CSIRO Publishing blank image blank image blank image blank imageBooksblank image blank image blank image blank imageJournalsblank image blank image blank image blank imageAbout Usblank image blank image blank image blank imageShopping Cartblank image blank image blank image You are here: Journals > Australian Journal of Botany   
Australian Journal of Botany
Journal Banner
  Southern hemisphere botanical ecosystems
blank image Search
blank image blank image
blank image
  Advanced Search

Journal Home
About the Journal
Editorial Structure
Online Early
Current Issue
Just Accepted
All Issues
Special Issues
Turner Review Series
Sample Issue
For Authors
General Information
Submit Article
Author Instructions
Open Access
Awards and Prizes
For Referees
Referee Guidelines
Review an Article
Annual Referee Index
For Subscribers
Subscription Prices
Customer Service
Print Publication Dates
Library Recommendation

blue arrow e-Alerts
blank image
Subscribe to our Email Alert or RSS feeds for the latest journal papers.

red arrow Connect with us
blank image
facebook twitter logo LinkedIn

red arrow PrometheusWiki
blank image
Protocols in ecological and environmental plant physiology


Article << Previous     |     Next >>   Contents Vol 59(4)

Consequences of long- and short-term fragmentation on the genetic diversity and differentiation of a late successional rainforest conifer

Rohan Mellick A B C, Andrew Lowe B and Maurizio Rossetto A

A National Herbarium of NSW, Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust, Mrs Macquaries Road, Sydney, NSW 2000, Australia.
B Australian Centre for Evolutionary Biology and Biodiversity, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia.
C Corresponding author. Email: rohan.mellick@rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au

Australian Journal of Botany 59(4) 351-362 http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/BT10291
Submitted: 27 October 2010  Accepted: 13 April 2011   Published: 9 June 2011

PDF (555 KB) $25
 Supplementary Material
 Export Citation

The east Australian rainforests provide a unique system with which to study historic climate-driven habitat fragmentation. The long life span of rainforest conifers and consequent lag effects on genetic variation, offer insights into demographic stochasticity in small populations and persistence in increasingly fragmented systems. Microsatellite markers were used to investigate the genetic diversity and structure of Podocarpus elatus (Podocarpaceae), a long-lived rainforest conifer endemic to Australia. Twenty-seven populations throughout the east Australian rainforests were screened and two divergent regions separated by the dry Clarence River valley (New South Wales) were discovered. This biogeographic barrier may be referred to as the Clarence River Corridor. Niche modelling techniques were employed to verify the incidence of habitat divergence between the two regions. Significantly high inbreeding was detected throughout the species range with no evidence of recent bottlenecks. Most of the diversity in the species resides between individuals within populations, which suggest the species would be sensitive to the adverse effects of inbreeding, yet evidence suggests that these populations have been small for several generations. Slightly higher diversity estimates were found in the southern region, but it is likely that the species survived historic population contraction in dispersed refugia within each of these genetically differentiated regions.


Adie H, Lawes MJ (2009) Explaining conifer dominance in Afrotemperate forests: shade tolerance favours Podocarpus latifolius over angiosperm species. Forest Ecology and Management 259, 176–186.
CrossRef |

Aiba SI, Kohyama T (1997) Crown architecture and life-history traits of 14 tree species in a warm-temperate rain forest: significance of spatial heterogeneity. Journal of Ecology 85, 611–624.
CrossRef |

Allnutt TR, Newton AC, Lara A, Premoli A, Armesto JJ, Vergara R, Gardner M (1999) Genetic variation in Fitzroya cupressoides (alerce), a threatened South American conifer. Molecular Ecology 8, 975–987.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Bawa KS, Perry DR, Beach JH (1985) Reproductive biology of tropical lowland rain forest trees. I. Sexual systems and incompatibility mechanisms. American Journal of Botany 72, 331–345.
CrossRef |

Black MP, Mooney SD, Martin HA (2006) A >43000-year vegetation and fire history from Lake Baraba, New South Wales, Australia. Quaternary Science Reviews 25, 3003–3016.
CrossRef |

Boland DJ, Brooker MIH, Chippendale G, Hall N, Hyland BPM, Johnston RD, Kleinig DA, Turner JD (2006) ‘Forest trees of Australia.’ (Nelson-CSIRO: Melbourne)

Burns EL, Eldridge MDB, Crayn DM, Houlden BA (2007) Low phylogeographic structure in a wide spread endangered Australian frog Litoria aurea (Anura: Hylidae). Conservation Genetics 8, 17–32.
CrossRef |

Cascante A, Quesada M, Lobo JJ, Fuchs EA (2002) Effects of dry tropical forest fragmentation on the reproductive success and genetic structure of the tree Samanea saman. Conservation Biology 16, 137–147.
CrossRef |

Clark CM, Carbone I (2008) Chloroplast DNA phylogeography in long-lived Huon pine, a Tasmanian rain forest conifer. Canadian Journal of Forest Research-Revue Canadienne De Recherche Forestiere 38, 1576–1589.
CrossRef | CAS |

Crisp M, West J, Linder H (1999) Biogeography of the terrestrial flora. In ‘In flora of Australia’. Volume 1. Introduction’. (Eds A Orchard, H Thompson) pp. 321–367. (CSIRO:Melbourne)

Darwin C (1876) ‘The effects of cross- and self-fertilization in the vegetable kingdom.’ (Appleton: New York)

Elith J, Graham CH, Anderson RP, Dudík M, Ferrier S, Guisan A, Hijmans RJ, Huettmann F, Leathwick JR, Lehmann A, Li J, Lohmann LG, Loiselle BA, Manion G, Moritz C, Nakamura M, Nakazawa Y, Overton JMcCM, Townsend Peterson A, Phillips SJ, Richardson K, Scachetti-Pereira R, Schapire RE, Soberón J, Williams S, Wisz MS, Zimmermann NE (2006) Novel methods improve prediction of species’ distributions from occurrence data. Ecography 29, 129–151.
CrossRef |

El Mousadik A, Petit RJ (1996) High level of genetic differentiation for allelic richness among populations of the argan tree [Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels] endemic to Morocco. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 92, 832–839.

Enright NJ, Hill RS (1995) ‘Ecology of the southern conifers.’ (Melbourne University Press: Melbourne)

Evanno G, Regnaut S, Goudet J (2005) Detecting the number of clusters of individuals using the software STRUCTURE: a simulation study. Molecular Ecology 14, 2611–2620.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Excoffier L, Smouse PE, Quattro JM (1992) Analysis of molecular variance inferred from metric distances among DNA haplotypes -application to human mitochondrial-DNA restriction data. Genetics 131, 479–491.
| CAS | PubMed |

Fischer D, Bachmann K (1998) Microsatellite enrichment in organisms with large genomes (Allium cepa L.). BioTechniques 24, 796–798.
| CAS | PubMed |

Givnish TJ (1982) Outcrossing versus ecological constraints in the evolution of dioecy. American Naturalist 119, 849–865.
CrossRef |

Goudet J (1995) FSTAT (Version 1.2): a computer program to calculate F-statistics. Journal of Heredity 86, 485–486.

Harden GJ (1990) ‘Flora of New South Wales.’ (University of NSW Press: Sydney)

Harden G, McDonald B, Williams J (2006) ‘Rainforest trees and shrubs: a field guide to their identification.’ (Gwen Harden Publishing: Nambucca Heads)

Hijmans RJ, Cameron SE, Parra JL, Jones PG, Jarvis A (2005) Very high resolution interpolated climate surfaces for global land areas. International Journal of Climatology 25, 1965–1978.
CrossRef |

Hilbert DW, Graham A, Hopkins MS (2007) Glacial and interglacial refugia within a long-term rainforest refugium: the wet tropics bioregion of NE Queensland, Australia. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 251, 104–118.
CrossRef |

Hill RS (1994) The history of selected Australian taxa. In ‘History of the Australian vegetation: Cretaceous to recent’. (Ed. RS Hill) pp. 390–419. (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge)

Hill RS (2004) Origins of the southeastern Australian vegetation. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences 359, 1537–1549.
CrossRef | PubMed |

Innis GJ (1989) Feeding ecology of fruit pigeons in sub-tropical rainforests of Southeastern Queensland. Australian Wildlife Research 16, 365–394.
CrossRef |

Keller LF, Waller DM (2002) Inbreeding effects in wild populations. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 17, 230–241.
CrossRef |

Kershaw AP, Strickland KM (1990) A 10 year pollen trapping record from rainforest in northeastern Queensland, Australia. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 64, 281–288.
CrossRef |

Kershaw AP, Bretherton SC, van der Kaars S (2007) A complete pollen record of the last 230 Ka from Lynch’s Crater, north-eastern Australia. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 251, 23–45.
CrossRef |

Kershaw AP, Martin HA, McEwen Mason JRC (1994) The Neogene: a period of transition. In ‘History of the Australian Vegetation: Cretaceous to Recent’. (Ed. RS Hill) pp. 299–328. (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge)

Lande R (1995) Mutation and conservation. Conservation Biology 9, 782–791.
CrossRef |

Leitch IJ, Hanson L, Winfield M, Parker J, Bennett MD (2001) Nuclear DNA C-values complete familial representation in gymnosperms. Annals of Botany 88, 843–849.
CrossRef | CAS |

Lobo JM, Jimenez-Valverde A, Real R (2008) AUC: a misleading measure of the performance of predictive distribution models. Global Ecology and Biogeography 17, 145–151.
CrossRef |

Longmore ME (1997) Quaternary palynological records from perched lake sediments, Fraser Island, Queensland, Australia: rainforest, forest history and climatic control. Australian Journal of Botany 45, 507–526.
CrossRef |

Loveless MD, Hamrick JL (1984) Ecological determinants of genetic-structure in plant-populations. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 15, 65–95.
CrossRef |

Lowe AJ, Boshier D, Ward M, Bacles CFE, Navarro C (2005) Genetic resource impacts of habitat loss and degradation; reconciling empirical evidence and predicted theory for neotropical trees. Heredity 95, 255–273.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Lusk CH (1996) Stand dynamics of the shade-tolerant conifers Podocarpus nubigena and Saxegothaea conspicua in Chilean temperate rain forest. Journal of Vegetation Science 7, 549–558.
CrossRef |

Lusk CH (2001) Leaf life spans of some conifers of the temperate forests of South America. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural (Valparaiso, Chile) 74, 711–718.
CrossRef |

Lynch M, Conery J, Burger R (1995) Mutation acculation and the extinction of small populations. American Naturalist 146, 489–518.
CrossRef |

McCarthy PM (1998) ‘Flora of Australia. Vol. 48. Ferns, gymnosperms and allied groups.’ (CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne)

Mellick R, Rossetto M, Porter C (2009) Isolation and characterisation of polymorphic microsatellite loci from Podocarpus elatus (Podocarpaceae). Molecular Ecology Resources 9, 1460–1559.
| PubMed |

Moran C, Catterall CP, Kanowski J (2009) Reduced dispersal of native plant species as a consequence of the reduced abundance of frugivore species in fragmented rainforest. Biological Conservation 142, 541–552.
CrossRef |

Moran GF (1992) Patterns of genetic diversity in Australian tree species. In ‘Population genetics of forest trees’. (Eds WT Adams, SH Strauss, DL Copes, AR Griffin) pp. 49–66. (Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht, Netherlands)

Nanami S, Kawaguchi H, Yamakura T (1999) Dioecy-induced spatial patterns of two codominant tree species, Podocarpus nagi and Neolitsea aciculata. Journal of Ecology 87, 678–687.
CrossRef |

Nanami S, Kawaguchi H, Yamakura T (2005) Sex ratio and gender-dependent neighboring effects in Podocarpus nagi, a dioecious tree. Plant Ecology 177, 209–222.
CrossRef |

Nybom H, Bartish I (2000) Effects of life history traits and sampling strategies on genetic diversity estimates obtained with RAPD markers in plants. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 3, 93–114.
CrossRef |

Peakall R, Smouse PE (2006) GENALEX 6: genetic analysis in Excel. Population genetic software for teaching and research. Molecular Ecology Notes 6, 288–295.
CrossRef |

Peakall R, Ebert D, Scott LJ, Meagher PF, Offord CA (2003) Comparative genetic study confirms exceptionally low genetic variation in the ancient and endangered relictual conifer, Wollemia nobilis (Araucariaceae). Molecular Ecology 12, 2331–2343.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Phillips SJ, Dudík M, Schapire RE (2004) A maximum entropy approach to species distribution modeling. In ‘Twenty-First International Conference on Machine Learning’. Banff, Alberta, Canada. p. 83. (ACM Press)

Phillips SJ, Anderson RP, Schapire RE (2006) Maximum entropy modeling of species geographic distributions. Ecological Modelling 190, 231–259.
CrossRef |

Piry S, Luikart G, Cornuet JM (1999) BOTTLENECK: a computer program for detecting recent reductions in the effective population size using allele frequency data. The Journal of Heredity 90, 502–503.
CrossRef |

Pritchard JK, Stephens M, Donnelly P (2000) Inference of population structure using multilocus genotype data. Genetics 155, 945–959.
| CAS | PubMed |

Pye MG, Gadek PA (2004) Genetic diversity, differentiation and conservation in Araucaria bidwillii (Araucariaceae), Australia’s Bunya pine. Conservation Genetics 5, 619–629.
CrossRef | CAS |

Pye MG, Henwood MJ, Gadek PA (2009) Differential levels of genetic diversity and divergence among populations of an ancient Australian rainforest conifer, Araucaria cunninghamii. Plant Systematics and Evolution 277, 173–185.
CrossRef |

Raymond M, Rousset F (1995) GENEPOP (VERSION 3.4) – Population genetics software for exact tests and ecumenicism. Journal of Heredity 86, 248–249.

Quiroga MP, Premoli AC (2010) Genetic structure of Podocarpus nubigena (Podocarpaceae) provides evidence of Quaternary and ancient historical events. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 285, 186–193.
CrossRef |

Rice WR (1989) Analysing tables of statistical test. Evolution 43, 223
CrossRef |

Rossetto M (2006) Impact of habitat fragmentation in plant populations. In ‘Plant conservation genetics’. (Ed. R Henry) pp. 117–129. (The Hawthorn Press, Inc.: New York)

Rossetto M, Jones R, Hunter J (2004) Genetic effects of rainforest fragmentation in an early successional tree (Elaeocarpus grandis). Heredity 93, 610–618.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Rossetto M, Crayn D, Ford A, Ridgeway P, Rymer P (2007) The comparative study of range-wide genetic structure across related, co-distributed rainforest trees reveals contrasting evolutionary histories. Australian Journal of Botany 55, 416–424.
CrossRef |

Rossetto M, Kooyman R, Sherwin W, Jones R (2008) Dispersal limitations, rather than bottlenecks or habitat specificity, can restrict the distribution of rare and endemic rainforest trees. American Journal of Botany 95, 321–329.
CrossRef | PubMed |

Rossetto M, Crayn D, Ford A, Mellick R, Sommerville K (2009) The influence of environment and life-history traits on the distribution of genes and individuals: a comparative study of 11 rainforest trees. Molecular Ecology 18, 1422–1438.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Rousset F (1997) Genetic differentiation and estimation of gene flow from F-statistics under isolation by distance. Genetics 145, 1219–1228.
| CAS | PubMed |

Russ L (1999) Regeneration and Flying Foxes. In ’Rainforest Remnants: A Decade of Growth’. (Ed. S Horton) pp. 188–206. (NSW National Parks and Wildlife Services: Hurstville)

Saatchi S, Buermann W, Ter Steege H, Mori S, Smith TB (2008) Modeling distribution of Amazonian tree species and diversity using remote sensing measurements. Remote Sensing of Environment 112, 2000–2017.
CrossRef |

Schäuble CS, Moritz C (2001) Comparative phylogeography of two open forest frogs from eastern Australia. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. Linnean Society of London 74, 157–170.
CrossRef |

Scott LJ, Cross M, Shepherd M, Maguire T, Henry RJ (1999) Increasing the efficiency of microsatellite discovery from poorly enriched libraries in coniferous forest species. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter 17, 351–354.
CrossRef | CAS |

Sherwin WB, Rossetto M, Jabot F, Rush R (2006) Measurement of biological information with applications from genes to landscapes. Molecular Ecology 15, 2857–2869.
CrossRef | PubMed |

Shimeld P (2004) A late Quaternary vegetation and climate history of Port Stephens and the lower Hunter Valley, N.S.W. PhD thesis, University of Tasmania, Hobart.

Smale MC, Smale PN (2003) Dynamics of upland conifer/broadleaved forest at Waihaha, central North Island, New Zealand. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 33, 509–528.
CrossRef |

Tomlinson PB (1994) Functional-morphology of saccate pollen in conifers with special reference to Podocarpaceae. International Journal of Plant Sciences 155, 699–715.
CrossRef |

Van Oosterhout C, Weetman D, Hutchinson WF (2006) Estimation and adjustment of microsatellite null alleles in nonequilibrium populations. Molecular Ecology Notes 6, 255–256.
CrossRef |

Webb LJ, Tracey JG (1981) Australian Rainforests: Patterns and change. In ‘Ecological Biogeography of Australia’. (Ed. A Keast) pp. 607–694. (W. Junk: The Hague)

Weir BS, Cockerham CC (1984) Estimating F-statistics for the analysis of population structure. Evolution 38, 1358–1370.

Williams G, Adam P (1999) Pollen sculpture in subtropical rain forest plants: is wind pollination more common than previously suspected? Biotropica 31, 520–524.
CrossRef |

Willson MF, Sabag C, Figueroa J, Armesto JJ (1996) Frugivory and seed dispersal of Podocarpus nubigena in Chiloe, Chile. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural (Valparaiso, Chile) 69, 343–349.

Subscriber Login

Legal & Privacy | Contact Us | Help


© CSIRO 1996-2016