International Journal of Wildland Fire International Journal of Wildland Fire Society
Journal of the International Association of Wildland Fire
RESEARCH ARTICLE

The effect of forest fire on mass movement in Lebanese mountainous areas

Rouba Ziadé A , Chadi Abdallah B C and Nicolas Baghdadi A

A IRSTEA, UMR TETIS, 500 rue J.F.Breton, BP 5095 Montpellier, F-34916 Montpellier, France.

B National Council for Scientific Research and Remote Sensing Center, PO Box 11-8281, Beirut, Lebanon.

C Corresponding author: chadi@cnrs.edu.lb

International Journal of Wildland Fire 23(6) 845-859 http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/WF13077
Submitted: 15 May 2013  Accepted: 12 March 2014   Published: 1 August 2014

Abstract

Mass movements are major hazards that threaten natural and human environments. In Lebanon, the occurrence of mass movements increased by almost 60% between 1956 and 2008. Forest fire has emerged as an additional hazard: it destroyed over 25% of Lebanon’s forests in a period less than 40 years. This paper investigates the potential effect of forest fire on the occurrence of mass movements in the Damour and Nahr Ibrahim watersheds of Lebanon. Mass movement and forest fire inventory maps were produced through remote sensing using aerial and satellite images. Forest fire was included as an additional factor in mass movement induction, and its effect was quantified from Landsat images through the normalised burn ratio (NBR) index. A field study was conducted to substantiate the mass movement inventory and NBR maps. Following the standardisation of the effect factors into layers using geographic information systems, the weight factor of each layer for inducing mass movements was evaluated using the modified InfoVal method, and a mass movement susceptibility map was generated. Exceeded only by changes in land cover, the NBR produced the highest weights, making forest fire burn severity the second highest factor influencing mass movement occurrence in the study areas.

Additional keywords: GIS, InfoVAL, normalised burn ratio, remote sensing.


References

Abdallah C (2012) Assessment of erosion, mass movements and flood risk in Lebanon. In ‘Review and Perspective of Environmental Studies in Lebanon’. (Eds H Kouyoumjian, M Hamze) pp. 225–246. (Project INCAM-EU/CNRS, National Center for Scientific Research: Beirut, Lebanon)

Abdallah C, Chorowicz J, Bou Kheir R, Khawlie M (2005) Detecting major terrain parameters relating to mass movements’ occurrence using GIS, remote sensing and statistical correlations, case study Lebanon. Remote Sensing of Environment 99, 448–461.
Detecting major terrain parameters relating to mass movements’ occurrence using GIS, remote sensing and statistical correlations, case study Lebanon.CrossRef | open url image1

Andreu V, Imeson AC, Rubio JL (2001) Temporal changes in soil aggregates and water erosion after a wildfire in a Mediterranean pine forest. Catena 44, 69–84.
Temporal changes in soil aggregates and water erosion after a wildfire in a Mediterranean pine forest.CrossRef | open url image1

Arcenegui V, Mataix-Solera J, Guerrero C, Zornoza R, Mataix-Beneyto J, García-Orenes F (2008) Immediate effects of wildfires on water repellency and aggregate stability in Mediterranean calcareous soils. Catena 74, 219–226.
Immediate effects of wildfires on water repellency and aggregate stability in Mediterranean calcareous soils.CrossRef | open url image1

Atkinson PM, Massari R (1998) Generalized linear modeling of susceptibility to landsliding in the central Apennines, Italy. Computers & Geosciences 24, 373–385.
Generalized linear modeling of susceptibility to landsliding in the central Apennines, Italy.CrossRef | open url image1

Avery TE, Berlin GL (1992) ‘Fundamentals of Remote Sensing and Airphoto Interpretation’, 5th edn. (Prentice Hall: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA)

BAER (2006) ‘Burned Area Emergency Response Treatments Catalog.’ (USDA Forest Service: San Dimas, CA)

Ballais JL, Bosc MC (1994) The ignifracts of the Sainte-Victoire Mountain (Lower Provence, France). In ‘Soil Erosion and Degradation as a Consequence of Forest Fires’. (Ed. MR Sala) pp. 217– 227. (Geoforma Ediciones: Logrono, Spain)

Beatty SM, Smith JE (2013) Dynamic soil water repellency and infiltration in post-wildfire soils. Geoderma 192, 160–172.
Dynamic soil water repellency and infiltration in post-wildfire soils.CrossRef | open url image1

Bento-Gonçalves A, Vieria A, Ubeda X, Martin D (2012) Fires and soils: key concepts and recent advances. Geoderma 191, 3–13.
Fires and soils: key concepts and recent advances.CrossRef | open url image1

Bou Kheir R, Wilson J, Deng Y (2007) Use of terrain variables for mapping gully erosion susceptibility in Lebanon. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 32, 1770–1782.
Use of terrain variables for mapping gully erosion susceptibility in Lebanon.CrossRef | open url image1

Bou Kheir R, Abdallah C, Khawlie M (2008) Assessing soil erosion in Mediterranean karst landscapes of Lebanon using remote sensing and GIS. Engineering Geology 99, 239–254.
Assessing soil erosion in Mediterranean karst landscapes of Lebanon using remote sensing and GIS.CrossRef | open url image1

Cannon SH, Reneau SL (2000) Conditions for generation of fire-related debris flows, Capulin Canyon, New Mexico. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 25, 1103–1121.
Conditions for generation of fire-related debris flows, Capulin Canyon, New Mexico.CrossRef | open url image1

Certini G (2005) Effects of fire on properties of forest soils: a review. Oecologia 143, 1–10.
Effects of fire on properties of forest soils: a review.CrossRef | 15688212PubMed | open url image1

Çevik E, Topal T (2003) GIS-based landslide susceptibility mapping for a problematic segment of the natural gas pipeline, Hendek (Turkey). Environmental Geology 44, 949–962.
GIS-based landslide susceptibility mapping for a problematic segment of the natural gas pipeline, Hendek (Turkey).CrossRef | open url image1

Chander G, Markham BL (2003) Revised Landsat 5 TM radiometric calibration procedures, and postcalibration dynamic ranges. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 41, 2674–2677.
Revised Landsat 5 TM radiometric calibration procedures, and postcalibration dynamic ranges.CrossRef | open url image1

Che VB, Kervyn M, Ernst GGJ, Trefois P, Ayonghe S, Jacobs P, Van Ranst E, Suh CE (2011) Systematic documentation of landslide events in Limbe area (Mt Cameroon Volcano, SW Cameroon): geometry, controlling and triggering factors. Natural Hazards 59, 47–74.
Systematic documentation of landslide events in Limbe area (Mt Cameroon Volcano, SW Cameroon): geometry, controlling and triggering factors.CrossRef | open url image1

Che VB, Kervyn M, Suh CE, Fontijn K, Ernst GGJ, del Marmol MA, Trefois P, Jacobs P (2012) Landslide susceptibility assessment in Limbe (SW Cameroon): a field calibrated seed cell and information value method. Catena 92, 83–98.
Landslide susceptibility assessment in Limbe (SW Cameroon): a field calibrated seed cell and information value method.CrossRef | open url image1

Dai FC, Lee CF (2001) Frequency–volume relation and prediction of rainfall-induced landslide. Engineering Geology 59, 253–266.
Frequency–volume relation and prediction of rainfall-induced landslide.CrossRef | open url image1

Dai FC, Lee CF (2002) Landslide characteristics and slope instability modelling using GIS, Lantau Island, Hong Kong. Geomorphology 42, 213–228.
Landslide characteristics and slope instability modelling using GIS, Lantau Island, Hong Kong.CrossRef | open url image1

Darwish T, Jooma I, Awad M, Msann J, Aboudaher M (2005) Inventory and management of Lebanese soils integrating the soil geographical database of Euro-Mediterranean countries. Lebanese Science Journal 6, 57–70.

De Santis A, Asner GP, Vaughan PJ, Knapp DE (2010) Mapping burn severity and burning efficiency in California using simulation models and Landsat imagery. Remote Sensing of Environment 114, 1535–1545.
Mapping burn severity and burning efficiency in California using simulation models and Landsat imagery.CrossRef | open url image1

DeBano L (2000) The role of fire and soil heating on water repellency in wildland environments: a review. Journal of Hydrology 231–232, 195–206.
The role of fire and soil heating on water repellency in wildland environments: a review.CrossRef | open url image1

Doerr SH, Shakesby RA, Walsh RPD (2000) Soil water repellency: its causes, characteristics and hydro-geomorphological significance. Earth-Science Reviews 51, 33–65.
Soil water repellency: its causes, characteristics and hydro-geomorphological significance.CrossRef | open url image1

Doerr SH, Blake WH, Shakesby RA, Stagnitti F, Vuurens SH, Humphreys GS, Wallbrink P (2004) Heating effects on water repellency in Australian eucalypt forest soils and their value in estimating wildfire soil temperatures. International Journal of Wildland Fire 13, 157–163.
Heating effects on water repellency in Australian eucalypt forest soils and their value in estimating wildfire soil temperatures.CrossRef | open url image1

Dorn R (2003) Boulder weathering and erosion associated with a wildfire, Sierra Ancha Mountains, Arizona. Geomorphology 55, 155–171.
Boulder weathering and erosion associated with a wildfire, Sierra Ancha Mountains, Arizona.CrossRef | open url image1

Dubertret L (1945) Geological maps at a scale of 1:50 000 (Jbeil, Qartaba,Beirut, Saida, Jezzine). Republic of Lebanon, Ministry of Public Affairs. (Beirut)

Duman T, Can T, Emre O, Kecer M, Dogan A, Ates S, Durmaz S (2005) Landslide inventory of northwestern Anatolia, Turkey. Engineering Geology 77, 99–114.
Landslide inventory of northwestern Anatolia, Turkey.CrossRef | open url image1

EEA (2000) CORINE land cover technical guide – addendum 2000. (European Environment Agency: Copenhagen)

Epting J, Verbyla D, Sorbel B (2005) Evaluation of remotely sensed indices for assessing burn severity in interior Alaska using Landsat TM and ETM+. Remote Sensing of Environment 96, 328–339.
Evaluation of remotely sensed indices for assessing burn severity in interior Alaska using Landsat TM and ETM+.CrossRef | open url image1

Goswami R, Mitchell NC, Brocklehurst SH (2011) Distribution and causes of landslides in the eastern Peloritani of NE Sicily and western Aspromonte of SW Calabria, Italy. Geomorphology 132, 111–122.
Distribution and causes of landslides in the eastern Peloritani of NE Sicily and western Aspromonte of SW Calabria, Italy.CrossRef | open url image1

Greco R, Sorriso-Valvo M, Catalano E (2007) Logistic regression analysis in the evaluation of mass movements susceptibility: the Aspromonte case study, Calabria, Italy. Engineering Geology 89, 47–66.
Logistic regression analysis in the evaluation of mass movements susceptibility: the Aspromonte case study, Calabria, Italy.CrossRef | open url image1

Hadji R, Boumazbeur AE, Limani Y, Baghem N, Chouabi AM, Douabi A (2013) Geologic, topographic and climatic controls in landslide hazard assessment using GIS modeling: a case study of Souk Ahras region, NE Algeria. Quaternary International 302, 224–237.
Geologic, topographic and climatic controls in landslide hazard assessment using GIS modeling: a case study of Souk Ahras region, NE Algeria.CrossRef | open url image1

Huang AB, Lee JT, Ho YT, Chiu YF, Cheng SY (2012) Stability monitoring of rainfall-induced deep landslides through pore pressure profile measurements. Soil and Foundation 52, 737–747.
Stability monitoring of rainfall-induced deep landslides through pore pressure profile measurements.CrossRef | open url image1

Inbar M, Wittenberg L, Tamir M (1997) Soil erosion and forestry management after wildfire in a Mediterranean woodland, Mt. Carmel, Israel. International Journal of Wildland Fire 7, 285–294.
Soil erosion and forestry management after wildfire in a Mediterranean woodland, Mt. Carmel, Israel.CrossRef | open url image1

Journaux A, Coutard JP (1974) Experience de thermoclastie sur des roches siliceuses. Bulletin de la Centre de Geomorphologie de Cean 18, 4–27.

Kamp U, Growley BJ, Khattak G, Owen L (2008) GIS-based landslide susceptibility mapping for 2005 Kashmir earthquake region. Geomorphology 101, 631–642.
GIS-based landslide susceptibility mapping for 2005 Kashmir earthquake region.CrossRef | open url image1

Key CH, Benson, NC (2005) Landscape assessment: ground measure of severity, the composite burn index; and remote sensing of severity, the normalized burn ratio. In ‘FIREMON: Fire Effects Monitoring and Inventory System’. (Eds DC Lutes, RE Keane, JF Caratti, CH Key, NC Benson, S Sutherland, LJ Gangi) USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-164-CD, LA 1–51. (Ogden, UT)

Kundu S, Sharma DC, Saha AK, Pant CC, Mathew J (2011) GIS-based statistical landslide susceptibility zonation: a case study in Ganeshganga watershed, the Himalayas. In ‘12th Esri India User Conference’, 7–8 December 2011, Noida, India. (ESRI India: Noida, India) Available at http://esriindia.com/Events/UC2011_files/DM_UCP008.pdf [Verified 3 June 2014]

Larsen IJ, Pederson JL, Schmidt JC (2006) Geologic versus wildfire controls on hillslope processes and debris flow initiation in the Green River canyons of Dinosaur National Monument. Geomorphology 81, 114–127.
Geologic versus wildfire controls on hillslope processes and debris flow initiation in the Green River canyons of Dinosaur National Monument.CrossRef | open url image1

Lee YF, Chi YY (2011) Rainfall-induced landslide risk at Lushan, Taiwan. Engineering Geology 123, 113–121.
Rainfall-induced landslide risk at Lushan, Taiwan.CrossRef | open url image1

Lewis SA, Wu JQ, Robichaud PR (2006) Assessing burn severity and comparing soil water repellency, Hayman Fire, Colorado. Hydrological Processes 20, 1–16.
Assessing burn severity and comparing soil water repellency, Hayman Fire, Colorado.CrossRef | open url image1

Lucà F, Conforti M, Robustelli G (2011) Comparison of GIS-based gullying susceptibility mapping using bivariate and multivariate statistics: Northern Calabria, South Italy. Geomorphology 134, 297–308.
Comparison of GIS-based gullying susceptibility mapping using bivariate and multivariate statistics: Northern Calabria, South Italy.CrossRef | open url image1

Malkinson D, Wittenberg L (2011) Post fire induced soil water repellency – modeling short and long-term processes. Geomorphology 125, 186–192.
Post fire induced soil water repellency – modeling short and long-term processes.CrossRef | open url image1

Mayor AG, Bautista S, Llovet J, Bellot J (2007) Post-fire hydrological and erosional responses of a Mediterranean landscape: seven years of catchment-scale dynamics. Catena 71, 68–75.
Post-fire hydrological and erosional responses of a Mediterranean landscape: seven years of catchment-scale dynamics.CrossRef | open url image1

Melo R, Vieira G, Caselli A, Ramos M (2012) Susceptibility modelling of hummocky terrain distribution using the information value method (Deception Island, Antarctic Peninsula). Geomorphology 155–156, 88–95.
Susceptibility modelling of hummocky terrain distribution using the information value method (Deception Island, Antarctic Peninsula).CrossRef | open url image1

Meng Q, Meentemeyer RK (2011) Modeling of multi-strata forest fire severity using Landsat TM Data. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation 13, 120–126.
Modeling of multi-strata forest fire severity using Landsat TM Data.CrossRef | open url image1

Mitri G (2010) ‘Lebanon’s National Forest Fire Management Strategy-Second Draft.’ (Association for Forest Development & Conservation: Beirut)

Moody JA, Kinner DA, Úbeda X (2009) Linking hydraulic properties of fire-affected soils to infiltration and water repellency. Journal of Hydrology 379, 291–303.
Linking hydraulic properties of fire-affected soils to infiltration and water repellency.CrossRef | open url image1

Mugagga F, Kakembo V, Buyinza M (2012) Land use changes on the slopes of Mount Elgon and the implications for the occurrence of landslides. Catena 90, 39–46.
Land use changes on the slopes of Mount Elgon and the implications for the occurrence of landslides.CrossRef | open url image1

Nandi A, Shakoor A (2010) A GIS-based landslide susceptibility evaluation using bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses. Engineering Geology 110, 11–20.
A GIS-based landslide susceptibility evaluation using bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses.CrossRef | open url image1

Nefeslioglu HA, Gokceoglu C, Sonmez H (2008) An assessment on the use of logistic regression and artificial neural networks with different sampling strategies for the preparation of landslide susceptibility maps. Engineering Geology 97, 171–191.
An assessment on the use of logistic regression and artificial neural networks with different sampling strategies for the preparation of landslide susceptibility maps.CrossRef | open url image1

Oztekin B, Topal T (2005) GIS-based detachment susceptibility analyses of a cut slope in limestone, Ankara—Turkey. Environmental Geology 49, 124–132.
GIS-based detachment susceptibility analyses of a cut slope in limestone, Ankara—Turkey.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXht1ejs7%2FL&md5=98397d344109c1eaa68546acfbc34774CAS | open url image1

Parsons A, Robichaud PR, Lewis SA, Napper C, Clark JT (2010) Field guide for mapping post-fire soil burn severity. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountains Research Station, General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-243. (Fort Collins, CO)

Peruccacci S, Brunetti MT, Luciani S, Vennari C, Guzzetti F (2012) Lithological and seasonal control on rainfall thresholds for the possible initiation of landslides in central Italy. Geomorphology 139–140, 79–90.
Lithological and seasonal control on rainfall thresholds for the possible initiation of landslides in central Italy.CrossRef | open url image1

Poesen J, Hooke JM (1997) Erosion, flooding and channel management in Mediterranean environments of southern Europe. Progress in Physical Geography 21, 157–199.
Erosion, flooding and channel management in Mediterranean environments of southern Europe.CrossRef | open url image1

Rodríguez CE, Bommer JJ, Chandler RJ (1999) Earthquake-induced landslides: 1980–1997. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 18, 325–346.

Rodríguez-Alleres M, Varela ME, Benito E (2012) Natural severity of water repellency in pine forest soils from NW Spain and influence of wildfire severity on its persistence. Geoderma 191, 125–131.
Natural severity of water repellency in pine forest soils from NW Spain and influence of wildfire severity on its persistence.CrossRef | open url image1

Roy DP, Boschetti L, Trigg SN (2006) Remote sensing of fire severity: assessing the performance of the normalized burn ratio. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters 3, 112–116.
Remote sensing of fire severity: assessing the performance of the normalized burn ratio.CrossRef | open url image1

Ruff M, Czurda K (2008) Landslide susceptibility analysis with heuristic approach in the Eastern Alps (Vorarlberg, Austria). Geomorphology 94, 314–324.
Landslide susceptibility analysis with heuristic approach in the Eastern Alps (Vorarlberg, Austria).CrossRef | open url image1

Saha AK, Gupta RP, Sarkar I, Arora MK, Csaplovics E (2005) An approach for GIS-based statistical landslide susceptibility zonation with a case study in the Himalayas. Landslides 2, 61–69.
An approach for GIS-based statistical landslide susceptibility zonation with a case study in the Himalayas.CrossRef | open url image1

Schroeder TA, Wulder MA, Healey SP, Moisen GG (2011) Mapping wildfire and clearcut harvest disturbances in boreal forests with Landsat time series data. Remote Sensing of Environment 115, 1421–1433.
Mapping wildfire and clearcut harvest disturbances in boreal forests with Landsat time series data.CrossRef | open url image1

Shakesby R (2011) Post-wildfire soil erosion in the Mediterranean: review and future research directions. Earth-Science Reviews 105, 71–100.
Post-wildfire soil erosion in the Mediterranean: review and future research directions.CrossRef | open url image1

Shakesby R, Doerr SH (2006) Wildfire as a hydrological and geomorphological agent. Earth-Science Reviews 74, 269–307.
Wildfire as a hydrological and geomorphological agent.CrossRef | open url image1

Soverel N, Perrakis D, Coops N (2010) Estimating burn severity from Landsat dNBR and RdNBR indices across western Canada. Remote Sensing of Environment 114, 1896–1909.
Estimating burn severity from Landsat dNBR and RdNBR indices across western Canada.CrossRef | open url image1

Stine M (2013) Fire as a geomorphic agent. In ‘Treatise on Geomorphology’. (Eds J Shroder, DH Butler) pp. 236–251. (Academic Press: San Diego, CA)

Stoof CF, Wesseling JG, Ritsema CJ (2010) Effects of fire and ash on soil water retention. Geoderma 159, 276–285.
Effects of fire and ash on soil water retention.CrossRef | open url image1

Vahidnia MH, Alesheikh AA, Alimohammadi A, Hosseinali F (2010) A GIS-based neuro-fuzzy procedure for integrating knowledge and data in landslide susceptibility mapping. Computers & Geosciences 36, 1101–1114.
A GIS-based neuro-fuzzy procedure for integrating knowledge and data in landslide susceptibility mapping.CrossRef | open url image1

Yin KL, Yan TZ (1988) Statistical prediction models for slope instability of metamorphosed rocks. In ‘Landslides’, Vol. 2. (Ed. C Bonnard) pp. 1269–1272. (Balkema: Rotterdam, the Netherlands)

Zhu X, Liu D, Chen J (2012) A new geostatistical approach for filling gaps in Landsat ETM+ SLC-off images. Remote Sensing of Environment 124, 49–60.
A new geostatistical approach for filling gaps in Landsat ETM+ SLC-off images.CrossRef | open url image1

Zimmerman S, Evenson E, Gosse J (1994) Extensive boulder erosion resulting from a range fire on the type-Pinedale moraines, Fremont Lake, Wyoming. Quaternary Research 42, 255–265.
Extensive boulder erosion resulting from a range fire on the type-Pinedale moraines, Fremont Lake, Wyoming.CrossRef | open url image1

Zinck A, Lopez J, Metternicht G, Shrestha D, Vazquez-Selem C (2001) Mapping and modelling mass movement and gullies in mountainous areas using remote sensing and GIS tequniques. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation 3, 43–53.
Mapping and modelling mass movement and gullies in mountainous areas using remote sensing and GIS tequniques.CrossRef | open url image1



Export Citation