International Journal of Wildland Fire International Journal of Wildland Fire Society
Journal of the International Association of Wildland Fire
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Challenges of assessing fire and burn severity using field measures, remote sensing and modelling

Penelope Morgan A E , Robert E. Keane B , Gregory K. Dillon B , Theresa B. Jain C , Andrew T. Hudak C , Eva C. Karau B , Pamela G. Sikkink C , Zachary A. Holden D and Eva K. Strand A
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A University of Idaho, Department of Forest, Rangeland, and Fire Sciences, 875 Perimeter Drive MS 1133, Moscow, ID 83844, USA.

B USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Missoula Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT 59807, USA.

C USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Forestry Sciences Laboratory, Moscow, ID 83843, USA.

D USDA Forest Service, Northern Region, Missoula, MT 59807, USA.

E Corresponding author. Email: pmorgan@uidaho.edu

International Journal of Wildland Fire 23(8) 1045-1060 https://doi.org/10.1071/WF13058
Submitted: 13 April 2013  Accepted: 14 July 2014   Published: 25 November 2014

Abstract

Comprehensive assessment of ecological change after fires have burned forests and rangelands is important if we are to understand, predict and measure fire effects. We highlight the challenges in effective assessment of fire and burn severity in the field and using both remote sensing and simulation models. We draw on diverse recent research for guidance on assessing fire effects on vegetation and soil using field methods, remote sensing and models. We suggest that instead of collapsing many diverse, complex and interacting fire effects into a single severity index, the effects of fire should be directly measured and then integrated into severity index keys specifically designed for objective severity assessment. Using soil burn severity measures as examples, we highlight best practices for selecting imagery, designing an index, determining timing and deciding what to measure, emphasising continuous variables measureable in the field and from remote sensing. We also urge the development of a severity field assessment database and research to further our understanding of causal mechanisms linking fire and burn severity to conditions before and during fires to support improved models linking fire behaviour and severity and for forecasting effects of future fires.

Additional keywords: fire ecology, fire effects, mapping, remote sensing, retrospective assessment, wildfire environment.


References

Agee JK, Smith L (1984) Subalpine tree reestablishment after fire in the Olympic Mountains, Washington. Ecology 65, 810–819.
Subalpine tree reestablishment after fire in the Olympic Mountains, Washington.CrossRef |

Alexander ME (1982) Calculating and interpreting forest fire intensities. Canadian Journal of Botany 60, 349–357.
Calculating and interpreting forest fire intensities.CrossRef |

Alexander JD, Seavy NE, Ralph JC, Hogoboom B (2006) Vegetation and topographical correlates of fire severity from two fires in the Klamath-Siskiyou region of Oregon and California. International Journal of Wildland Fire 15, 237–245.
Vegetation and topographical correlates of fire severity from two fires in the Klamath-Siskiyou region of Oregon and California.CrossRef |

Arocena JM, Opio C (2003) Prescribed fire-induced changes in properties of sub-boreal forest soils. Geoderma 113, 1–16.
Prescribed fire-induced changes in properties of sub-boreal forest soils.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXos1OhtQ%3D%3D&md5=cf84e2b05cece945b7fd14a3c297dcf2CAS |

Baird M, Zabowski D, Everett RL (1999) Wildfire effects on carbon and nitrogen in inland coniferous forests. Plant and Soil 209, 233–243.
Wildfire effects on carbon and nitrogen in inland coniferous forests.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXlt1emsrc%3D&md5=d4e396d3555e94d96cd2169b4f86aaebCAS |

Barkley YC (2006) After the burn: assessing and managing your forestland after a wildfire. University of Idaho Extension, Idaho Forest, Wildlife and Range Experiment Station, Bulletin No. 76. (Moscow, ID)

Barrett SW, DeMeo T, Jones JL, Zeiler JD, Hutter LC (2006) Assessing ecological departure from reference conditions with the Fire Regime Condition Class (FRCC) mapping tool. In ‘Fuels Management – How to Measure Success’. (Eds PL Andrews, BW Butler) USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Proceedings RMRS-P-41 pp. 575–585. (Fort Collins, CO).

Belillas CM, Feller MC (1998) Relationships between fire severity and atmospheric and leaching nutrient losses in British Columbia’s coastal Western Hemlock zone forests. International Journal of Wildland Fire 8, 87–101.
Relationships between fire severity and atmospheric and leaching nutrient losses in British Columbia’s coastal Western Hemlock zone forests.CrossRef |

Bentley JR, Fenner RL (1958) Soil temperatures during burning related to postfire seedbeds on woodland range. Journal of Forestry 56, 737–740.

Bernhardt EL, Hollingsworth TN, Chapin IFS (2011) Fire severity mediates climate-driven shifts in understory community composition of black spruce stands of interior Alaska. Journal of Vegetation Science 22, 32–44.
Fire severity mediates climate-driven shifts in understory community composition of black spruce stands of interior Alaska.CrossRef |

Beschta RL, Rhodes JJ, Kauffman JB, Gresswell RE, Minshall GW, Karr JR, Perry DA, Hauer FR, Frissell C (2004) Postfire management on forested public lands of the western United States. Conservation Biology 18, 957–967.
Postfire management on forested public lands of the western United States.CrossRef |

Beukema SJ, Kurz WA (1998) ‘Vegetation dynamics development tool – Users Guide Version 3.0.’ (ESSA Technologies: Vancouver, BC).

Bigler C, Kulakowski D, Veblen TT (2005) Multiple disturbance interactions and drought influence fire severity in rocky mountain subalpine forests. Ecology 86, 3018–3029.
Multiple disturbance interactions and drought influence fire severity in rocky mountain subalpine forests.CrossRef |

Bisson M, Fornaciai A, Coli A, Mazzarini F, Pareschi MT (2008) The vegetation resilience after fire (VRAF) index: development, implementation and an illustration from central Italy. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation 10, 312–329.
The vegetation resilience after fire (VRAF) index: development, implementation and an illustration from central Italy.CrossRef |

Blank RR, Allen F, Young JA (1994) Extractable anions in soils following wildfire in a sagebrush–grass community. Soil Science Society of America Journal 58, 564–570.
Extractable anions in soils following wildfire in a sagebrush–grass community.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK2cXksFKnurY%3D&md5=4383e33e91372b718dae68ec5719513aCAS |

Boby LA, Schuur EAG, Mack MC, Verbyla D, Johnstone JF (2010) Quantifying fire severity, carbon, and nitrogen emissions in Alaska’s boreal forest. Ecological Applications 20, 1633–1647.
Quantifying fire severity, carbon, and nitrogen emissions in Alaska’s boreal forest.CrossRef | 20945764PubMed |

Bonnet VH, Schoettle AW, Shepperd WD (2005) Postfire environmental conditions influence the spatial pattern of regeneration for Pinus ponderosa. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 35, 37–47.
Postfire environmental conditions influence the spatial pattern of regeneration for Pinus ponderosa.CrossRef |

Bowman DM, Balch JK, Artaxo P, Bond WJ, Carlson JM, Cochrane MA, D’Antonio CM, DeFries RS, Doyle JC, Harrison SP, Johnston FH, Keeley JE, Krawchuk MA, Kull CA, Marston JB, Moritz MA, Prentice IC, Roos CI, Scott AC, Swetnam TW, van der Werf GR, Pyne SJ (2009) Fire in the Earth system. Science 324, 481–484.
Fire in the Earth system.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXkvVGmtb8%3D&md5=7d355635183e478d3c504946e7a1f904CAS | 19390038PubMed |

Bradstock RA, Hammill KA, Collins L, Price O (2010) Effects of weather, fuel and terrain on fire severity in topographically diverse landscapes of south-eastern Australia. Landscape Ecology 25, 607–619.
Effects of weather, fuel and terrain on fire severity in topographically diverse landscapes of south-eastern Australia.CrossRef |

Brais S, Pare D, Ouimet R (2000) Impacts of wild fire severity and salvage harvesting on the nutrient balance of jack pine and black spruce boreal stands. Forest Ecology and Management 137, 231–243.
Impacts of wild fire severity and salvage harvesting on the nutrient balance of jack pine and black spruce boreal stands.CrossRef |

Broncano MJ, Retana J (2004) Topography and forest composition affecting the variability in fire severity and post-fire regeneration occurring after a large fire in the Mediterranean basin. International Journal of Wildland Fire 13, 209–216.
Topography and forest composition affecting the variability in fire severity and post-fire regeneration occurring after a large fire in the Mediterranean basin.CrossRef |

Cansler CA, McKenzie D (2012) How robust are burn severity indices when applied in a new region? Evaluation of alternate field-based and remote sensing methods. Remote Sensing 4, 456–483.
How robust are burn severity indices when applied in a new region? Evaluation of alternate field-based and remote sensing methods.CrossRef |

Carey A, Evans M, Hann P, Lintermans M, MacDonald T, Ormay P, Sharp S, Shorthouse D, Webb N (2003) Wildfires in the ACT 2003: Report on initial impacts on natural ecosystems. Australian Capital Territory, Technical Report 17, Environment ACT, Canberra, Australia. 123 pp.

Cerri CC, Volkoff B, Andreaux F (1991) Nature and behaviour of organic matter in soils under natural forest, and after deforestation, burning, and cultivation near Manaus. Forest Ecology and Management 38, 247–257.
Nature and behaviour of organic matter in soils under natural forest, and after deforestation, burning, and cultivation near Manaus.CrossRef |

Chafer CJ (2008) A comparison of fire severity measures: an Australian example and implications for predicting major areas of soil erosion. Catena 74, 235–245.
A comparison of fire severity measures: an Australian example and implications for predicting major areas of soil erosion.CrossRef |

Chafer CJ, Noonan M, Macnaught E (2004) The post-fire measurement of fire severity and intensity in the Christmas 2001 Sydney wildfires. International Journal of Wildland Fire 13, 227–240.
The post-fire measurement of fire severity and intensity in the Christmas 2001 Sydney wildfires.CrossRef |

Choromanska U, DeLuca TH (2002) Microbial activity and nitrogen mineralization in forest mineral soils following heating: evaluation of post-fire effects. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 34, 263–271.
Microbial activity and nitrogen mineralization in forest mineral soils following heating: evaluation of post-fire effects.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38Xhtlyn&md5=2796b662971b570b51cca29603adb228CAS |

Chuvieco E (1999) Measuring changes in landscape pattern from satellite images: short-term effects of fire on spatial diversity. International Journal of Remote Sensing 20, 2331–2346.
Measuring changes in landscape pattern from satellite images: short-term effects of fire on spatial diversity.CrossRef |

Chuvieco E, Riaño D, Danson F, Martin P (2006) Use of a radiative transfer model to simulate the postfire spectral response to burn severity. Journal of Geophysical Research 111, G04S09
Use of a radiative transfer model to simulate the postfire spectral response to burn severity.CrossRef |

Chuvieco E, De Santis A, Riano D, Halligan K (2007) Simulation approaches for burn severity estimation using remotely sensed images. Fire Ecology 3, 129–150.
Simulation approaches for burn severity estimation using remotely sensed images.CrossRef |

Clark J, McKinley R (2011) Remote sensing and geospatial support to Burned Area Emergency Response Teams. Fire Management Today 71, 15–18.

Cocke AE, Fule PZ, Crouse JE (2005) Comparison of burn severity assessments using Differenced Normalized Burn Ratio and ground data. International Journal of Wildland Fire 14, 189–198.
Comparison of burn severity assessments using Differenced Normalized Burn Ratio and ground data.CrossRef |

De Santis A, Chuvieco E (2009) GeoCBI: a modified version of the Composite Burn Index for the initial assessment of the short-term burn severity from remotely sensed data. Remote Sensing of Environment 113, 554–562.
GeoCBI: a modified version of the Composite Burn Index for the initial assessment of the short-term burn severity from remotely sensed data.CrossRef |

De Santis A, Chuvieco E, Vaughn P (2009) Short-term assessment of burn severity using the inversion of PROSPECT and GeoSail models. Remote Sensing of Environment 113, 126–136.
Short-term assessment of burn severity using the inversion of PROSPECT and GeoSail models.CrossRef |

De Santis A, Asner GP, Vaughan PJ, Knapp DE (2010) Mapping burn severity and burning efficiency in California using simulation models and Landsat imagery. Remote Sensing of Environment 114, 1535–1545.
Mapping burn severity and burning efficiency in California using simulation models and Landsat imagery.CrossRef |

Debouk H, Riera-Tatche R, Vega-Garcia C (2013) Assessing post-fire regeneration in a Mediterranean mixed forest using LiDAR data and artificial neural networks. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 79, 1121–1130.
Assessing post-fire regeneration in a Mediterranean mixed forest using LiDAR data and artificial neural networks.CrossRef |

Díaz-Delgado R, Lloret F, Pons X (2003) Influence of fire severity on plant regeneration through remote sensing imagery. International Journal of Remote Sensing 24, 1751–1763.
Influence of fire severity on plant regeneration through remote sensing imagery.CrossRef |

Dillon GK, Holden ZA, Morgan P, Crimmins MA, Heyerdahl EK, Luce CH (2011) Both topography and climate affected forest and woodland burn severity in two regions of the western US, 1984 to 2006. Ecosphere 2, art130
Both topography and climate affected forest and woodland burn severity in two regions of the western US, 1984 to 2006.CrossRef |

Doerr SH, Shakesby RA, Walsh RPD (2000) Soil water repellency: its causes, characteristics and hydro-geomorphological significance. Earth-Science Reviews 51, 33–65.
Soil water repellency: its causes, characteristics and hydro-geomorphological significance.CrossRef |

Donato DC, Fontaine JB, Campbell JL, Robinson WD, Kauffman JB, Law BE (2009) Conifer regeneration in stand-replacement portions of a large mixed-severity wildfire in the Klamath-Siskiyou Mountains. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 39, 823–838.
Conifer regeneration in stand-replacement portions of a large mixed-severity wildfire in the Klamath-Siskiyou Mountains.CrossRef |

Dyrness CT, Norum RA (1983) The effects of experimental fires on black spruce forest floors in interior Alaska. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 13, 879–893.
The effects of experimental fires on black spruce forest floors in interior Alaska.CrossRef |

Eidenshink J, Schwind B, Brewer K, Zhu Z, Quayle B, Howard S (2007) A project for monitoring trends in burn severity. Fire Ecology 3, 3–21.
A project for monitoring trends in burn severity.CrossRef |

Ekstrand S (1994) Assessment of forest damage with Landsat TM: correction for varying forest stand characteristics. Remote Sensing of Environment 47, 291–302.
Assessment of forest damage with Landsat TM: correction for varying forest stand characteristics.CrossRef |

Ellingson LJ, Kauffman JB, Cummings DL, Sanford RL, Jaramillo VJ (2000) Soil N dynamics associated with deforestation, biomass burning, and pasture conversion in a Mexican tropical dry forest. Forest Ecology and Management 137, 41–51.
Soil N dynamics associated with deforestation, biomass burning, and pasture conversion in a Mexican tropical dry forest.CrossRef |

Epting J, Verbyla D, Sorbel B (2005) Evaluation of remotely sensed indices for assessing burn severity in interior Alaska using Landsat TM and ETM+. Remote Sensing of Environment 96, 328–339.
Evaluation of remotely sensed indices for assessing burn severity in interior Alaska using Landsat TM and ETM+.CrossRef |

Fox DM, Maselli F, Carrega P (2008) Using SPOT images and field sampling to map burn severity and vegetation factors affecting post forest fire erosion risk. Catena 75, 326–335.
Using SPOT images and field sampling to map burn severity and vegetation factors affecting post forest fire erosion risk.CrossRef |

French NHF, Kasischke ES, Hall RJ, Murphy KA, Verbyla DL, Hoy EE, Allen JL (2008) Using Landsat data to assess fire and burn severity in the North American boreal forest region: an overview and summary of results. International Journal of Wildland Fire 17, 443–462.
Using Landsat data to assess fire and burn severity in the North American boreal forest region: an overview and summary of results.CrossRef |

Ghermandi L, Gonzalez S, Lescano MN, Oddi F (2013) Effects of fire severity on early recovery of Patagonian steppes. International Journal of Wildland Fire 22, 1055–1062.
Effects of fire severity on early recovery of Patagonian steppes.CrossRef |

Graham RT, McCaffrey S, Jain TB (2004) Science basis for changing forest structure to modify wildfire behavior and severity. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-120. (Fort Collins, CO).

Guay T (2011) Rapid assessment of vegetation condition after wildfire. Fire Management Today 71, 5–8.

Halofsky JE, Hibbs DE (2009) Relationships among indices of fire severity in riparian zones. International Journal of Wildland Fire 18, 584–593.
Relationships among indices of fire severity in riparian zones.CrossRef |

Hessburg PF, Salter RB, James KM (2007) Re-examining fire severity relations in pre-management era mixed conifer forests: inferences from landscape patterns of forest structure. Landscape Ecology 22, 5–24.
Re-examining fire severity relations in pre-management era mixed conifer forests: inferences from landscape patterns of forest structure.CrossRef |

Holden ZA, Jolly WM (2011) Modeling topographic influences on fuel moisture and fire danger in complex terrain for improved wildland fire management decision support. Forest Ecology and Management 262, 2133–2141.
Modeling topographic influences on fuel moisture and fire danger in complex terrain for improved wildland fire management decision support.CrossRef |

Holden ZA, Morgan P, Crimmins M, Steinhorst RK, Smith AMS (2007) Fire season precipitation variability influences fire extent and severity in a large southwestern wilderness area, United States. Geophysical Research Letters 34, L16708
Fire season precipitation variability influences fire extent and severity in a large southwestern wilderness area, United States.CrossRef |

Holden ZA, Morgan P, Evans JS (2009) A predictive model of burn severity based on 20-year satellite-inferred burn severity data in a large southwestern US wilderness area. Forest Ecology and Management 258, 2399–2406.
A predictive model of burn severity based on 20-year satellite-inferred burn severity data in a large southwestern US wilderness area.CrossRef |

Hood S, Bentz BJ, Gibson K, Ryan KC, DeNitto G (2007) Assessing post-fire Douglas-fir mortality and Douglas-fir beetle attacks in the northern Rocky Mountains. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-199. (Fort Collins, CO).

Hudak AT, Brockett BH (2004) Mapping fire scars in a southern African savanna using Landsat imagery. International Journal of Remote Sensing 25, 3231–3243.
Mapping fire scars in a southern African savanna using Landsat imagery.CrossRef |

Hudak AT, Morgan P, Bobbitt M, Lentile L (2007a) Characterizing stand-replacing harvest and fire disturbance patches in a forested landscape: a case study from Cooney Ridge, Montana. In ‘Understanding Forest Disturbance and Spatial Patterns: Remote Sensing and GIS Approaches’. (Eds MA Wulder, SE Franklin) pp. 209–231. (Taylor and Francis: London, UK).

Hudak AT, Morgan P, Bobbitt MJ, Smith AMS, Lewis SA, Lentile LB, Robichaud PR, Clark JT, McKinley RA (2007b) The relationship of multispectral satellite imagery to immediate fire effects. Fire Ecology 3, 64–90.
The relationship of multispectral satellite imagery to immediate fire effects.CrossRef |

Hudak AT, Rickert I, Morgan P, Strand E, Lewis SA, Robichaud PR, Hoffman C, Holden ZA (2011) Review of fuel treatment effectiveness in forests and rangelands and a case study from the 2007 megafires in central, Idaho, USA. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station RMRS-GTR-252. (Fort Collins, CO).

Hudak AT, Ottmar RD, Vihnanek BRE, Brewer NW, Smith AMS, Morgan P (2013) The relationship of post-fire white ash cover to surface fuel consumption. International Journal of Wildland Fire 22, 780–785.
The relationship of post-fire white ash cover to surface fuel consumption.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3sXhtlyqurfN&md5=5df523ecc2e611e47db9380e81b6af25CAS |

Jain TB, Graham RT (2004) Is forest structure related to fire severity? Yes, no, and maybe: methods and insights in quantifying the answer. In ‘Silviculture in Special Places: Proceedings of the 2003 National Silviculture Workshop’ 8–11 Sept 2003, Granby, CO. (Eds WD Shepperd, LG Eskew) USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station Proceedings RMRS-P-34 , pp. 217–234. (Fort Collins, CO).

Jain TB, Graham RT (2007) The relation between tree burn severity and forest structure in the Rocky Mountains. In ‘Restoring Fire-adapted Ecosystems: Proceedings of the 2005 National Silviculture Workshop’, 6–10 June 2005. (Ed. RF Powers) USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, General Technical Report PSW-GTR-203, pp. 213–250. (Albany, CA).

Jain TB, Graham RT, Pilliod DS (2004) Tongue-tied. Wildfire 4, 22–26.

Jain TB, Graham RT, Pilliod DS (2006) The relation between forest structure and soil burn severity. In ‘Fuels Management – How to Measure Success’, 28–30 March 2006, Portland, OR. (Eds PL Andrews, B Butler) USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, RMRS-P-41, pp. 615–631. (Fort Collins, CO).

Jain TB, Gould WA, Graham RT, Pilliod DS, Lentile LB, Gonzalez G (2008) A soil burn severity index for understanding soil–fire relations in tropical forests. Ambio 37, 563–568.
A soil burn severity index for understanding soil–fire relations in tropical forests.CrossRef | 19205179PubMed |

Jain TB, Pilliod DS, Graham RT, Lentile LB, Sandquist JE (2012) Index for characterizing post-fire soil environments in temperate coniferous forests. Forests 3, 445–466.
Index for characterizing post-fire soil environments in temperate coniferous forests.CrossRef |

Jakubauskas ME, Lulla KP, Mausel PW (1990) Assessment of vegetation change in a fire-altered forest landscape. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 56, 371–377.

Johansen MP, Hakonson TE, Breshears DD (2001) Post-fire runoff and erosion from rainfall simulation: contrasting forests with shrublands and grasslands. Hydrological Processes 15, 2953–2965.
Post-fire runoff and erosion from rainfall simulation: contrasting forests with shrublands and grasslands.CrossRef |

Kane VR, Lutz JA, Roberts SL, Smith DF, McGaughey RJ, Povak NA, Brooks ML (2013) Landscape-scale effects of fire severity on mixed-conifer and red fir forest structure in Yosemite National Park. Forest Ecology and Management 287, 17–31.
Landscape-scale effects of fire severity on mixed-conifer and red fir forest structure in Yosemite National Park.CrossRef |

Karau EC, Keane RE (2010) Burn severity mapping using simulation modelling and satellite imagery. International Journal of Wildland Fire 19, 710–724.
Burn severity mapping using simulation modelling and satellite imagery.CrossRef |

Karau EC, Sikkink PG, Keane RE, Dillon G (2014) Integration of satellite imagery with simulation modeling improves fire severity mapping. Environmental Management 54, 111
Integration of satellite imagery with simulation modeling improves fire severity mapping.CrossRef | 24817334PubMed |

Kasischke E, Hoy EE, French NHF, Turetsky MR (2007a) Post-fire evaluation of the effects of fire on the environment using remotely-sensed data. In ‘Towards an Operational Use of Remote Sensing in Forest Fire Management’. (Eds I Gitas, C Carmona) pp. 34–52. (Office for Official Publications of the European Communities: Luxembourg).

Kasischke ES, Bourgeau-Chavez LL, Johnstone JF (2007b) Assessing spatial and temporal variations in surface soil moisture in fire-disturbed black spruce forests in Interior Alaska using spaceborne synthetic aperture radar imagery – implications for post-fire tree recruitment. Remote Sensing of Environment 108, 42–58.
Assessing spatial and temporal variations in surface soil moisture in fire-disturbed black spruce forests in Interior Alaska using spaceborne synthetic aperture radar imagery – implications for post-fire tree recruitment.CrossRef |

Keane RE, Parsons RA (2010) A management guide to ecosystem restoration treatments: whitebark pine forests of the Northern Rocky Mountains. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, RMRS-GTR-232. (Fort Collins, CO).

Keane RE, Holsinger L, Pratt S (2006) Simulating historical landscape dynamics using the landscape fire succession model LANDSUM version 4.0. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, RMRS-GTR-171CD. (Fort Collins, CO).

Keane RE, Drury SA, Karau EC, Hessburg PF, Reynolds KM (2010) A method for mapping fire hazard and risk across multiple scales and its application in fire management. Ecological Modelling 221, 2–18.
A method for mapping fire hazard and risk across multiple scales and its application in fire management.CrossRef |

Keane RE, Herynk JM, Toney C, Urbanski SP, Lutes DC, Ottmar RD (2013) Evaluating the performance and mapping of three fuel classification systems using Forest Inventory and Analysis surface fuel measurements. Forest Ecology and Management 305, 248–263.
Evaluating the performance and mapping of three fuel classification systems using Forest Inventory and Analysis surface fuel measurements.CrossRef |

Keeley JE (2009) Fire intensity, fire severity and burn severity: a brief review and suggested usage. International Journal of Wildland Fire 18, 116–126.
Fire intensity, fire severity and burn severity: a brief review and suggested usage.CrossRef |

Keeley JE, Brennan T, Pfaff AH (2008) Fire severity and ecosystem responses following crown fires in California shrublands. Ecological Applications 18, 1530–1546.
Fire severity and ecosystem responses following crown fires in California shrublands.CrossRef | 18767627PubMed |

Key CH (2006) Ecological and sampling constraints on defining landscape fire severity. Fire Ecology 2, 34–59.
Ecological and sampling constraints on defining landscape fire severity.CrossRef |

Key CH, Benson NC (2006) Landscape assessment: ground measure of severity, the Composite Burn Index; and remote sensing of severity, the Normalized Burn Ratio. In ‘FIREMON: Fire Effects Monitoring and Inventory System’. (Eds DC Lutes, RE Keane, JF Caratti, CH Key, NC Benson, LJ Gangi) USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountains Research Station General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-164-CD, pp. 219–279. (Fort Collins, CO).

Keyser TL, Smith FW, Lentile LB, Shepperd WD (2006) Modeling postfire mortality of ponderosa pine following a mixed-severity wildfire in the Black Hills: the role of tree morphology and direct fire effects. Forest Science 52, 530–539.

King KJ, Bradstock RA, Cary GJ, Chapman J, Marsden-Smedley JB (2008) The relative importance of fine-scale fuel mosaics on reducing fire risk in south-west Tasmania, Australia. International Journal of Wildland Fire 17, 421–430.
The relative importance of fine-scale fuel mosaics on reducing fire risk in south-west Tasmania, Australia.CrossRef |

Kolden CA, Rogan J (2013) Mapping wildfire burn severity in the arctic tundra from downsampled MODIS data. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research 45, 64–76.
Mapping wildfire burn severity in the arctic tundra from downsampled MODIS data.CrossRef |

Kotliar NB, Reynolds EW, Deutschman DH (2008) American Three-toed Woodpecker response to burn severity and prey. Fire Ecology Special Issue 4, 26–45.
American Three-toed Woodpecker response to burn severity and prey.CrossRef |

Kremens RL, Smith AMS, Dickinson MB (2010) Fire metrology: current and future directions in physics-based measurements. Fire Ecology 6, 13–25.
Fire metrology: current and future directions in physics-based measurements.CrossRef |

Kuenzi AM, Fulé PZ, Sieg CH (2008) Effects of fire severity and pre-fire stand treatment on plant community recovery after a large wildfire. Forest Ecology and Management 255, 855–865.
Effects of fire severity and pre-fire stand treatment on plant community recovery after a large wildfire.CrossRef |

Kumar L, Clarke P, Munoz C, Knox K (2008) Mapping of fire severity and comparison of severity indices across vegetation types in Gibraltar Range National Park, Australia. International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing, and Spatial Information Sciences 37, 1477–1482.

Kushla JD, Ripple WJ (1997) The role of terrain in a fire mosaic of a temperate coniferous forest. Forest Ecology and Management 95, 97–107.
The role of terrain in a fire mosaic of a temperate coniferous forest.CrossRef |

Kwak DA, Chung J, Lee WK, Kafatos M, Lee SY, Cho HK, Lee SH (2010) Evaluation for damaged degree of vegetation by forest fire using Lidar and a digital aerial photograph. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 76, 277–287.
Evaluation for damaged degree of vegetation by forest fire using Lidar and a digital aerial photograph.CrossRef |

Landmann T (2003) Characterizing sub-pixel Landsat ETM+ fire severity on experimental fires in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. South African Journal of Science 99, 357–360.

Larrivée M, Fahrig L, Drapeau P (2005) Effects of a recent wildfire and clearcuts on ground-dwelling boreal forest spider assemblages. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 35, 2575–2588.
Effects of a recent wildfire and clearcuts on ground-dwelling boreal forest spider assemblages.CrossRef |

Lee SW, Lee MB, Lee YG, Won MS, Kim JJ, Hong SK (2009) Relationship between landscape structure and burn severity at the landscape and class levels in Samchuck, South Korea. Forest Ecology and Management 258, 1594–1604.
Relationship between landscape structure and burn severity at the landscape and class levels in Samchuck, South Korea.CrossRef |

Lentile LB, Smith FW, Shepperd WD (2005) Patch structure, fire-scar formation, and tree regeneration in a large mixed-severity fire in the South Dakota Black Hills, USA. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 35, 2875–2885.
Patch structure, fire-scar formation, and tree regeneration in a large mixed-severity fire in the South Dakota Black Hills, USA.CrossRef |

Lentile LB, Holden ZA, Smith AMS, Falkowski MJ, Hudak AT, Morgan P, Lewis SA, Gessler PE, Benson NC (2006) Remote sensing techniques to assess active fire characteristics and post-fire effects. International Journal of Wildland Fire 15, 319–345.
Remote sensing techniques to assess active fire characteristics and post-fire effects.CrossRef |

Lentile LB, Morgan P, Hudak AT, Bobbitt MJ, Lewis SA, Smith AM, Robichaud PR (2007) Post-fire burn severity and vegetation response following eight large wildfires across the western United States. Fire Ecology 3, 91–108.
Post-fire burn severity and vegetation response following eight large wildfires across the western United States.CrossRef |

Lentile LB, Smith AMS, Hudak AT, Morgan P, Bobbitt MJ, Lewis SA, Robichaud PR (2009) Remote sensing for prediction of 1-year post-fire ecosystem condition. International Journal of Wildland Fire 18, 594–608.
Remote sensing for prediction of 1-year post-fire ecosystem condition.CrossRef |

Lewis SA, Wu JQ, Robichaud PR (2006) Assessing burn severity and comparing soil water repellency, Hayman Fire, Colorado. Hydrological Processes 20, 1–16.
Assessing burn severity and comparing soil water repellency, Hayman Fire, Colorado.CrossRef |

Lutes DC, Keane RE, Caratti JF, Key CH, Benson NC, Sutherland S, Gangi LJ (2006) FIREMON: fire effects monitoring and inventory system. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, RMRS-GTR-164-CD. (Fort Collins, CO).

Magnussen S, Wulder MA (2012) Post-fire canopy height recovery in Canada’s boreal forests using Airborne Laser Scanner (ALS). Remote Sensing 4, 1600–1616.
Post-fire canopy height recovery in Canada’s boreal forests using Airborne Laser Scanner (ALS).CrossRef |

Mallek C, Safford H, Viers J, Miller J (2013) Modern departures in fire severity and area vary by forest type, Sierra Nevada and southern Cascades, California, USA. Ecosphere 4, art153
Modern departures in fire severity and area vary by forest type, Sierra Nevada and southern Cascades, California, USA.CrossRef |

Megown K, Finco M, Brewer K, Schwind B (2011) Accelerated remeasurement and evaluation of burned areas. Fire Management Today 71, 9–11.

Miller M (2001) Fire behavior and characteristics. In ‘Fire Effects Guide’. (Ed. M Miller), pp. 12–38. (National Interagency Fire Center: Boise, ID).

Miller JD, Safford HD (2012) Trends in wildfire severity 1984–2010 in the Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau, and southern Cascades, California, USA. Fire Ecology 8, 41–57.
Trends in wildfire severity 1984–2010 in the Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau, and southern Cascades, California, USA.CrossRef |

Miller JD, Thode AE (2007) Quantifying burn severity in a heterogeneous landscape with a relative version of the delta Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR). Remote Sensing of Environment 109, 66–80.
Quantifying burn severity in a heterogeneous landscape with a relative version of the delta Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR).CrossRef |

Miller JD, Nyhan JW, Yool SR (2003) Modeling potential erosion due to the Cerro Grande Fire with a GIS-biased implementation of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation. International Journal of Wildland Fire 12, 85–100.
Modeling potential erosion due to the Cerro Grande Fire with a GIS-biased implementation of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation.CrossRef |

Miller JD, Knapp EE, Key CH, Skinner CN, Isbell CJ, Creasy RM, Sherlock JW (2009) Calibration and validation of the relative differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (RdNBR) to three measures of fire severity in the Sierra Nevada and Klamath Mountains, California, USA. Remote Sensing of Environment 113, 645–656.
Calibration and validation of the relative differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (RdNBR) to three measures of fire severity in the Sierra Nevada and Klamath Mountains, California, USA.CrossRef |

Miller JD, Collins BM, Lutz JA, Stephens SL, van Wagtendonk JW, Yasuda DA (2012) Differences in wildfires among ecoregions and land management agencies in the Sierra Nevada region, California, USA. Ecosphere 3, art80
Differences in wildfires among ecoregions and land management agencies in the Sierra Nevada region, California, USA.CrossRef |

Moreno JM, Oechel WC (1989) A simple method for estimating fire intensity after a burn in California chaparral. Oecologia Plantarum 10, 57–68.

Moreno JM, Oechel WC (1991) Fire intensity effects on germination of shrubs and herbs in southern California chaparral. Ecology 72, 1993–2004.
Fire intensity effects on germination of shrubs and herbs in southern California chaparral.CrossRef |

Morgan P, Neuenschwander LF (1988) Seed-bank contributions to regeneration of shrub species after clear-cutting and burning. Canadian Journal of Botany 66, 169–172.
Seed-bank contributions to regeneration of shrub species after clear-cutting and burning.CrossRef |

Morgan P, Hardy CC, Swetnam TW, Rollins MG, Long DG (2001) Mapping fire regimes across time and space: understanding coarse and fine-scale fire patterns. International Journal of Wildland Fire 10, 329–342.
Mapping fire regimes across time and space: understanding coarse and fine-scale fire patterns.CrossRef |

National Wildfire Coordinating Group (2012) Glossary of Wildland Fire Terminology. Available at http://www.nwcg.gov/pms/pubs/glossary/ [Verified 22 February 2014]

Neary DG, Ryan KC, DeBano LF (Eds) (2008) Wildland fire in ecosystems: effects of fire on soils and water. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, RMRS-GTR-42-vol.4. (Ogden, UT)

Neff JC, Harden JW, Gleixner G (2005) Fire effects on soil organic matter content, composition, and nutrients in boreal interior Alaska Canadian Journal of Forest Research 35, 2187
Fire effects on soil organic matter content, composition, and nutrients in boreal interior AlaskaCrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XmsFejsg%3D%3D&md5=89c85a3bcec641f7f7e45a94513a5a0fCAS |

Oliveras I, Gracia M, Mora G, Retana J (2009) Factors influencing the pattern of fire severities in a large wildfire under extreme meteorological conditions in the Mediterranean basin. International Journal of Wildland Fire 18, 755–764.
Factors influencing the pattern of fire severities in a large wildfire under extreme meteorological conditions in the Mediterranean basin.CrossRef |

Ottmar RD, Burns MF, Hall JN, Hanson AD (1993) CONSUME user’s guide. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, PNW-GTR-304. (Portland, OR)

Parsons A, Robichaud PR, Lewis SA,  Napper C, Clark JT (2010) Field guide for mapping post-fire soil burn severity. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Report RMRS-GTR-243. (Fort Collins, CO)

Patterson MW, Yool SR (1998) Mapping fire-induced vegetation mortality using Landsat thematic mapper data: a comparison of linear transformation techniques. Remote Sensing of Environment 65, 132–142.
Mapping fire-induced vegetation mortality using Landsat thematic mapper data: a comparison of linear transformation techniques.CrossRef |

Pausas JG, Ouadah N, Ferran A, Gimeno T, Vallejo R (2003) Fire severity and seedling establishment in Pinus halepensis woodlands, eastern Iberian Peninsula. Plant Ecology 169, 205–213.
Fire severity and seedling establishment in Pinus halepensis woodlands, eastern Iberian Peninsula.CrossRef |

Picotte JJ, Robertson KM (2011) Validation of remote sensing of burn severity in south-eastern US ecosystems. International Journal of Wildland Fire 20, 453–464.
Validation of remote sensing of burn severity in south-eastern US ecosystems.CrossRef |

Pierson FB, Robichaud PR, Spaeth KE (2001) Spatial and temporal effects of wildfire on the hydrology of a steep rangeland watershed. Hydrological Processes 15, 2905–2916.
Spatial and temporal effects of wildfire on the hydrology of a steep rangeland watershed.CrossRef |

Regelbrugge JC, Smith DW (1994) Postfire tree mortality in relation to wildfire severity in mixed oak forests in the Blue Ridge of Virginia. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry 11, 90–97.

Reinhardt ED, Keane RE, Brown JK (1997) First Order Fire Effects Model: FOFEM 4.0, user’s guide. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, INT-GTR-344. (Ogden, UT)

Robichaud PR, Hungerford RD (2000) Water repellency by laboratory burning of four northern Rocky Mountain forest soils. Journal of Hydrology 231–232, 207–219.
Water repellency by laboratory burning of four northern Rocky Mountain forest soils.CrossRef |

Robichaud PR, MacDonald L, Freeouf J, Neary D, Martin D, Ashmun L (2003) Postfire rehabilitation of the Hayman Fire. In ‘Hayman Fire Case Study’. (Ed. RT Graham) pp. 293–313. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station RMRS-GTR-114. (Ogden, UT)

Robichaud PR, Elliot WJ, Pierson FB, Hall DE, Moffet CA (2007a) Predicting postfire erosion and mitigation effectiveness with a web-based probabilistic erosion model. Catena 71, 229–241.
Predicting postfire erosion and mitigation effectiveness with a web-based probabilistic erosion model.CrossRef |

Robichaud PR, Lewis SA, Laes DYM, Hudak AT, Kokaly RF, Zamudio JA (2007b) Postfire soil burn severity mapping with hyperspectral image unmixing. Remote Sensing of Environment 108, 467–480.
Postfire soil burn severity mapping with hyperspectral image unmixing.CrossRef |

Romme WH (2005) The importance of multiscale spatial heterogeneity in wildland fire management and research. In ‘Ecosystem Function in Heterogeneous Landscapes’. (Eds GM Lovett, CG Jones, MG Turner, KC Weathers) pp. 253–266. (Springer: New York)

Roy D, Landmann T (2005) Characterizing the surface heterogeneity of fire effects using multi-temporal reflective wavelength data. International Journal of Remote Sensing 26, 4197–4218.
Characterizing the surface heterogeneity of fire effects using multi-temporal reflective wavelength data.CrossRef |

Roy DP, Boschetti L, Trigg SN (2006) Remote sensing of fire severity: assessing the performance of the normalized burn ratio. Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, IEEE 3, 112–116.
Remote sensing of fire severity: assessing the performance of the normalized burn ratio.CrossRef |

Rumpel C, Gonzalez-Perez JA, Bardoux G, Largeau C, Gonzalez-Vila FJ, Valentin C (2007) Composition and reactivity of morphologically distinct charred materials left after slash-and-burn practices in agricultural tropical soils. Organic Geochemistry 38, 911–920.
Composition and reactivity of morphologically distinct charred materials left after slash-and-burn practices in agricultural tropical soils.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXlslWnt7g%3D&md5=d8e7203feca484d15fecffb2f9689560CAS |

Russell-Smith J, Ryan PG, Durieu R (1997) A Landsat MSS-derived fire history of Kakadu National Park, monsoonal northern Australia, 1980–94: seasonal extent, frequency and patchiness. Journal of Applied Ecology 34, 748–766.
A Landsat MSS-derived fire history of Kakadu National Park, monsoonal northern Australia, 1980–94: seasonal extent, frequency and patchiness.CrossRef |

Ryan KC, Noste NV (1985) Evaluating prescribed fires. In ‘Wilderness Fire Symposium Missoula, MT’, 22–26 September 2983, Missoula, MT. (Eds JE Lotan, BM Kilgore, WC Fischer, RW Mutch) pp. 230–237. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, INT-182. (Ogden, UT)

Schimmel J, Granstrom A (1996) Fire severity and vegetation response in the boreal Swedish forest. Ecology 77, 1436–1450.
Fire severity and vegetation response in the boreal Swedish forest.CrossRef |

Shakesby RA, Chafer CJ, Doerr SH, Blake WH, Wallbrink P, Humphreys GS, Harrington BA (2003) Fire severity, water repellency characteristics and hydrogeomorphological changes following the Christmas 2001 Sydney forest fires. The Australian Geographer 34, 147–175.
Fire severity, water repellency characteristics and hydrogeomorphological changes following the Christmas 2001 Sydney forest fires.CrossRef |

Simard AJ (1991) Fire severity, changing scales, and how things hang together. International Journal of Wildland Fire 1, 23–34.
Fire severity, changing scales, and how things hang together.CrossRef |

Smith JK, ed. (2000) Wildland fire in ecosystems: effects of fire on fauna. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, RMRS-GTR-42-vol 1. (Ogden, UT)

Smith AMS, Wooster MJ, Drake NA, Dipotso FM, Falkowski MJ, Hudak AT (2005) Testing the potential of multi-spectral remote sensing for retrospectively estimating fire severity in African savannahs. Remote Sensing of Environment 97, 92–115.
Testing the potential of multi-spectral remote sensing for retrospectively estimating fire severity in African savannahs.CrossRef |

Smith AMS, Lentile LB, Hudak AT, Morgan P (2007) Evaluation of linear spectral unmixing and dNBR for predicting post-fire recovery in a North American ponderosa pine forest. International Journal of Remote Sensing 28, 5159–5166.
Evaluation of linear spectral unmixing and dNBR for predicting post-fire recovery in a North American ponderosa pine forest.CrossRef |

Smith AMS, Eitel JUH, Hudak AT (2010) Spectral analysis of charcoal on soils: implications for wildland fire severity mapping methods. International Journal of Wildland Fire 19, 976–983.
Spectral analysis of charcoal on soils: implications for wildland fire severity mapping methods.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXhtlyjsL3M&md5=6291356596fda7e0ba01cad7b6967723CAS |

Soverel NO, Perrakis DDB, Coops NC (2010) Estimating burn severity from Landsat dNBR and RdNBR indices across western Canada. Remote Sensing of Environment 114, 1896–1909.
Estimating burn severity from Landsat dNBR and RdNBR indices across western Canada.CrossRef |

Tanase MA, Perez-Cabello F, de la Riva J, Santoro M (2010a) TerraSAR-X data for burn severity evaluation in Mediterranean forests on sloped terrain. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 48, 917–929.
TerraSAR-X data for burn severity evaluation in Mediterranean forests on sloped terrain.CrossRef |

Tanase MA, Santoro M, de la Riva J, Perez-Cabello F, Le Toan T (2010b) Sensitivity of X-, C-, and L-band SAR backscatter to burn severity in Mediterranean pine forests. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 48, 3663–3675.
Sensitivity of X-, C-, and L-band SAR backscatter to burn severity in Mediterranean pine forests.CrossRef |

Tanase MA, Santoro M, Wegmuller U, de la Riva J, Perez-Cabello F (2010c) Properties of X-, C- and L-band repeat-pass interferometric SAR coherence in Mediterranean pine forests affected by fires. Remote Sensing of Environment 114, 2182–2194.
Properties of X-, C- and L-band repeat-pass interferometric SAR coherence in Mediterranean pine forests affected by fires.CrossRef |

Thompson JR, Spies TA (2010) Factors associated with crown damage following recurring mixed-severity wildfires and post-fire management in southwestern Oregon. Landscape Ecology 25, 775–789.
Factors associated with crown damage following recurring mixed-severity wildfires and post-fire management in southwestern Oregon.CrossRef |

Trigg S, Flasse S (2000) Characterising the spectral–temporal response of burned savanna using in situ spectroradiometry and infrared thermometry. International Journal of Remote Sensing 21, 3161–3168.
Characterising the spectral–temporal response of burned savanna using in situ spectroradiometry and infrared thermometry.CrossRef |

Tucker CJ (1979) Red and photographic infrared linear combinations for monitoring vegetation. Remote Sensing of Environment 8, 127–150.
Red and photographic infrared linear combinations for monitoring vegetation.CrossRef |

Turner MG, Hargrove WW, Gardner RH, Romme WH (1994) Effects of fire on landscape heterogeneity in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. Journal of Vegetation Science 5, 731–742.
Effects of fire on landscape heterogeneity in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.CrossRef |

Turner MG, Romme WH, Gardner RH (1999) Prefire heterogeneity, fire severity, and early postfire plant reestablishment in subalpine forests of Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. International Journal of Wildland Fire 9, 21–36.
Prefire heterogeneity, fire severity, and early postfire plant reestablishment in subalpine forests of Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.CrossRef |

Tyler CM (1995) Factors contributing to postfire seedling establishment in chaparral: direct and indirect effects of fire. Journal of Ecology 83, 1009–1020.
Factors contributing to postfire seedling establishment in chaparral: direct and indirect effects of fire.CrossRef |

Ulery AL, Graham RC (1993) Forest fire effects on soil color and texture. Soil Science Society of America Journal 57, 135–140.
Forest fire effects on soil color and texture.CrossRef |

US Department of Interior (2003) Fire monitoring handbook. (Fire Management Program Center, National Interagency Fire Center: Boise, ID)

Veraverbeke S, Lhermitte S, Verstraeten WW, Goossens R (2010a) The temporal dimension of differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) fire/burn severity studies: the case of the large 2007 Peloponnese wildfires in Greece. Remote Sensing of Environment 114, 2548–2563.
The temporal dimension of differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) fire/burn severity studies: the case of the large 2007 Peloponnese wildfires in Greece.CrossRef |

Veraverbeke S, Verstraeten W, Lhermite S, Goossens R (2010b) Evaluating Landsat Thematic Mapper spectral indices for estimating burn severity of the 2007 Peloponnese wildfires in Greece. International Journal of Wildland Fire 19, 558–569.
Evaluating Landsat Thematic Mapper spectral indices for estimating burn severity of the 2007 Peloponnese wildfires in Greece.CrossRef |

Veraverbeke S, Lhermitte S, Verstraeten WW, Goossens R (2011) Evaluation of pre/post-fire differenced spectral indices for assessing burn severity in a Mediterranean environment with Landsat Thematic Mapper. International Journal of Remote Sensing 32, 3521–3537.
Evaluation of pre/post-fire differenced spectral indices for assessing burn severity in a Mediterranean environment with Landsat Thematic Mapper.CrossRef |

Wang C, Glenn NF (2009) Estimation of fire severity using pre- and post-fire LiDAR data in sagebrush steppe rangelands. International Journal of Wildland Fire 18, 848–856.
Estimation of fire severity using pre- and post-fire LiDAR data in sagebrush steppe rangelands.CrossRef |

Wang GG, Kemball KJ (2005) Effects of fire severity on early development of understory vegetation. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 35, 254–262.
Effects of fire severity on early development of understory vegetation.CrossRef |

White JD, Ryan KC, Key CC, Running SW (1996) Remote sensing of forest fire severity and vegetation recovery. International Journal of Wildland Fire 6, 125–136.
Remote sensing of forest fire severity and vegetation recovery.CrossRef |

Wulder MA, White JC, Alvarez F, Han T, Rogan J, Hawkes B (2009) Characterizing boreal forest wildfire with multi-temporal Landsat and LIDAR data. Remote Sensing of Environment 113, 1540–1555.
Characterizing boreal forest wildfire with multi-temporal Landsat and LIDAR data.CrossRef |

Yeager CM, Northup DE, Grow CC, Barns SM, Kuske CR (2005) Changes in nitrogen-fixing and ammonia-oxidizing bacterial communities in soil of a mixed conifer forest after wildfire. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 71, 2713–2722.
Changes in nitrogen-fixing and ammonia-oxidizing bacterial communities in soil of a mixed conifer forest after wildfire.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXktFKlsro%3D&md5=16b446fccb4c1a84efced691e6245aecCAS | 15870363PubMed |

Zarriello TJ, Knick ST, Rotenberry JT (1995) Producing a burn/disturbance map for the Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area. In ‘Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area Research and Monitoring Annual Report’. (Boise, ID)



Export Citation Cited By (37)

View Altmetrics