image1

Marangon M, Van Sluyter SC, Haynes PA, Waters EJ (2009) Grape and wine proteins: their fractionation by hydrophobic interaction chromatography an identification by chromatographic and proteomic analysis. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 57, 4415–4425.
Grape and wine proteins: their fractionation by hydrophobic interaction chromatography an identification by chromatographic and proteomic analysis.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXktF2gs7g%3D&md5=b34c354125f9db501b1f72bf7b25944fCAS | 19354294PubMed | open url image1

McKenzie LM, Hao WM, Richards GN, Ward DE (1995) Measurement and modelling of air toxins from smouldering combustion of biomass. Environmental Science & Technology 29, 2047–2054.
Measurement and modelling of air toxins from smouldering combustion of biomass.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK2MXmsFCkurs%3D&md5=49158ef0e2673fbcdf744238ef7aac31CAS | open url image1

Medrano H, Escalona JM, Cifre J, Bota J, Flexas J (2003) A ten-year study on the physiology of two Spanish grapevine cultivars under field conditions: effects of water availability from leaf photosynthesis to grape yield and quality. Functional Plant Biology 30, 607–619.
A ten-year study on the physiology of two Spanish grapevine cultivars under field conditions: effects of water availability from leaf photosynthesis to grape yield and quality.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXmvFSkt70%3D&md5=7a4ba0340a37eeb351234968951efab0CAS | open url image1

Moutinho-Pereira J, Magalhães N, Gonçalves B, Bacelar E, Brito M, Correia C (2007) Gas exchange and water relations of three Vitis vinifera L. cultivars growing under Mediterranean climate. Photosynthetica 45, 202–207.
Gas exchange and water relations of three Vitis vinifera L. cultivars growing under Mediterranean climate.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXktlSmt74%3D&md5=3dba20767b74901f0c77465b61c37414CAS | open url image1

Moutinho-Pereira JM, Gonçalves B, Bacelar E, Boaventura Cunha J, Coutinho J, Correia CM (2009) Effects of elevate CO2 on grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): physiological and yield attributes. Vitis 48, 159–165.

Palliotti A, Silvestroni O, Petoumenou D (2009) Photosynthetic and photoinhibition behavor of two field-grown cultivars under multiple summer stresses. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 60, 189–198.

Pitman AJ, Narisma GT, McAneney J (2007) The impact of climate change on the risk of forest and grassland fires in Australia. Climatic Change 84, 383–401.
The impact of climate change on the risk of forest and grassland fires in Australia.CrossRef | open url image1

Regina MD, Carbonneau A (1999) Gas exchanges in grapevines under water stress regime. II. Photorespiration and varietal behaviour. Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira 34, 37–43.

MKF Research (2006) The impact of wine, grapes and grape products on the American economy. MKF Research Report. (St Helena, CA, USA) Available at www.cawg.org/images/stories/pdf/impactonamericaneconomyfinal.pdf [Verified 15 May 2013]

Ristic R, Osidacz P, Pinchbeck KA, Hayasaka Y, Fudge AL, Wilkinson KL (2011) The effect of winemaking techniques on the intensity of smoke taint in wine. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research 17, S29–S40.
The effect of winemaking techniques on the intensity of smoke taint in wine.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXpsFGnurw%3D&md5=8b8ca2a236ace396235209659fbb4cdaCAS | open url image1

Robinson MF, Heath J, Mansfield TA (1998) Disturbance in stomatal behaviour caused by air pollutants. Journal of Experimental Botany 49, 461–469.

Rogiers SY, Hardie WJ, Smith JP (2011) Stomatal density of grapevine leaves (Vitis vinifera L.) responds to soil temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research 17, 147–152.
Stomatal density of grapevine leaves (Vitis vinifera L.) responds to soil temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide.CrossRef | open url image1

Santesteban LG, Miranda C, Royo JB (2009) Effect of water deficit and rewatering on leaf gas exchange and transpiration decline of excised leaves of four grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars. Scientia Horticulturae 121, 434–439.
Effect of water deficit and rewatering on leaf gas exchange and transpiration decline of excised leaves of four grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars.CrossRef | open url image1

Schultz HR (2000) Climate change and viticulture: a European perspective on climatology, carbon dioxide and UV-B effects. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research 6, 2–12.
Climate change and viticulture: a European perspective on climatology, carbon dioxide and UV-B effects.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXjt1Sls70%3D&md5=b2c8e06ca7e6563e50780833a7f0b70bCAS | open url image1

Schultz HR (2003) Differences in hydraulic architecture account for near-isohydric and anisohydric behaviour of two field-grown Vitis vinifera L. cultivars during drought. Plant, Cell & Environment 26, 1393–1405.
Differences in hydraulic architecture account for near-isohydric and anisohydric behaviour of two field-grown Vitis vinifera L. cultivars during drought.CrossRef | open url image1

Sepúlveda G, Kliewer WM (1986) Stomatal response of three grapevine cultivars (Vitis vinifera L.) to high temperature. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 37, 44–52.

Singh DP, Ching HH, Pitt KM, Cleary M, Dokoozlian NK, Downey MO (2011) Guaiacol and 4-methylguaiacol accumulate in wines made from smoke-affected fruit because of hydrolysis of their conjugates. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research 17, S13–S21.
Guaiacol and 4-methylguaiacol accumulate in wines made from smoke-affected fruit because of hydrolysis of their conjugates.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXpsFGntbY%3D&md5=6bd714090d157ae9479640e84ebe9517CAS | open url image1

Soar CJ, Spiers J, Maffei SM, Penrose AB, McCarthy MG, Loveys BR (2006) Grape vine varieties Shiraz and Grenache differ in their stomatal response to VPD: apparent links with ABA physiology and gene expression in leaf tissue. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research 12, 2–12.
Grape vine varieties Shiraz and Grenache differ in their stomatal response to VPD: apparent links with ABA physiology and gene expression in leaf tissue.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XksFSlsLc%3D&md5=fc138d386d82cc1445b746cfe8698626CAS | open url image1

Soar CJ, Collins MJ, Sadras VO (2009) Irrigated Shiraz vines (Vitis vinifera) upregulate gas exchange and maintain berry growth in response to short spells of high maximum temperature in the field. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research 8, 86–94.

Sparg SG, Kulkarni MG, Light ME, Van Staden J (2005) Imporving seedling vigour of indigenous medicinal plants with smoke. Bioresource Technology 96, 1323–1330.
Imporving seedling vigour of indigenous medicinal plants with smoke.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXisFyjsrk%3D&md5=31a8a4fa0de2bb66a6c60295f4c321c2CAS | 15792578PubMed | open url image1

Stephens SL, Martin RE, Clinton NE (2007) Prehistoric fire area and emissions from California’s forests, woodlands, shrublands, and grasslands. Forest Ecology and Management 251, 205–216.
Prehistoric fire area and emissions from California’s forests, woodlands, shrublands, and grasslands.CrossRef | open url image1

Stevens RM, Harvey G, Partington DL, Coombe BG (1999) Irrigation of grapevines with saline water at different growth stages. I. Effects on soil salinity and sodicity, vegetative growth and yield. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 50, 343–355.
Irrigation of grapevines with saline water at different growth stages. I. Effects on soil salinity and sodicity, vegetative growth and yield.CrossRef | open url image1

Stevens RM, Pech JM, Gibberd MR, Walker RR, Jones JA, Taylor J, Nicholas PR (2008) Effect of reduced irrigation on growth, yield, ripening rates and water relations of Chardonnay vines grafted to five rootstocks. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research 14, 177–190.

Stulen I, Perez-Soba M, De Kok LJ, Van der Eerden L (1998) Impact of gaseous nitrogen deposition on plant functioning. New Phytologist 139, 61–70.
Impact of gaseous nitrogen deposition on plant functioning.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK1cXkt1egu7g%3D&md5=ebc3ce7730a4e8d93a9d12c7459826d9CAS | open url image1

Taylor JLS, Van Staden J (1998) Plant-derived smoke solutions stimulate the growth of Lycopersicon esculentum roots in vitro. Plant Growth Regulation 26, 77–83.
Plant-derived smoke solutions stimulate the growth of Lycopersicon esculentum roots in vitro.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXisFGg&md5=7d87b9a1655e25150e7523658b5e7639CAS | open url image1

Troggio M, Vezzulli S, Pindo M, Malacarne G, Fontana P, Moreira FM, Costantini L, Grando MS, Viola R, Velasco R (2008) Beyond the genome, opportunities for a modern viticulture: a research overview. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 59, 117–127.

Vivier MA, Pretorius IS (2002) Genetically tailored grapevines for the wine industry. Trends in Biotechnology 20, 472–478.
Genetically tailored grapevines for the wine industry.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XotFyqur8%3D&md5=dc5da419fd890050ef846f1f4c707ea3CAS | 12413822PubMed | open url image1

Ward DE (1999) Smoke from wildland fires. In ‘Health Guidelines for Vegetation Fire Events: Background Papers’. (Eds KT Goh, D Schwela, JG Goldammer, O Simpson) pp. 70–85. (World Health Organization: Lima)

Ward DE, Hardy CC (1991) Smoke emissions from wildland fires. Environment International 17, 117–134.
Smoke emissions from wildland fires.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK3MXktlCltr4%3D&md5=ae87822b6df337a58f7d9878f173fd3eCAS | open url image1

Wareing K, Flinn D (2003) ‘The Victorian alpine fires, January–March 2003. Fire Management, Victorian Department of Sustainability and Environment. (Melbourne) Available at http://www.dse.vic.gov.au/fire-and-other-emergencies/the-victorian-alpine-fires-2003 [Verified 18 May 2013]

Webb LB, Whetton PH, Barlow EWR (2007) Modelled impact of future climate change on the phenology of winegrapes in Australia. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research 13, 165–175.
Modelled impact of future climate change on the phenology of winegrapes in Australia.CrossRef | open url image1

Weinstein LH (1984) Effects of air pollution on grapevines. Vitis 23, 274–303.

Whiting J, Krstic M (2007) Understanding the sensitivity to timing and management options to mitigation the negative impacts of bush fire smoke on grape and wine quality – scoping study. Victorian Department of Primary Industries. (Melbourne)

Wilkinson KL, Ristic R, Pinchbeck KA, Fudge AL, Singh DP, Pitt KM, Downey MO, Baldock GA, Hayasaka Y, Parker M, Herderich MJ (2011) Comparison of methods for the analysis of smoke related phenols and their conjugates in grapes and wine. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research 17, S22–S28.
Comparison of methods for the analysis of smoke related phenols and their conjugates in grapes and wine.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXpsFGnur4%3D&md5=cbe0ba25bf053d9dc1435cfccecc326aCAS | open url image1

Williams AA, Karoly DJ, Tapper N (2001) The sensitivity of Australian fire danger to climate change. Climatic Change 49, 171–191.
The sensitivity of Australian fire danger to climate change.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXktVOht7c%3D&md5=0013432585efd6ccc9a567d197fd6bc2CAS | open url image1

Winters AJ, Adams MA, Bleby TM, Rennenberg H, Steigner D, Steinbrecher R, Kreuzwieser J (2009) Emissions of isoprene, monoterpene and short-chained carbonyl compounds from Eucalyptus spp. in southern Australia. Atmospheric Environment 43, 3035–3043.
Emissions of isoprene, monoterpene and short-chained carbonyl compounds from Eucalyptus spp. in southern Australia.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXls1emurw%3D&md5=14b78420e58b6347f87660331f1e689cCAS | open url image1



Export Citation