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Australian Journal of Botany
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Protocols in ecological and environmental plant physiology


Australian Journal of Botany is an international journal for the publication of original research and reviews in plant science with relevance to Southern Hemisphere ecosystems including ecology and ecophysiology, conservation biology and biodiversity, forest biology and management, cell and molecular biology, palaeobotany, reproductive biology and genetics, mycology and pathology and structure and development. More...

Editor-in-Chief: Dick Williams


blank image Australian Journal of Botany
Volume 64 Number 4 2016

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The relationship between salt gland density and sodium accumulation/secretion in a wide selection from three Zoysia species 
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Akihiro Yamamoto , Masatsugu Hashiguchi , Ryo Akune , Takahito Masumoto , Melody Muguerza , Yuichi Saeki and Ryo Akashi
pp. 277-284

There is a little information about the type of secretion and accumulation of Na+, and its relationship to salt gland density in Zoysia spp., whereas it has been suggested that salt gland density, salt secretion and salt tolerance are positively correlated. In the present study, salt accumulation/secretion is different between Zoysia species and that salt gland density and salt secretion are not always positively correlated. Our findings will contribute to the molecular breeding of salt tolerance in zoysiagrasses.


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Patchy distribution and varied habitats of Macrozamia lucida cycads explained by constancy in a key environmental variable 
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L. A. Kaye , G. H. Walter and S. Raghu
pp. 285-294

Identifying the primary environmental variables that influence the distribution of a species is complicated where the species in question occurs across a variety of different habitats. We found that elevated moisture was a critical factor influencing the patchy distribution of Macrozamia lucida cycads; despite the patches being located across a variety of habitats. Understanding of the environmental space occupied by this species can enable us to anticipate its conservation needs better, now and in the context of global environmental change.

    | Supplementary Material (43 KB)

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Sufficient sample size to study seed germination 
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João Paulo Ribeiro-Oliveira , Marli A. Ranal , Denise Garcia de Santana and Leandro Alves Pereira
pp. 295-301

The sample size can affect inferences about the germination process and, as a consequence, compromise restoration and/or conservation efforts. In this context, we offer a practical tool for calculating the sufficient sample size to seed germination. Our results demonstrate that is possible to prepare protocols to test the germination process for any species, with a reduced number of seeds.

    | Supplementary Material (70 KB)

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Effect of nickel on pollen germination and pollen tube length in Arabis alpina (Brassicaceae) 
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Dolja Pavlova
pp. 302-307

The mountain plant Arabis alpina is distributed in the Rila mountains, Bulgaria, on serpentine and non-serpentine substrates. The effect of nickel on pollen germination and pollen tube length of two different populations was studied and compared. Nickel inhibits pollen germination and pollen tube elongation causing different abnormalities, but pollen of the serpentine plants is less sensitive to higher Ni concentrations.


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Agricultural weeds and coastal saltmarsh in south-eastern Australia: an insurmountable problem? 
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Thomas Hurst and Paul I. Boon
pp. 308-324

Tall wheat grass, *Lophopyrum ponticum, is one of the most threatening and widely distributed weeds of saline coastal wetlands in south-eastern Australia. It could not be controlled in a coastal saltmarsh in Western Port (Victoria) by the monocot-specific herbicide Fluazifop-P, and although the broad-spectrum systemic herbicide glyphosate was more effective in controlling *L. ponticum infestations, this herbicide had severe effects on native plant species. Therefore, weed infestations remain a difficult-to-manage problem in the saline coastal wetlands in south-eastern Australia.


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Changes in endogenous hormones and seed-coat phenolics during seed storage of two Suaeda salsa populations 
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Yan-ge Xu , Ranran Liu , Na Sui , Weiwei Shi , Lei Wang , Changyan Tian and Jie Song
pp. 325-332

Seed storage is important to farmers, breeders and industries interested in seed processing and commercial trade. However, seeds of many species lose viability after short periods of storage, resulting in extensive losses and increased chances of extinction. The present results for the euhalophyte S. salsa, which has a high economic and ecological value, indicated that changes in the vigour of its dimorphic seeds during storage may be related to changes in endogenous hormones and seed-coat phenolics.


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Changes in irradiance and soil properties explain why typical non-arboreal savanna species disappear under tree encroachment 
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Luiz Felipe Souza Pinheiro , Rosana Marta Kolb and Davi Rodrigo Rossatto
pp. 333-341

Savannas are fire-prone environments where species possess specific adaptations to deal with frequent fire events. In the absence of fire, the density of tree species can increase in typical savanna sites, creating a more shaded environment, where non-arboreal savanna species cannot thrive.

    | Supplementary Material (180 KB)

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Reproductive biology of a medicinally important plant Leonurus cardiaca (Lamiaceae) 
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Fatemeh Borna , Nabil M. Ahmad , Shuming Luo and Richard Trethowan
pp. 342-358

Leonurus cardiaca is self-compatible but bears protandrous flowers, which promote cross-pollination. The stigma becomes receptive 2 or 3 days after anthesis and anther dehiscence. A high degree of synchronisation in flowering was observed among the plants within each of the populations studied. A modified Brewbaker and Kwack (BK) medium was optimised for pollen viability tests.


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Self-compatibility and specialisation in a fly-pollinated Acianthera (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidiinae) 
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E. R. Pansarin , L. M. Pansarin , M. E. P. Martucci and L. Gobbo-Neto
pp. 359-367

In this study we report the reproduction biology of a South American orchid that exhibits flower characteristics related to pollination by flies, as a dung-like fragrance and dark flower structures. This paper shows the first case of self-compatibility in the orchid genus Acianthera and strong flower adaptation, since only a single fly species has been recorded as pollinator.


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Published online 25 July 2016
Ovule and megagametophyte development in selected species of Apeibeae and Grewieae (Malvaceae–Grewioideae) from South America and its systematic implications 
Elsa Lattar, Beatriz Gloria Galati and María Silvia Ferrucci

The female gametophyte plays a critical role in every step of the reproductive process. Therefore, studies of the ovule and female gametophyte are important for understanding plant reproduction. The tissues and cells involved in the female gametophyte are not fully studied. In this work the embryological characters analysed will contribute to the interpretation of possible phylogenetic relationships within the group of studied plants.

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Published online 25 July 2016
Anatomy and development of the reproductive units of Mapania pycnostachya and Hypolytrum schraderianum (Mapanioideae, Cyperaceae) 
Mariana Maciel Monteiro, Vera Lúcia Scatena and Aline Oriani

The study of floral development and vasculature is important for understanding floral evolution. The present paper used new data on the structure of mapaniid (Cyperaceae) reproductive units based on developmental and vasculature analyses, to confirm the hypothesis that they are not single flowers but reduced inflorescences composed of unisexual flowers. Considering the few number of studies concerning the reproductive units of Mapanioideae, the present study helps shed light in the understanding of their structure and evolution in the subfamily.

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Published online 18 July 2016
Using historic maps and citizen science to investigate the abundance and condition of survey reference ‘blaze' trees 
Peter G. Spooner and Jake Shoard

Since the late 19th century, surveyors have blazed trees to mark out paddock corners and boundary alignments. We used historic maps and a citizen science approach to locate old survey reference trees, document the types that occur and assess the factors affecting their condition. Many trees were 140 years old and in poor condition, but they represent an important legacy to past land-use history. As a form of living heritage, many trees are now succumbing to the ravages of time.

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    | Supplementary Material (1.3 MB)
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These articles have been peer reviewed and accepted for publication. They are still in production and have not been edited, so may differ from the final published form.

    BT16094  Accepted 21 July 2016
    Explaining the distribution, structure and species composition of snow patch vegetation in Tasmania, Australia
    Jared Parry, James Kirkpatrick, Jon Marsden-Smedley

    BT16008  Accepted 16 July 2016
    Modeling the influence of snowfall on cyanobacterial crusts in the Gurbantunggut Desert, North China
    Rong Hui, Ruiming Zhao, Li Chao Liu, Gang Li, Yang Hong Gao, Xue Qin Wang, Haotian Yang

    BT16031  Accepted 15 July 2016
    Arsenic detoxification in two populations of Borreria verticillata (Rubiaceae) with differential tolerance to the metalloid
    Samara Arcanjo-Silva, Naiara Campos, Ivan Becari-Viana, Cleberson Ribeiro, Luzimar Silva, Aristéa Azevedo

    BT16064  Accepted 13 July 2016
    Feeling the cold in a warming climate: differential effects of low temperatures on co-occurring eucalypts
    George Matusick, Katinka Ruthrof, Jason Pitman, Giles Hardy

    BT16044  Accepted 11 July 2016
    Seed germination responses of the weed, Calotropis procera (Asclepiadaceae), to temperature and water stress in northern Australia
    Enock Menge, Sean Bellairs, Michael Lawes

    BT16032  Accepted 11 July 2016
    Fire regime and vegetation change in the transition from Aboriginal to European land management in a Tasmanian eucalypt savanna
    Louise Romanin, Feli Hopf, Simon Haberle, David Bowman

    BT15238  Accepted 12 July 2016
    Impact of heat on seed germination of three perennial grasses in the semiarid region in Central Argentina
    Alicia Kin, Carla Suárez, Claudia Chirino, Patricia Avila, Ernesto Morici

    BT16059  Accepted 06 July 2016
    Overcoming physical seed dormancy in priority native species for use in arid zone restoration programs
    Todd Erickson, David Merritt, Shane Turner

    BT16056  Accepted 06 July 2016
    Fire exclusion and soil texture interact to influence temperate grassland flora in south-eastern Australia
    Claire Moxham, Josh Dorrough, Mick Bramwell, Brad Farmilo


The Most Read ranking is based on the number of downloads from the CSIRO PUBLISHING website of articles published in the previous 12 months. Usage statistics are updated daily.

Rank Paper Details
1. Published 23 February 2016
The Christmas tree project: comparing the effects of five treatments on the health of cut Christmas trees (Pinus radiata, Pinaceae)

Olyvea Akres, Isabella Cavallaro, Cynthia Cheng, Madison Dixon, Darcy Goddard, Tamara Hofbauer, Sidney Mahr, Taylor Mason, Lulu Miskin, Chloe Morgan, Eleanor Nettleton, Amelia Purseglove, Bella Rosenberg, Lucia Salgado, Jasmin Sardi, Emily Scarlis, Sophie Snyman, Isabella Spagnardi, Oona Swinson-Dulhunty, Lilla Szentmariay, Nikki Zimmerman, Angela T. Moles and Julia Cooke

2. Published 6 October 2015
Post-fire succession during the long-term absence of fire in coastal heathland and a test of the chronosequence survey method

Marc Freestone, Timothy J. Wills and Jennifer Read

3. Published 9 December 2015
Problems with using mean germination time to calculate rate of seed germination

Elias Soltani, Farshid Ghaderi-Far, Carol C. Baskin and Jerry M. Baskin

4. Published 6 October 2015
Recovery of treeless subalpine vegetation in Kosciuszko National Park after the landscape-scale fire of 2003

K. L. McDougall, N. G. Walsh and G. T. Wright

5. Published 9 December 2015
The mistletoe flora of southern Western Australia, with a particular reference to host relationships and fire

A. N. Start

6. Published 6 October 2015
Grevillea (Proteaceae) seed coats contain inhibitors for seed germination

Xuanli Ma, Jingnan Guo, Xinyan Han and Guijun Yan

7. Published 4 April 2016
Estimating density-dependent impacts of European rabbits on Australian tree and shrub populations

Greg Mutze, Brian Cooke and Scott Jennings

8. Published 23 May 2016
Impact of high-severity fire in a Tasmanian dry eucalypt forest

Lynda D. Prior, Grant J. Williamson and David M. J. S. Bowman

9. Published 23 February 2016
Hakea, the world’s most sclerophyllous genus, arose in southwestern Australian heathland and diversified throughout Australia over the past 12 million years

Byron B. Lamont, Tianhua He and Sim Lin Lim

10. Published 9 December 2015
Differences in seedling water-stress response of two co-occurring Banksia species

M. M. Holloway-Phillips, H. Huai, A. Cochrane and A. B. Nicotra

11. Published 6 October 2015
Chromium and nickel accumulation in the macrophytes of the Kawasi wetland on Obi Island, North Maluku Province, Indonesia

R. Amin, M. Edraki, D. R. Mulligan and T. H. Gultom

12. Published 6 October 2015
Causes of infertility in the endangered Australian endemic plant Borya mirabilis (Boryaceae)

Noushka H. Reiter, Neville G. Walsh and Ann C. Lawrie

13. Published 9 December 2015
Influence of seed dimorphism and provenance on seed morphology, dispersal, germination and seedling growth of Brachyscome ciliaris (Asteraceae)

Rina Aleman, Manfred Jusaitis, Joan Gibbs, Phillip Ainsley, Fleur Tiver and Sophie Petit

14. Published 7 August 2015
Reproductive success of Acacia longifolia (Fabaceae, Mimosoideae) in native and invasive populations

Marta Correia, Sílvia Castro and Susana Rodríguez-Echeverría

15. Published 15 September 2015
Knowledge of the reproductive ecology of the invasive Salix cinerea, in its invaded range, assists in more targeted management strategies

Tara Hopley and Andrew G. Young

16. Published 4 April 2016
Architecture of four tree species from different strata of a semideciduous forest in southern Brazil

Thaís M. Haddad, Mariana F. Hertel, Edmilson Bianchini and José A. Pimenta

17. Published 15 September 2015
Pseudoraphis spinescens (Poaceae) grasslands at Barmah Forest, Victoria, Australia: current distribution and implications for floodplain conservation

L. M. Vivian, K. A. Ward, D. J. Marshall and R. C. Godfree

18. Published 1 July 2016
Sufficient sample size to study seed germination

João Paulo Ribeiro-Oliveira, Marli A. Ranal, Denise Garcia de Santana and Leandro Alves Pereira

19. Published 7 August 2015
An evaluation of the genetic structure of seed sources and the maintenance of genetic diversity during establishment of two yellow box (Eucalyptus melliodora) seed-production areas

Linda M. Broadhurst, Graham Fifield, Bindi Vanzella and Melinda Pickup

20. Published 9 December 2015
Moss and vascular epiphyte distributions over host tree and elevation gradients in Australian subtropical rainforest

Jennifer C. Sanger and James B. Kirkpatrick

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Volume 64 (4)

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