Australian Journal of Zoology Australian Journal of Zoology Society
Evolutionary, molecular and comparative zoology
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Co-occurrence of two tadpole shrimp, Triops cf. australiensis (Branchiopoda : Notostraca), lineages in middle Paroo, north-western New South Wales, with the first record of Triops hermaphrodites for the Australian continent

Gopal Murugan A , Hortencia Obregón-Barboza A , Alejandro M. Maeda-Martínez A C and Brian V. Timms B
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas del Noroeste, Mar Bermejo 195, La Paz, Baja California Sur, C. P. 23090, México.

B School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia.

C Corresponding author. Email: almaeda04@cibnor.mx

Australian Journal of Zoology 57(2) 77-84 https://doi.org/10.1071/ZO08084
Submitted: 6 November 2008  Accepted: 19 May 2009   Published: 10 July 2009

Abstract

The only species of the genus Triops in Australia, T. australiensis, is found to reproduce by gonochorism. Morphological and reproductive data and molecular analyses of fragments of mitochondrial genes 12S rRNA (12S) and cytochrome oxidase I (COI) indicate that a Triops population from the middle Paroo in north-western New South Wales is composed of two different entities, Triops cf. australiensis lineage A, and T. cf. australiensis lineage B. Gonad histology in individuals with ovisacs of lineage A revealed no evidence of testicular tissue; however, large testicular lobes were found in individuals with ovisacs of lineage B, indicating that they were anatomically hermaphrodites. This is the first record of Australian hermaphroditic Triops. For each lineage, a single haplotype of each gene was obtained. Molecular genetic distance and phylogenetic analyses confirmed the closer relationship and monophyly of the two lineages with T. australiensis (GenBank) when compared with Triops species from other continents. COI haplotypes of lineage A and lineage B differed by 7.7% from each other and differed by 10.2% and 9.6% from a published T. australiensis sequence, respectively. The 12S haplotypes of lineage A and lineage B differed by 3.3% from each other and differed by 2% and 2.5% from a published T. australiensis sequence, respectively. Our results suggest that the two co-occurring Triops lineages probably represent two species that are distinct from T. australiensis.


Acknowledgements

We thank Carmen Rodríguez-Jaramillo for her advice and technical assistance in the histological analysis and Adriana Landa and Gerardo Hernández for their help in the preparation of figures. Thanks to Africa Gómez and two anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments and suggestions on the manuscript. We are grateful to J. King for Lepidurus lemmoni, S. Richter for Triops cancriformis (Austria) and M. Grygier for T. granarius specimens. Molecular and histological analyses were supported by the CONACYT grant 35137-V and Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas del Noroeste, S.C., México.


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