Australian Journal of Botany Australian Journal of Botany Society
Southern hemisphere botanical ecosystems
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Aleurone and subaleurone morphology in native Australian wild cereal relatives

F. M. Shapter A C , M. P. Dawes B , L. S. Lee A and R. J. Henry A
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A Grain Foods CRC, Centre for Plant Conservation Genetics, Southern Cross University, PO Box 157, Lismore, NSW 2480, Australia.

B School of Environmental Science and Management, Southern Cross University, PO Box 157, Lismore, NSW 2480, Australia.

C Corresponding author. Email: fshapter@scu.edu.au

Australian Journal of Botany 57(8) 688-696 https://doi.org/10.1071/BT07086
Submitted: 8 May 2007  Accepted: 26 November 2009   Published: 8 February 2010

Abstract

The pericarp and aleurone layer of cereal grains are associated with the accumulation of anti-nutritional factors, vitamins, high-value proteins and trace elements. Variations in these tissues may be associated with important differences in the nutritional and functional value of cereals as human or animal feeds. Wild crop relatives (WCR) have been successfully utilised in breeding programs to improve agronomic traits such as dwarfism and pest and disease resistance. Australia’s undomesticated grass species (Poaceae) provide a unique and genetically diverse array of WCRs and therefore the grains of 17 Australian WCRs were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Aleurone of each WCR was compared with that of its nearest domesticated cereal relative, with little significant morphological variation observed to this structure. A novel subaleurone morphology was observed in the Sorghum WCRs which had the appearance of being a very dense protein matrix only sparsely embedded with small starch granules or completely lacking starch granules. Histochemical analysis of a subsample of the specimens confirmed that the described morphology was lacking starch granules and had a proteinaceous matrix. Such morphological variations within Australian wild crop relatives of commercial cereals may provide novel sources of genetic diversity for future grain improvement programs.


Acknowledgements

The authors would like to acknowledge the technical support of Vicki Borden and Nichole Murray of the New South Wales Department of Primary Industries Regional Veterinary Laboratory, Wollongbar. Technical support was also contributed by the Scanning Electron Microscopy Laboratory and the School of Environmental Science and Management, Southern Cross University. Funding support was provided by the Grain Foods Cooperative Research Centre.


References


Antoine C, Lullien-Pellerin V, Abecassis J, Rouau X (2004) Effect of wheat bran ball-milling on fragmentation and marker extractability of the aleurone layer. Journal of Cereal Science 40, 275–282.
CrossRef | CAS | open url image1

Beaugrand J, Paes G, Reis D, Takahashi M, Debeire P, O’Donohue M, Chabbert B (2005) Probing the cell wall heterogeneity of micro-dissected wheat caryopsis using both active and inactive forms of a GH11 xylanase. Planta 222, 246–257.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed | open url image1

Beta T, Rooney L, Marovatsanga L, Taylor J (1999) Phenolic compounds and kernel characteristics of Zimbabwean sorghums. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 79, 1003–1010.
CrossRef | CAS | open url image1

Champagne E , Wood D , Juliano B , Bechtel D (2004) The rice granule and its gross composition. In ‘Rice: chemistry and technology’. (Ed. E Champagne) pp. 77–108. (American Association of Cereal Chemists: St Paul, MN, US)

Dillon SL, Lawrence PK, Henry RJ, Ross L, Price HJ, Johnston JS (2004) Sorghum laxiflorum and S. macrospermum, the Australian native species most closely related to the cultivated S. bicolor based on ITS1 and ndhF sequence analysis of 25 Sorghum species. Plant Systematics and Evolution 249, 233–246.
CrossRef | open url image1

Duodu K, Nunes A, Delgadillo I, Parker M, Mills E, Belton P, Taylor J (2002) Effect of grain structure and cooking on sorghum and maize in vitro protein digestability. Journal of Cereal Science 35, 161–174.
CrossRef | CAS | open url image1

Duodu K, Taylor J, Belton P, Hamaker B (2003) Factors affecting sorghum protein digestibility. Journal of Cereal Science 38, 117–131.
CrossRef | CAS | open url image1

Earp C, Rooney L (1982) Scanning electron microscopy of the pericarp and testa of several sorghum varieties. Food Microstructure 1, 125–135. open url image1

Earp C, McDonough C, Rooney L (2004) Microscopy of pericarp development in the caryopsis of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. Journal of Cereal Science 39, 21–27.
CrossRef | open url image1

Geisler-Lee J, Gallie DR (2005) Aleurone cell identity is suppressed following connation in maize kernels. Plant Physiology 139, 204–212.
CrossRef | CAS | PubMed | open url image1

Ghandilyan A, Vreughenhil D, Aarts GM (2006) Progress in the genetic understanding of plant iron and zinc nutrition. Physiologia Plantarum 126, 407–417.
CrossRef | CAS | open url image1

Gregorio G (2002) Progress in breeding for trace minerals in staple crops. Journal of Nutrition 21, 5005–5025. open url image1

Hoover R, Sailaja Y, Sosulski F (1996) Characterization of starches from wild and long grain brown rice. Food Research International 29, 99–107.
CrossRef | CAS | open url image1

Jones RL, Jacobsen JV (1991) Regulation of synthesis and transport of secreted proteins in cereal Aleurone. International Review of Cytology-a Survey of Cell Biology 126, 49–88.
CAS |
open url image1

Joyce C, Deneau A, Peterson K, Ockenden I, Raboy V, Lott JNA (2005) The concentrations and distributions of phytic acid phosphorus and other mineral nutrients in wild-type and low phytic acid Js-12-LPA wheat (Triticum aestivum) grain parts. Canadian Journal of Botany-Revue Canadienne De Botanique 83, 1599–1607.
CrossRef | CAS | open url image1

Kameswara Rao NK, Reddy LJ, Bramel PJ (2003) Potential of wild species for genetic enhancement of some semi-arid food crops. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 50, 707–721.
CrossRef | open url image1

Kasem S, Waters DLE, Rice N, Shapter FM, Henry RJ (2009) Whole grain morphology of Australian rice species. Plant Genetic Resources in press ,
CrossRef | open url image1

Khoo U, Wolf M (1970) Origin and development of protein granules in maize endosperm. American Journal of Botany 57, 1042–1050.
CrossRef | open url image1

Lazarides M (2002) Economic attributes of Australian grasses. In ‘Flora of Australia, Vol. 43, Poaceae 1’. (Eds K Mallett, A Orchard) pp. 213–234. (ABRS/CSIRO Australia: Melbourne)

Liu JC, Ockenden I, Truax M, Lott JNA (2004) Phytic acid-phosphorus and other nutritionally important mineral nutrient elements in grains of wild-type and low phytic acid (lpa1–1) rice. Seed Science Research 14, 109–116.
CrossRef | CAS | open url image1

Parr AJ, Bolwell GP (2000) Phenols in the plant and in man. The potential for possible nutritional enhancement of the diet by modifying the phenols content or profile. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 80, 985–1012.
CrossRef | CAS | open url image1

Shapter FM, Lee LS, Henry RJ (2008) Endosperm and starch granule morphology in wild cereal relatives. Plant Genetic Resources 6, 85–97.
CrossRef | open url image1

Shewry PR , Morell M (2001) Manipulating cereal endosperm structure, development and composition to improve end-use properties. In ‘Advances in botanical research incorporating advances in plant pathology. Vol. 34’. pp. 165–236. (Academic Press Ltd: London)

Stone BA (2006) Cell walls of cereal grains. Cereal Foods World 51, 62–65.
CAS |
open url image1

Taylor J, Novellie L, Liebenberg W (1984) Sorghum protein body composition and ultrastructure. Cereal Chemistry 61, 69–73.
CAS |
open url image1

Taylor J, Schussler L, Liebenberg N (1985) Protein body formation in the starchy endosperm of developing Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench seeds. South African Journal of Botany 51, 35–40. open url image1

Tesso T, Ejeta G, Chandrashekar A, Huang CP, Tandjung A, Lewamy M, Axtell JD, Hamaker BR (2006) A novel modified endosperm texture in a mutant high-protein digestibility/high-lysine grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). Cereal Chemistry 83, 194–201.
CrossRef | CAS | open url image1

Thompson LU (1993) Potential health benefits and problems associated with antinutrients in foods. Food Research International 26, 131–149.
CrossRef | CAS | open url image1

Wada T, Lott JNA (1997) Light and electron microscopic and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis studies of globoids in protein bodies of embryo tissues and the aleurone layer of rice (Oryza sativa L.) grains. Canadian Journal of Botany-Revue Canadienne De Botanique 75, 1137–1147.
CrossRef | CAS | open url image1

Watson C, Dikeman E (1977) Structure of the rice grain shown by scanning electron microscopy. Cereal Chemistry 54, 120–130. open url image1

Wolever T (1990) The glycemic index. World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics 62, 120–125.
CAS | PubMed |
open url image1








Rent Article (via Deepdyve) Export Citation Cited By (2)