Expenditure and motivation of Australian recreational huntersNeal Finch A , Peter Murray A C , Julia Hoy A and Greg Baxter B
A Wildlife Science Unit, School of Agriculture and Food Sciences, The University of Queensland, Gatton, Qld 4343, Australia.
B Landscape Ecology Group, School of Geography, Planning and Environmental Management, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Qld 4072, Australia.
C Corresponding author. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Wildlife Research 41(1) 76-83 https://doi.org/10.1071/WR13171
Submitted: 11 October 2013 Accepted: 9 April 2014 Published: 19 May 2014
Context: Recreational hunting has a long history in Australia, as in other parts of the world. However, the number, characteristics and motivations of Australian hunters have never been investigated in the same way as those in other countries where hunting occurs.
Aims: In this report, we aimed to systematically survey Australian recreational hunters to determine their demographic characteristics, patterns of spending and motivations.
Methods: Between September 2011 and June 2012, we encouraged hunters to participate in an anonymous online survey hosted by SurveyMonkey. We asked 53 questions about the hunters, their hunting patterns, expenditure on hunting and their motivations to hunt.
Key results: In total, 7202 hunters responded to the survey. The respondents were overwhelmingly male and 67% were aged between 31 and 60 years. Almost 34% of respondents were from Victoria, 26.7% from New South Wales and 22.0% from Queensland. Average direct expenditure on hunting was A$1835 per person per annum, whereas indirect expenditure was A$2168. Over 99% of respondents said that they would be willing to participate in pest-control activities if they had the opportunity.
Conclusions: There are likely to be at least 200 000 and more likely 300 000 recreational hunters in Australia and they spend in excess of A$1 billion dollars annually on hunting. Almost all of these hunters are willing to participate in direct wildlife management activities, such as pest control.
Implications: The Australian recreational hunting community is large, active and willing to spend large amounts of money on hunting. Their activities need to be understood and participants engaged by wildlife managers so as to obtain the best outcomes for wildlife management in Australia.
Additional keywords: attitudes, hunters, survey.
ReferencesABS (2012). Australian Bureau of Statistics. Available at www.abs.gov.au [verified 11 October 2013].
Adams, C. E., Brown, R. D., and Higginbotham, B. J. (2010). Developing a strategic plan for future hunting participation in Texas. Wildlife Society Bulletin 32, 1156–1165.
| Developing a strategic plan for future hunting participation in Texas.CrossRef |
Bauer, J., and Giles, J. (2002). Recreational hunting: an international perspective. Wildlife tourism research report series, no, 13. CRC for Sustainable Tourism, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Qld.
Bhandari, P., Stedman, R. C., Luloff, A. E., Finley, J. C., and Diefenbach, D. R. (2006). Effort vs motivation: Factors Affecting antlered and antlerless deer harvest success in Pennsylvania. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 11, 423–436.
| Effort vs motivation: Factors Affecting antlered and antlerless deer harvest success in Pennsylvania.CrossRef |
Booth, C. (2009a). Is recreational hunting effective for feral animal control? Invasive Species Council Essay Project. Available at www.invasives.org.au/documents/file/reports [verified 11 October 2013].
Booth, C. (2009b). Is hunting conservation? Invasive Species Council Critique report. Available at www.invasives.org.au/documents/file/reports [verified 11 October 2013].
Cause, M. L. (1995). A survey of economic values for recreational deer hunting in Australia. In ‘Conservation Through Sustainable Use of Wildlife’. (Eds G. C. Grigg, P. T. Hale and D. Lunney.), pp. 296–306. (The University of Queensland: Brisbane.)
Choquenot, D., McIlroy, J., and Korn, T. (1996). ‘Managing Vertebrate Pests: Feral Pigs.’ (Bureau of Rural Sciences, Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.)
Damm, G. (2005). Hunting in South Africa: facts, risks and opportunities. African Indaba , 4–5.
DEPI (2013). Department of Environment and Primary Industries Victoria. Available at www.depi.vic.gov.au/fishing-and-hunting/game-hunting/game-hunting-regulation [verified 11 October 2013].
Dobbie, W. R., Berman, D. McK., and Braysher, M. L. (1993). ‘Managing Vertebrate Pests: Feral Horses.’ (Bureau of Rural Sciences, Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.)
FACE (2012). The FACE annual report, European Federation of Associations for Hunting and Conservation. Brussels, Belgium.
F&G (2012). Field and Game Australia annual report 2011–2012. Field and Game Australia, Seymour, Vic.
Gaudzinski, S. (2004). Subsistence patterns of Early Pleistocene hominids in the Levant – Taphonomic evidence from the ‘Ubeidiya Formation’ (Israel). Journal of Archaeological Science 31, 65–75.
| Subsistence patterns of Early Pleistocene hominids in the Levant – Taphonomic evidence from the ‘Ubeidiya Formation’ (Israel).CrossRef |
Gigliotti, L. M., Shroufe, D. L., and Gurtin, S. (2009). The changing culture of wildlife management. In ‘Wildlife and Society: the Science of Human Dimensions’. (Eds M. J. Manfredo, J. J. Vaske, P. J. Brown, D. J. Decker and E. A Duke.) . pp. 75–89. (Island Press: Washington, DC.)
Green, B. (2013). 65 years of the SSAA. Australian Shooter February 2013, 26.
Haigh, D. J., and Coleman, B. (1995). The current legal position affecting the use of wildlife by Australian indigenous people. In ‘Conservation Through Sustainable Use of Wildlife’. (Eds G. C. Grigg, P. T. Hale and D. Lunney.), pp. 45–53. (The University of Queensland, Brisbane.)
Hammitt, W. E., McDonald, C. M., and Patterson, M. E. (1990). Determinants of multiple satisfaction for deer hunting. Wildlife Society Bulletin 18, 331–337.
Hansen, H. P., Peterson, M. N., and Jensen, C. (2012). Demographic transition among hunters: a temporal analysis of hunter recruitment dedication and motives in Denmark. Wildlife Research 39, 446–451.
| Demographic transition among hunters: a temporal analysis of hunter recruitment dedication and motives in Denmark.CrossRef |
Harding, R. S. O., and Teleki, G. (1981). ‘Omnivorous Primates: Gathering and Hunting in Human Evolution.’ (Columbia University Press: New York.)
Hendee, J. C. (1974). A multiple-satisfaction approach to game management. Wildlife Society Bulletin 2, 104–113.
Heberlein, T. A., and Kuentzel, W. F. (2002). Too many hunters or not enough deer? Human and biological determinants of hunter satisfaction and quality. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 7, 229–250.
| Too many hunters or not enough deer? Human and biological determinants of hunter satisfaction and quality.CrossRef |
Hudson, R. J., Drew, K. R., and Baskin, L. M. (1989). ‘Wildlife Production Systems.’ (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK.)
Hutton, J., Adams, W. M., and Dickson, B. (2009). Introduction. In ‘Recreational Hunting, Conservation and Rural Livelihoods: Science and Practice’. pp. 1–5. (Eds B. Dickson, J. Hutton and W. M. Adams.) (Wiley Blackwell: Oxford, UK.).
Leader-Williams, N. (2009). Conservation and hunting: friends or foes? In ‘Recreational Hunting, Conservation and Rural Livelihoods: Science and Practice’. (Eds B. Dickson, J. Hutton and W. M. Adams.) pp. 9–24. (Wiley Blackwell: Oxford, UK.)
Leigh, L., DuWors, E., Villeneuve, M., Bath, A., Bouchard, P., Boxall, P., Legg, D., Meis, S., Reid, R., and Williamson, T. (2000). ‘The Importance of Nature to Canadians: the Economic Significance of Nature-related Activities.’ Available at http://www.ec.gc.ca/nature/survey.htm [verified 11 October 2013].
Manfredo, M. J., Fix, P. J., Teel, T. L., Smeltzer, J., and Kahn, R. (2004). Assessing demand for big game hunting opportunities: applying the multiple-satisfaction concept. Wildlife Society Bulletin 32, 1147–1155.
| Assessing demand for big game hunting opportunities: applying the multiple-satisfaction concept.CrossRef |
McCullough, D. R., and Carmen, W. J. (1982). Management goals for deer hunter satisfaction. Wildlife Society Bulletin 10, 49–52.
Mouzos, J. (2002). ‘Firearms Theft in Australia. Trends & Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice, No. 230.’ pp. 1–6. (Australian Institute of Criminology: Canberra.)
Muth, R. M., and Jamison, W. V. (2000). On the destiny of deer camps and duck blinds: the rise of the animal rights movement and the future of wildlife conservation. Wildlife Society Bulletin 28, 841–852.
PACEC (2006). The economic and environmental impact of sporting shooting. A report prepared by Public and Corporate Economic Consultants. Available at www.pacec.co.uk [verified 11 October 2013].
Parkes, J., Henzell, R., and Pickles, G. (1996). ‘Managing Vertebrate Pests: Feral Goats.’ (Bureau of Rural Sciences, Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.)
Peterson, N. (2004). An approach for demonstrating the social legitimacy of hunting. Wildlife Society Bulletin 32, 310–321.
| An approach for demonstrating the social legitimacy of hunting.CrossRef |
Rollins, R., and Romano, L. (1989). Hunter satisfaction with the selective harvest system for moose management in Ontario. Wildlife Society Bulletin 17, 470–475.
Sears, D. O. (1981). Life-stage effects on attitude change, especially among the elderly. In ‘Ageing: Social Change’. (Eds S. B. Kiesler, J. N. Morgan and V. K. Oppenheimer.) pp. 183–204. (Academic Press: New York.)
Sharp, R., and Wollscheid, K. U. (2009). Recreational hunting in North America, Europe and Australia. In ‘Recreational Hunting, Conservation and rural Livelihoods: Science and Practice’. (Eds B. Dickson. J. Hutton and W. M. Adams.) pp. 25–38. (Wiley Blackwell: Oxford, UK.)
SSAA (2013). State and territory hunting regulations. Sporting Shooters Association of Australia. Available at http://www.ssaa.org.au/hunting/state-and-territory-hunting-regulations.html [verified 11 October 2013].
Turra, C. (2011). Women hunting. Australian Deer Hunter 13, 38–40.
Tynon, J. F. (1997). Quality hunting experiences: a qualitative inquiry. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 2, 32–46.
| Quality hunting experiences: a qualitative inquiry.CrossRef |
USFWS (2013a). What do hunters do for conservation? Available at http://www.fws.gov/hunting/whatdo.html [verified 11 October 2013].
USFWS (2013b). ‘The Pittman–Robertson Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration Act.’ Available at http://www.fws.gov/southeast/federalaid/pittmanrobertson.html [verified 11 October 2013].
USFWS & USCB (2012). ‘2011 National Survey of Fishing, Hunting, and Wildlife-associated Recreation.’ (U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Census Bureau.) Available at http://www.census.gov/prod/2012pubs/fhw11-nat.pdf [verified 30 April 2013].
Woods, A., and Kerr, G. N. (2010). Recreational game hunting: motivations, satisfactions and participation. Land environment and people research report no. 18. Lincoln University, Canterbury, New Zealand.
Yalden, D. W. (1996). Historical dichotomies in the exploitation of mammals. In ‘The Exploitation of Mammal Populations’. (Eds V. J. Taylor and N. Dunstone.). pp. 16–26. (Chapman and Hall: London.)
Zeiss Strange, M. (2010). Nature untamed: the intersection of women’s hunting and environmental activism in the 21st century. In ‘Proceedings of World Symposium on the Ecologic and Economic benefits of Hunting’, Windhoek, Namibia. pp. 138–151. (World Forum on the Future of Sport Shooting Activities: Roma, Italy).