Australian Journal of Botany Australian Journal of Botany Society
Southern hemisphere botanical ecosystems
RESEARCH ARTICLE

High genetic diversity in a clonal relict Alexgeorgea nitens (Restionaceae): implications for ecological restoration

Elizabeth Sinclair A B C D , Siegfried Krauss B C , Belinda Cheetham A B and Richard Hobbs A C
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A Environmental Science, Murdoch University, Murdoch, WA 6150, Australia.

B Botanic Gardens and Parks Authority, Fraser Avenue, West Perth, WA 6005, Australia.

C Present address: School of Plant Biology, University of Western Australia, Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia.

D Corresponding author. Email: esinclair@iinet.net.au

Australian Journal of Botany 58(3) 206-213 https://doi.org/10.1071/BT09193
Submitted: 30 October 2009  Accepted: 24 February 2010   Published: 5 May 2010

Abstract

The importance of genetic issues associated with the sourcing of propagules is increasingly recognised for successful ecological restoration. A consideration of life history traits has contributed to ‘best-guess’ scenarios on the appropriate location and desirable properties of local provenance source populations, but these can lack precision. For clonal species, population genetic structure and variation will depend on the balance between the extent and growth rate of asexual clones, sexual reproduction, pollen dispersal, and subsequent seed dispersal and recruitment. We assessed patterns of population genetic structure and variation for Alexgeorgea nitens (Nees) L. Johnston & B. Briggs (Restionaceae), a dioecious, clonal, perennial species, with novel life history traits. Our results show high levels of genetic diversity within populations, and surprisingly low levels of population differentiation (ΦST = 0.17). We suggest that the high genetic diversity observed within these populations reflects extensive pollen dispersal and successful seeding (sexual reproduction) and recruitment events, even though direct observations of seedling recruitment are rare. In this case, a ‘best-guess’ propagule-sourcing scenario based on life-history traits that appear to limit dispersal capability does not predict the extent of high local genetic diversity and weak population genetic structure in A. nitens.


Acknowledgements

Thank you to R. Taylor, M. Drobel, G. Zawko, A. Batty, N. Swarts, B. Newman, D. Close, R. Barrett, M. Barrett for help in the field; R. Barrett for field and voucher material identifications; K. Dixon for useful discussions. All specimens were collected under valid CALM (SW009725) and Kings Park permits (2004–07). This research was funded by an ARC linkage grant (LP0348958) and the Botanic Gardens and Parks Authority.


References


Albert T, Raspé O, Jacquemart A-L (2003) Clonal structure in Vaccinium myrtillus L. revealed by RAPD and AFLP markers. International Journal of Plant Sciences 164, 649–655.
CrossRef | CAS |

Barrett LG, He T, Lamont BB, Krauss SK (2005) Temporal patterns of genetic variation across a 9-year-old aerial seed bank of the shrub Banksia hookeriana (Proteaceae). Molecular Ecology 14, 4169–4179.
CrossRef | PubMed |

Bengtsson BO, Ceplitis A (2000) The balance between sexual and asexual reproduction in plants living in variable environments. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 13, 415–422.
CrossRef |

Briggs BG, Johnson LAS, Krauss SL (1990) The species of Alexgeorgea, a Western Australian genus of the Restionaceae. Australian Systematic Botany 3, 751–758.
CrossRef |

Briggs BG , Marchant AD , Gilmore S , Porter CL (2000) A molecular phylogeny of Restionaceae and allies. In ‘Monocots: systematics and evolution’. (Eds KL Wilson, DA Morrison) pp. 661–671. (CSIRO: Melbourne)

Broadhurst LM, Lowe AJ, Coates DJ, Cunningham SA, McDonald M, Vesk PA, Yates CJ (2008) Seed supply for broadscale restoration: maximizing evolutionary potential. Evolutionary Applications 1, 587–597.

Brown NAC, Jamieson H, Botha PA (1994) Stimulation of seed germination in South African species of Restionaceae by plant-derived smoke. Plant Growth Regulation 15, 93–100.
CrossRef |

Bussell JD, Waycott M, Chappill JA, James SH (2002) Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the evolution of complex hybridity in Isotoma petraea. Evolution 56, 1296–1302.
PubMed |


Bussell JD, Hood P, Alacs EA, Dixon KW, Hobbs RJ, Krauss SL (2006) Rapid genetic delineation of local provenance seed collection zones for effective rehabilitation of an urban bushland remnant. Austral Ecology 31, 164–175.
CrossRef |

Carlquist S (1976) Alexgeorgea, a bizarre new genus of Restionaceae from Western Australia. Australian Journal of Botany 24, 281–295.
CrossRef |

Clarke KR , Gorley RN (2006) ‘PRIMER v6: user manual/tutorial.’ (Primer-E Ltd: Plymouth)

Clewell AF , Aronson J (2007) ‘Ecological restoration: principles, values and structure of an emerging profession.’ (Society for Ecological Restoration International, Island Press: Washington)

Eckert CG (2002) The loss of sex in clonal plants. Evolutionary Ecology 15, 501–520.
CrossRef |

Ellstrand NC, Roose ML (1987) Patterns of genotypic diversity in clonal plant species. American Journal of Botany 74, 123–131.
CrossRef |

Eriksson O (1992) Evolution of seed dispersal and recruitment in clonal plants. Oikos 63, 439–448.
CrossRef |

Evanno G, Regnaut S, Goudet J (2005) Detecting the number of clusters of individuals using the software structure: a simulation study. Molecular Ecology 14, 2611–2620.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

French GC, Hollingsworth PM, Corner RWM, Roberts FJ, Taylor I (2005) Clonal diverstiy in two recently discovered English populations of Carex vaginata Tausch (Cyperaceae). Watsonia 25, 389–395.

He T, Krauss SL, Lamont BB, Miller BP, Enright NJ (2004) Long-distance seed dispersal in a metapopulation of Banksia hookeriana inferred from a population allocation analysis of amplified fragment length polymorphism data. Molecular Ecology 13, 1099–1109.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

He T, Lamont BB, Krauss SK, Enright NJ, Miller BP (2009) Long-distance dispersal of seeds in the fire-tolerant shrub Banksia attenuata. Ecography 32, 571–580.
CrossRef |

Holsinger KE , Lewis PO (2003) ‘Hickory: a package for analysis of population genetic data.’ (University of Connecticut: Storrs)

Holsinger KE, Lewis PO, Dey DK (2002) A Bayesian approach to inferring population structure from dominant markers. Molecular Ecology 11, 1157–1164.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Hopper SD (2009) OCBIL theory: towards an integrated understanding of the evolution, ecology and conservation of biodiversity on old, climatically buffered, infertile landscapes. Plant and Soil 322, 49–86.
CrossRef | CAS |

Hopper SD, Gioia P (2004) The Southwest Australian floristic region: evolution and conservation of a global hot spot of biodiversity. Annual Review of Ecology Evolution and Systematics 35, 623–650.
CrossRef |

Huff DR, Peakall R, Smouse PE (1993) RAPD variation within and among natural populations of outcrossing buffalograss (Buchloe dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm.). Theoretical and Applied Genetics 86, 927–934.
CrossRef | CAS |

Hufford KM, Mazer SJ (2003) Plant ecotypes: genetic differentiation in the age of ecological restoration. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 18, 147–155.
CrossRef |

Jones CJ, Edwards KJ, Castaglione S, Winfield MO, Sala F, van de Wiel C, Bredemeijer G, Vosman B, Matthes M, Daly A, Brettschneider R, Bettini P, Buiatti M, Maestri E, Malcevschi A, Marmiroli N, Aert R, Volckaert G, Rueda J, Linacero R, Vazquez A, Karp A (1997) Reproducibility testing of RAPD, AFLP, and SSR markers in plants by a network of European laboratories. Molecular Breeding 3, 381–390.
CrossRef | CAS |

Jonsson O, Jonsdottir I, Cronsberg N (1996) Clonal diversity and allozyme variation in populations of the arctic sedge Carex bigelowii (Cyperaceae). Journal of Ecology 84, 449–459.
CrossRef |

Krauss SL, He TH (2006) Rapid genetic identification of local provenance seed collection zones for ecological restoration and biodiversity conservation. Journal of Nature Conservation 14, 190–199.
CrossRef |

Krauss SL, He T, Lamont BB, Miller BP, Enright NJ (2006) Late Quaternary climate change and spatial genetic structure in the shrub Banksia hookeriana. Molecular Ecology 15, 1125–1137.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Linder HP, Eldenas P, Briggs BG (2003) Contrasting patterns of radiation in African and Australian Restionaceae. Evolution 57, 2688–2702.
PubMed |


Ma G-H, Bunn E, Dixon KW, Flematti G (2006) Comparative enhancement of germination and vigor in seed and somatic embryos by the smoke chemical 3-methyl-2H-furo[2,3-C]pyran-2-one in Baloskion tetraphyllum (Restionaceae). In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology 42, 305–309.
CAS | CrossRef |


McClintock KA, Waterway MJ (1993) Patterns of allozyme variation and clonal diversity in Carex lasiocarpa and C. pellita (Cyperaceae). American Journal of Botany 80, 1251–1263.
CrossRef | CAS |

McDermott JM, McDonald BA (1993) Gene flow in plant pathosystems. Annual Review of Phytopathology 31, 353–373.
CrossRef |

McGlaughlin ME, Friar EA (2007) Clonality in the endangered Ambrosia pumila (Asteraceae) inferred from RAPD markers; implications for conservation and management. Conservation Genetics 8, 319–330.
CrossRef |

McGregor CE, Lambert CA, Greyling MM, Louw JH, Warnich L (2000) A comparative assessment of DNA fingerprinting techniques (RAPD, ISSR, AFLP and SSR) in tetraploid potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) germplasm. Euphytica 113, 135–144.
CrossRef | CAS |

McKay JK, Christian CE, Harrison S, Rice KJ (2005) “How local is local?” – a review of practical and conceptual issues in the genetics of restoration. Restoration Ecology 13, 432–440.
CrossRef |

Meney KA, Dixon KW (1988) Phenology, reproductive-biology and seed development in four rush and sedge species from Western Australia. Australian Journal of Botany 36, 722–726.
CrossRef |


Meney KA, Dixon KW (1995a) In vitro propagation of Western Australian rushes (Restionaceae and related families) by embryo culture. Part 1. In vitro embryo growth. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 41, 107–113.
CrossRef |

Meney KA, Dixon KW (1995b) In vitro propagation of Western Australian rushes (Restionaceae and related families) by embryo culture. Part 2. Micropropagation. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 41, 115–124.
CrossRef |

Meney KA, Pate JS, Dixon KW (1990a) Comparative morphology, anatomy, phenology and reproductive biology of Alexgeorgea spp. (Restionaceae) from South-western Western Australia. Australian Journal of Botany 38, 523–541.
CrossRef |

Meney KA, Pate JS, Dixon KW (1990b) Phenology of growth and resource deployment in Alexgeorgea nitens (Nees) Johnson & Briggs (Restionaceae), a clonal species from South-western Western Australia. Australian Journal of Botany 38, 543–557.
CrossRef |

Meney KA , Dixon KW , Pate JS (1999) Seed production and germination ecology of Restionaceae. In ‘Australian rushes: biology, identification and conservation of Restionaceae and allied families’. (Eds KA Meney, JS Pate) pp. 97–108. (University of Western Australia Press: Nedlands)

Miller MP (1997) Tools For Population Genetic Analysis (TFPGA) 1.3: A windows program for the analysis of allozyme and molecular population genetic data. Distributed by the author at http://www.marksgeneticsoftware.net/

Mortlock W (2000) Local seed for revegetation. Ecological Management & Restoration 1, 93–101.
CrossRef |

Mueller UG, Wolfenbarger LL (1999) AFLP genotyping and fingerprinting. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 14, 389–394.
CrossRef |

Muluvi GM, Sprent JI, Soranzo N, Provan J, Odee D, Folkard G (1999) Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis of genetic variation in Moringa oleifera Lam. Molecular Ecology 8, 463–470.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Myers N, Mittermeier RA, Mittermeier CG, da Fonseca GAB, Kent J (2000) Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403, 853–858.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Nybom H (2004) Comparison of different nuclear DNA markers for estimating intraspecific genetic diversity in plants. Molecular Ecology 13, 1143–1155.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Pate JS , Meney KA , Dixon KW , Hickman EJ (1999) Response of Restionaceae to fire. In ‘Australian rushes: biology, identification and conservation of Restionaceae and allied families’. (Eds KA Meney, JS Pate) pp. 71–83. (University of Western Australia Press: Nedlands)

Peakall R, Smouse PE (2006) GENALEX 6: genetic analysis in Excel. Population genetic software for teaching and research. Molecular Ecology Notes 6, 288–295.
CrossRef |

Pritchard JK, Stephens M, Donnelly P (2000) Inference of population structure using multilocus genotype data. Genetics 155, 945–959.
CAS | PubMed |


Raymond M, Rousset F (1995) An exact test for population differentiation. Evolution 49, 1280–1283.
CrossRef |

Roberts L, Stone R, Sugden A (2009) The rise of restoration ecology. Science 325, 555.
CrossRef | PubMed |

Rousset F (1997) Genetic differentiation and estimation of gene flow from F-Statistics under isolation by distance. Genetics 145, 1219–1228.
CAS | PubMed |


Ruggiero MV, Reusch BH, Procaccini G (2005) Local genetic structure in a clonal dioecious angiosperm. Molecular Ecology 14, 957–967.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Saltonstall K (2002) Cryptic invasion by a non-native genotype of the common reed, Phragmites australis, into North America. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 99, 2445–2449.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Silvertown J (2008) The evolutionary maintenance of sexual reproduction: evidence from the ecological distribution of asexual reproduction in clonal plants. International Journal of Plant Sciences 169, 157–168.
CrossRef |

Sinclair EA, Cheetham B, Krauss SL, Hobbs RJ (2008) Patterns of morphological and molecular variation in Conospermum triplinervium R.Br (Proteaceae), the tree smokebush, and their implication for bushland restoration. Australian Journal of Botany 56, 451–460.
CrossRef | CAS |

von Perger BA, Weaver P, Dixon KW (1994) Genetic diversity and restoration of a recalcitrant clonal sedge (Tetraria capillaris Cyperaceae). Biodiversity and Conservation 3, 279–294.
CrossRef |

Vos P, Hogers R, Bleeker M, Reijans M, van de Lee T, Hornes M, Friters A, Pot J, Paleman J, Kuiper M, Zabeau M (1995) AFLP: a new technique for DNA fingerprinting. Nucleic Acids Research 23, 4407–4414.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Wann JM, Bell DT (1997) Dietary preferences of the black-gloved wallaby (Macropus irma) and the western grey kangaroo (M. fuliginosus) in Whiteman Park, Perth, Western Australia. Royal Society of Western Australia 80, 55–62.

Watkinson AR, Powell JC (1993) Seedling recruitment and the maintenance of clonal diversity in plant populations – a computer simulation of Ranunculus repens. Journal of Ecology 81, 707–717.
CrossRef |


Wheeler MA, Byrne M (2006) Congruence between phylogeographic patterns in cpDNA variation in Eucalyptus marginata (Myrtaceae) and geomorphology of the Darling Plateau, south-west of Western Australia. Australian Journal of Botany 54, 17–26.
CrossRef | CAS |

Whitham TG, Bailey JK, Schweitzer JA, Shuster SM, Bangert RK, LeRoy CJ, Lonsdorf EV, Allan GJ, DiFazio SP, Potts BM, Fischer DG, Gehring CA, Lindroth RL, Marks JC, Hart SC, Wimp GM, Wooley SC (2006) A framework for community and ecosystem genetics: from genes to ecosystems. Nature Reviews – Genetics 7, 510–523.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |

Widén B, Cronberg N, Widén M (1994) Genotypic diversity, molecular markers and spatial distribution of genets in clonal plants, a literature survey. Folia Geobotanica et Phytotaxonomica 29, 245–263.
CrossRef |

Zawko G, Krauss SL, Dixon KW, Sivasuthamparam K (2001) Conservation genetics of the rare and endangered Leucopogon obtectus (Ericaceae). Molecular Ecology 10, 2389–2396.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed |








Rent Article (via Deepdyve) Export Citation Cited By (7)