Wildlife Research Wildlife Research Society
Ecology, management and conservation in natural and modified habitats
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Lessons from introductions of exotic species as a possible information source for managing translocations of birds

Phillip Cassey A E , Tim M. Blackburn B , Richard P. Duncan C and Julie L. Lockwood D
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A Centre for Ornithology, School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, B15 2TT, United Kingdom.

B Institute of Zoology, ZSL, Regents Park, London NW1 4RY, United Kingdom.

C BioProtection Group, PO Box 84, Lincoln University, Canterbury, New Zealand.

D Ecology, Evolution, and Natural Resources, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA.

E Corresponding author. Email: p.cassey@bham.ac.uk

Wildlife Research 35(3) 193-201 https://doi.org/10.1071/WR07109
Submitted: 7 August 2007  Accepted: 24 December 2007   Published: 20 May 2008

Abstract

It has been previously suggested that the characteristics that are driving the taxonomic homogenisation of the global avifauna, through the extinction of native bird species and the establishment of exotic bird species, are opposite sides of the same coin. One of the most important tools that conservation biologists and wildlife managers have to ameliorate the extinction of a species is to reintroduce populations to stronghold areas from which they have been extirpated or were not previously common. In this paper, we address the question of what the study of exotic bird introductions can tell us to inform the translocation of native species. We review the relative importance of the five factors that have been suggested significantly to influence the successful establishment of non-native species: introduction effort, environmental matching, species’ interactions, species’ life histories, and phylogenetic relatedness. Current evidence suggests that introduction effort will be an important determinant of release, but how many individuals need to be released, and in how many separate release events, is contingent on characteristics of species and environment. The importance of climate matching for introduction success suggests that the success of translocations will depend greatly on the study and amelioration of the problem that caused the initial population decline. This is most problematic in situations where the decline is associated with human-induced climate change. Migratory and sexually selected species may be harder to re-establish, but related species may differ substantially in their likelihood of success. We suggest that further insights into the reintroduction process may be gained particularly by studying species that are experiencing a threat in their native range but which are also being widely released as exotics outside of this range.


Acknowledgements

The authors are exceedingly grateful to Brad Griffith for providing access to the avian reintroduction data from Wolf et al. (1998) and commenting on the manuscript. Camilla Myers kindly invited us to contribute to the ‘Invasive species’ special issue and constructive comments from John Ewen, Barry Brook, Doug Armstrong and an anonymous reviewer greatly improved an earlier version.


References

Araujo, M. B. , and Luoto, M. (2007). The importance of biotic interactions for modelling species distributions under climate change. Global Ecology and Biogeography 16, 743–753.
CrossRef |

Armstrong, D. P. , and McLean, I. G. (1995). New Zealand translocations: theory and practice. Pacific Conservation Biology 2, 39–54.


Beirne, B. P. (1975). Biological control attempts by introductions against pest insects in the field in Canada. Canadian Entomologist 107, 225–236.


Bennett P. M., and Owens I. P. F. (2002). ‘Evolutionary Ecology of Birds: Life History, Mating System and Extinction.’ (Oxford University Press: Oxford.)

Bessa-Gomes, C. , Danek-Gontard, M. , Cassey, P. , Moller, A. P. , Legendre, S. , and Clobert, J. (2003). Mating behaviour influences extinction risk: insights from demographic modelling and comparative analysis of avian extinction risk. Annales Zoologici Fennici 40, 231–245.


BirdLife International (2000). ‘Threatened Birds of the World.’ (Lynx Edicions & BirdLife International: Barcelona & Cambridge.)

Blackburn, T. M. , and Cassey, P. (2004). Are introduced and re-introduced species comparable? A case study of birds. Animal Conservation 7, 427–433.
CrossRef |

Blackburn, T. M. , and Cassey, P. (2007). Patterns of non-randomness in the exotic avifauna of Florida. Diversity & Distributions 13, 519–526.
CrossRef |

Blackburn, T. M. , and Duncan, R. P. (2001a). Determinants of establishment success in introduced birds. Nature 414, 195–197.
CrossRef | PubMed |

Blackburn, T. M. , and Duncan, R. P. (2001b). Establishment patterns of exotic birds are constrained by non-random patterns in introduction. Journal of Biogeography 28, 927–939.
CrossRef |

Böhning-Gaese, K. , and Oberrath, R. (1999). Phylogenetic effects on morphological, life-history, behavioural and ecological traits of birds. Evolutionary Ecology Research 1, 347–364.


Brook, B. W. (2004). Australasian bird invasions: accidents of history? Ornithological Science 3, 33–42.
CrossRef |

Brook, B. W. , Traill, L. W. , and Bradshaw, C. J. A. (2006). Minimum viable population sizes and global extinction risk are unrelated. Ecology Letters 9, 375–382.
CrossRef | PubMed |

Brooks T. (2001). Are unsuccessful avian invaders rarer in their native range than successful invaders? In ‘Biotic Homogenization’. (Eds J. L. Lockwood, and M. L. McKinney.) pp. 125–155. (Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers: New York.)

Bump G. (1970). ‘The Coturnix or Old World Quails.’ US Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service, Bureau of Sport, Fisheries and Wildlife FGL-10. (Government Printing Office: Washington.)

Case, T. J. (1996). Global patterns in the establishment and distribution of exotic birds. Biological Conservation 78, 69–96.
CrossRef |

Cassey, P. (2002). Life history and ecology influences establishment success of introduced land birds. Biological Journal Of The Linnean Society 76, 465–480.
CrossRef |

Cassey, P. , Blackburn, T. M. , Russell, G. J. , Jones, K. E. , and Lockwood, J. L. (2004a). Influences on the transport and establishment of exotic bird species: an analysis of the parrots (Psittaciformes) of the world. Global Change Biology 10, 417–426.
CrossRef |

Cassey, P. , Blackburn, T. M. , Sol, D. , Duncan, R. P. , and Lockwood, J. L. (2004b). Introduction effort and establishment success in birds. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B. Biological Sciences 271, S405–S408.
CrossRef |

Cassey, P. , Blackburn, T. M. , Duncan, R. P. , and Chown, S. L. (2005a). Concerning invasive species: reply to Brown and Sax. Austral Ecology 30, 475–480.
CrossRef |

Cassey, P. , Blackburn, T. M. , Duncan, R. P. , and Gaston, K. J. (2005b). Causes of exotic bird establishment across oceanic islands. Proceedings Of The Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 272, 2059–2063.
CrossRef |

Cassey, P. , Lockwood, J. L. , Blackburn, T. M. , and Olden, J. D. (2007). Spatial scale and evolutionary history determine the degree of taxonomic homogenization across island bird assemblages. Diversity & Distributions 13, 458–466.
CrossRef |

Caughley, G. (1994). Directions in conservation biology. Journal of Animal Ecology 63, 215–244.
CrossRef |

Clout, M. N. , and Craig, J. L. (1995). The conservation of critically endangered flightless birds in New Zealand. The Ibis 137, S181–S190.
CrossRef |

Clout, M. N. , Elliott, G. P. , and Robertson, B. C. (2002). Effects of supplementary feeding on the offspring sex ratio of kakapo: a dilemma for the conservation of a polygynous parrot. Biological Conservation 107, 13–18.
CrossRef |

Crawley M. J. (1989). Chance and timing in biological invasions. In ‘Biological Invasions: A Global Perspective’. (Eds J. A. Drake, H. A. Mooney, F. di Castri, R. H. Groves, F. J. Kruger, M. Rejmanek and M. Williamson.) pp. 407–435. (John Wiley & Sons: Chichester.)

Daehler, C. C. , and Strong, D. R. J. (1993). Prediction and biological invasions. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 8, 380.
CrossRef |

Dale, S. (2001). Female-biased dispersal, low female recruitment, unpaired males, and the extinction of small and isolated bird populations. Oikos 92, 344–356.
CrossRef |

Didham, R. K. , Tylianakis, J. M. , Gemmell, N. J. , Rand, T. A. , and Ewers, R. M. (2007). Interactive effects of habitat modification and species invasion on native species decline. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 22, 489–496.
CrossRef |

Donze, J. , Moulton, M. P. , Labisky, R. F. , and Jetz, W. (2004). Sexual plumage differences and the outcome of game bird (Aves: Galliformes) introductions on oceanic islands. Evolutionary Ecology Research 6, 595–606.


Duncan, R. P. (1997). The role of competition and introduction effort in the success of passeriform birds introduced to New Zealand. American Naturalist 149, 903–915.
CrossRef |

Duncan, R. P. , and Blackburn, T. M. (2002). Morphological over-dispersion in game birds (Aves: Galliformes) successfully introduced to New Zealand was not caused by interspecific competition. Evolutionary Ecology Research 4, 551–561.


Duncan R. P., and Forsyth D. M. (2006). Competition and the assembly of introduced bird communities. In ‘Conceptual Ecology and Invasions Biology’. (Eds M. W. Cadotte, S. M. McMahon and T. Fukami.) pp. 415–431. (Springer: Dordrecht.)

Duncan, R. P. , Blackburn, T. M. , and Veltman, C. J. (1999). Determinants of geographical range sizes: a test using introduced New Zealand birds. Journal of Animal Ecology 68, 963–975.
CrossRef |

Duncan, R. P. , Bomford, M. , Forsyth, D. M. , and Conibear, L. (2001). High predictability in introduction outcomes and the geographical range size of introduced Australian birds: a role for climate. Journal of Animal Ecology 70, 621–632.
CrossRef |

Duncan, R. P. , Blackburn, T. M. , and Sol, D. (2003). The ecology of bird introductions. Annual Review Of Ecology Evolution And Systematics 34, 71–98.
CrossRef |

Elton C. (1958). ‘The Ecology of Invasions by Animals and Plants.’ (Methuen: London.)

Engelhardt, K. A. M. , Kadlec, J. A. , Roy, V. L. , and Powell, J. A. (2000). Evaluation of translocation criteria: case study with trumpeter swans (Cygnus buccinator). Biological Conservation 94, 173–181.
CrossRef |

Fischer, J. , and Lindenmayer, D. B. (2000). An assessment of the published results of animal relocations. Biological Conservation 96, 1–11.
CrossRef |

Forsyth, D. M. , and Duncan, R. P. (2001). Propagule size and the relative success of exotic ungulate and bird introductions to New Zealand. American Naturalist 157, 583–595.
CrossRef |

Green, R. E. (1997). The influence of numbers released on the outcome of attempts to introduce exotic bird species to New Zealand. Journal of Animal Ecology 66, 25–35.
CrossRef |

Grevstad, F. S. (1999). Experimental invasions using biological control introductions: the influence of release size on the chance of population establishment. Biological Invasions 1, 313–323.
CrossRef |

Griffith, B. , Scott, J. M. , Carpenter, J. W. , and Reed, C. (1989). Translocation as a species conservation tool. Status and strategy. Science 245, 477–480.
CrossRef | PubMed |

Haccou, P. , and Iwasa, Y. (1996). Establishment probability in fluctuating environments: a branching process model. Theoretical Population Biology 50, 254–280.
CrossRef | PubMed |

Haccou, P. , and Vatunin, V. (2003). Establishment success and extinction risk in autocorrelated environments. Theoretical Population Biology 64, 303–314.
CrossRef | PubMed |

Harvey P. H., and Pagel M. (1991). ‘The Comparative Method in Evolutionary Biology.’ (Oxford University Press: Oxford.)

IUCN (1987). ‘Translocation of Living Organisms.’ (Gland: Switzerland.)

Jeschke, J. M. , and Strayer, D. L. (2005). Invasion success of vertebrates in Europe and North America. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102, 7198–7202.
CrossRef | PubMed |

Koenig, W. D. (2003). European starlings and their effect on native cavity-nesting birds. Conservation Biology 17, 1134–1140.
CrossRef |

Kolar, C. S. , and Lodge, D. M. (2001). Progress in invasion biology: predicting invaders. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 16, 199–204.
CrossRef |

Legendre, S. , Clobert, J. , Møller, A. P. , and Sorci, G. (1999). Demographic stochasticity and social mating system in the process of extinction of small populations: the case of passerines introduced to New Zealand. American Naturalist 153, 449–463.
CrossRef |

Lever C. (1987). ‘Naturalized Birds of the World.’ (Longman Scientific and Technical: New York.)

Lockwood, J. L. (1999). Using taxonomy to predict success among introduced avifauna: relative importance of transport and establishment. Conservation Biology 13, 560–567.
CrossRef |

Lockwood, J. L. , and Moulton, M. P. (1994). Ecomorphological pattern in Bermuda birds – the influence of competition and implications for nature preserves. Evolutionary Ecology 8, 53–60.
CrossRef |

Lockwood, J. L. , Moulton, M. P. , and Anderson, S. K. (1993). Morphological assortment and the assembly of communities of introduced passeriforms on oceanic islands: Tahiti versus Oahu. American Naturalist 141, 398–408.
CrossRef |

Lockwood, J. L. , Brooks, T. M. , and McKinney, M. L. (2000). Taxonomic homogenization of the global avifauna. Animal Conservation 3, 27–35.
CrossRef |

Lockwood, J. L. , Cassey, P. , and Blackburn, T. (2005). The role of propagule pressure in explaining species invasions. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 20, 223–228.
CrossRef |

Long J. L. (1981). ‘Introduced Birds of the World. The Worldwide History, Distribution and Influence of Birds Introduced to New Environments.’ (David & Charles: London.)

Lovegrove, T. G. (1996). Island releases of saddlebacks Philesturnus carunculatus in New Zealand. Biological Conservation 77, 151–157.
CrossRef |

Mabb, K. T. (1999). Nesting behavior of Amazona parrots and Rose-ringed Parakeets in the San Gabriel Valley, California. Western Birds 28, 209–217.


Mason I. L. (1984). ‘Evolution of Domesticated Animals.’ (Longman: London.)

Matson, T. K. , Goldzien, A. W. , and Jarman, P. J. (2004). Factors affecting the success of translocations of the black-faced impala in Namibia. Biological Conservation 116, 359–365.
CrossRef |

McLain, D. K. , Moulton, M. P. , and Redfearn, T. P. (1995). Sexual selection and the risk of extinction of introduced birds on oceanic islands. Oikos 74, 27–34.
CrossRef |

McLain, D. K. , Moulton, M. P. , and Sanderson, J. G. (1999). Sexual selection and extinction: the fate of plumage-dimorphic and plumage-monomorphic birds introduced onto islands. Evolutionary Ecology Research 1, 549–565.


Møller, A. P. , and Birkhead, T. R. (1994). The evolution of plumage brightness in birds is related to extrapair paternity. Evolution 48, 1089–1100.
CrossRef |

Møller, A. P. , and Legendre, S. (2001). Allee effect, sexual selection and demographic stochasticity. Oikos 92, 27–34.
CrossRef |

Moulton, M. P. , and Lockwood, J. L. (1992). Morphological dispersion of introduced Hawaiian finches: evidence for competition and a Narcissus effect. Evolutionary Ecology 6, 45–55.
CrossRef |

Moulton, M. P. , and Pimm, S. L. (1987). Morphological assortment in introduced Hawaiian passerines. Evolutionary Ecology 1, 113–124.
CrossRef |

Moulton M. P., Miller K., and Tillman E. A. (2001a). Patterns of success among introduced birds in the Hawaiian Islands. In ‘Evolution, Ecology, Conservation, and Management of Hawaiian Birds: A Vanishing Avifauna.’ (Eds J. M. Scott, S. Conant and C. van Riper III.) pp. 31–46. Studies in Avian Biology No. 22

Moulton, M. P. , Sanderson, J. G. , and Labisky, R. F. (2001b). Patterns of success in game bird (Aves: Galliformes) introductions to the Hawaiian islands and New Zealand. Evolutionary Ecology Research 3, 507–519.


Owens, I. P. F. , and Hartley, I. R. (1998). Sexual dimorphism in birds: why are there so many forms of dimorphism? Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B. Biological Sciences 266, 933–939.


Owens, I. P. F. , Bennett, P. M. , and Harvey, P. H. (1999). Species richness among birds: body size, life history, sexual selection or ecology? Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B. Biological Sciences 266, 933–939.
CrossRef |

Pell, A. S. , and Tidemann, C. R. (1997). The impact of two exotic hollow-nesting birds on two native parrots in savannah and woodland in eastern Australia. Biological Conservation 79, 145–153.
CrossRef |

Phillips J. C. (1928). Wild birds introduced and transplanted in North America. US Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin No. 61.

Pimm S. L. (1991). ‘The Balance of Nature? Ecological Issues in the Conservation of Species and Communities.’ (University of Chicago Press: Chicago.)

Rout, T. M. , Hauser, C. E. , and Possingham, H. P. (2007). Minimise long-term loss or maximize short-term gain? Optimal translocation strategies for threatened species. Ecological Modelling 201, 67–74.
CrossRef |

Scott, J. M. , and Carpenter, J. W. (1987). Release of captive-reared or translocated endangered birds: what do we need to know? The Auk 104, 544–545.


Seddon, P. J. , Armstrong, D. P. , and Maloney, R. F. (2007). Developing the science of reintroduction biology. Conservation Biology 21, 303–312.
CrossRef | PubMed |

Simberloff D. (1989). Which insect introductions succeed and which fail? In ‘Biological Invasions: A Global Perspective’. (Eds J. A. Drake, H. A. Mooney, F. di Castri, R. H. Groves, F. J. Kruger, M. Rejmanek and M. Williamson.) (John Wiley & Sons: Chichester.)

Simberloff, D. , and Gibbons, L. (2004). Now you see them, now you don’t? – population crashes of established introduced species. Biological Invasions 6, 161–172.
CrossRef |

Sol, D. , Duncan, R. P. , Blackburn, T. M. , Cassey, P. , and Lefebvre, L. (2005a). Big brains, enhanced cognition, and response of birds to novel environments. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102, 5460–5465.
CrossRef | PubMed |

Sol D., Duncan R. P., Cassey P., Blackburn T. M., and Clavell J. (2005b). The ecology and impact of avian introductions. In ‘Handbook of the Birds of the World’. Vol. 10. (Eds J. del Hoyo, A. Elliot and J. Sargatal.) pp. 13–35. (Birdlife International: Cambridge.)

Sorci, G. , Møller, A. P. , and Clobert, J. (1998). Plumage dichromatism of birds predicts introduction success in New Zealand. Journal of Animal Ecology 67, 263–269.
CrossRef |

Spielman, D. , Brook, B. W. , and Frankham, R. (2004). Most species are not driven to extinction before genetic factors impact them. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 101, 15261–15264.
CrossRef | PubMed |

Sutherland W. J. (Ed.) (1998). ‘Conservation Science and Action.’ (Blackwell Science: Oxford.)

Taylor, C. M. , and Hastings, A. (2005). Allee effects in biological invasions. Ecology Letters 8, 895–908.
CrossRef |

Terborgh J., and Winter B. (1980). Some causes of extinction. In ‘Conservation Biology: an Ecological–Evolutionary Perspective’. (Eds M. E. Soulé and B. A. Wilcox.) pp. 119–134. (Sinauer: Sunderland, MA.)

Traill, L. W. , Bradshaw, C. J. A. , and Brook, B. W. (2007). Minimum viable population size: a meta-analysis of 30 years of published estimates. Biological Conservation 139, 159–166.
CrossRef |

Veltman, C. J. , Nee, S. , and Crawley, M. J. (1996). Correlates of introduction success in exotic New Zealand birds. American Naturalist 147, 542–557.
CrossRef |

Vermeij, G. J. (1996). An agenda for invasion biology. Biological Conservation 78, 3–9.
CrossRef |

Vitousek, P. M. , D’Antonio, C. M. , Loope, L. L. , Rejmanek, M. , and Westbrooks, R. (1997). Introduced species: a significant component of human-caused global change. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 21, 1–16.


Wiebe, K. L. (2003). Delayed timing as a strategy to avoid nest-site competition: testing a model using data from starlings and flickers. Oikos 100, 291–298.
CrossRef |

Williamson M. (1996). ‘Biological Invasions.’ (Chapman & Hall: London.)

Wolf, C. M. , Garland, T. , and Griffith, B. (1998). Predictors of avian and mammalian translocation success: re-analysis with phylogenetically independent contrasts. Biological Conservation 86, 243–255.
CrossRef |



Rent Article (via Deepdyve) Export Citation Cited By (7)