Australian Journal of Botany Australian Journal of Botany Society
Southern hemisphere botanical ecosystems
TURNER REVIEW

‘Breathing’ of the terrestrial biosphere: lessons learned from a global network of carbon dioxide flux measurement systems

Dennis Baldocchi

Ecosystem Sciences Division, Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management, University of California, 137 Mulford Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. Email: Baldocchi@nature.berkeley.edu

Australian Journal of Botany 56(1) 1-26 http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/BT07151
Submitted: 10 August 2007  Accepted: 24 December 2007   Published: 7 February 2008

Abstract

Published eddy covariance measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange between vegetation and the atmosphere from a global network are distilled, synthesised and reviewed according to time scale, climate and plant functional types, disturbance and land use. Other topics discussed include history of the network, errors and issues associated with the eddy covariance method, and a synopsis of how these data are being used by ecosystem and climate modellers and the remote-sensing community. Spatial and temporal differences in net annual exchange, FN, result from imbalances in canopy photosynthesis (FA) and ecosystem respiration (FR), which scale closely with one another on annual time scales. Key findings reported include the following: (1) ecosystems with the greatest net carbon uptake have the longest growing season, not the greatest FA; (2) ecosystems losing carbon were recently disturbed; (3) many old-growth forests act as carbon sinks; and (4) year-to-year decreases in FN are attributed to a suite of stresses that decrease FA and FR in tandem. Short-term flux measurements revealed emergent-scale processes including (1) the enhancement of light use efficiency by diffuse light, (2) dynamic pulses in FR following rain and (3) the acclimation FA and FR to temperature. They also quantify how FA and FR respond to droughts and heat spells.


References

Aalto T Ciais P Chevillard A Moulin C 2004 Optimal determination of the parameters controlling biospheric CO2 fluxes over Europe using eddy covariance fluxes and satellite ndvi measurements. Tellus. Series B, Chemical and Physical Meteorology 56 93 104 doi:10.1111/j.1600-0889.2004.00096.x

Adams JM Piovesan G 2002 Uncertainties in the role of land vegetation in the carbon cycle. Chemosphere 49 805 819 doi:10.1016/S0045-6535(02)00382-X

Alton P Mercado L North P 2007 A sensitivity analysis of the land-surface scheme jules conducted for three forest biomes: Biophysical parameters, model processes, and meteorological driving data. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 20 GB1008 doi:10.1029/2005GB002653

Amiro BD MacPherson IJ Desjardins RL Chen JM Liu J 2003 Post-fire carbon dioxide fluxes in the western Canadian boreal forest: evidence from towers, aircraft and remote sensing. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 115 91 107 doi:10.1016/S0168-1923(02)00170-3

Amiro BD Barr AG Black TA Iwashita H Kljun N McCaughey JH Morgenstern K Murayama S Nesic Z Orchansky AL Saigusa N 2006 Carbon, energy and water fluxes at mature and disturbed forest sites, Saskatchewan, Canada. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 136 237 251 doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2004.11.012

Anderson DE Verma SB 1986 Carbon-dioxide, water-vapor and sensible heat exchanges of a grain-sorghum canopy. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 34 317 331 doi:10.1007/BF00120986

Anthoni PM Law BE Unsworth MH 1999 Carbon and water vapor exchange of an open-canopied ponderosa pine ecosystem. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 95 151 168 doi:10.1016/S0168-1923(99)00029-5

Anthoni PM Freibauer A Kolle O Schulze E-D 2004 a Winter wheat carbon exchange in Thuringia, Germany. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 121 55 67 doi:10.1016/S0168-1923(03)00162-X

Anthoni PM Knohl A Rebmann C Freibauer A Mund M Ziegler W Kolle O Schulze ED 2004 b Forest and agricultural land-use-dependent CO2 exchange in Thuringia, Germany. Global Change Biology 10 2005 2019 doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2004.00863.x

Arain MA Restrepo-Coupe N 2005 Net ecosystem production in a temperate pine plantation in southeastern Canada. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 128 223 241 doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2004.10.003

Araujo AC Nobre AD Kruijt B Elbers JA Dallarosa R Stefani P von Randow C Manzi AO Culf AD Gash JHC Valentini R Kabat P 2002 Comparative measurements of carbon dioxide fluxes from two nearby towers in a central Amazonian rainforest: the Manaus LBA site. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 107 doi:10.1029/2001JD000676

Atkin O Bruhn D Hurry V Tjoelker M 2005 Evans review no. 2. The hot and the cold: unravelling the variable response of plant respiration to temperature. Functional Plant Biology 32 87 105 doi:10.1071/FP03176

Aubinet M Grelle A Ibrom A Rannik U Moncrieff J Foken T Kowalski A Martin P Berbigier P Bernhofer C Clement R Elbers J Granier A Grunwald T Morgenstern K Pilegaard K Rebmann C Snijders W Valentini R Vesala T 2000 Estimates of the annual net carbon and water exchange of europeran forests: the EUROFLUX methodology. Advances in Ecological Research 30 113 175

Aubinet M Heinesch B Yernaux M 2003 Horizontal and vertical CO2 advection in a sloping forest. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 108 397 417
doi:10.1023/A:1024168428135

Aubinet M Berbigier P Bernhofer CH Cescatti A Feigenwinter C Granier A Grunwald TH Havrankova K Heinesch B Longdoz B Marcolla B Montagnani L Sedlak P 2005 Comparing CO2 storage and advection conditions at night at different carboeuroflux sites. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 116 63 94 doi:10.1007/s10546-004-7091-8

Auble DL Meyers TP 1992 An open path, fast response infrared-absorption gas analyzer for H2O and CO2. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 59 243 256 doi:10.1007/BF00119815

Badeck FW Bondeau A Bottcher K Doktor D Lucht W Schaber J Sitch S 2004 Responses of spring phenology to climate change. The New Phytologist 162 295 309 doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.2004.01059.x

Baker JM Griffis TJ 2005 Examining strategies to improve the carbon balance of corn/soybean agriculture using eddy covariance and mass balance techniques. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 128 163 177 doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2004.11.005

Baldocchi DD 1997 Measuring and modeling carbon dioxide and water vapor exchange over a temperate broad-leaved forest during the 1995 summer drought. Plant, Cell & Environment 20 1108 1122 doi:10.1046/j.1365-3040.1997.d01-147.x

Baldocchi DD 2003 Assessing the eddy covariance technique for evaluating carbon dioxide exchange rates of ecosystems: past, present and future. Global Change Biology 9 479 492 doi:10.1046/j.1365-2486.2003.00629.x

Baldocchi D , Valentini R (2004) Geographic and temporal variation of the mechanisms controlling carbon exchange by ecosystems and their sensitivity to environmental perturbations. In ‘The global carbon cycle: integrating humans, climate and the natural world’. (Eds C Field, M Raupach) pp. 295–315. (Island Press: Washington, DC)

Baldocchi DD Hicks BB Meyers TP 1988 Measuring biosphere–atmosphere exchanges of biologically related gases with micrometeorological methods. Ecology 69 1331 1340 doi:10.2307/1941631

Baldocchi DD Valentini R Running SR Oechel W Dahlman R 1996 Strategies for measuring and modelling CO2 and water vapor fluxes over terrestrial ecosystems. Global Change Biology 2 159 168 doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.1996.tb00069.x

Baldocchi DD Vogel CA Hall B 1997 Seasonal variation of carbon dioxide exchange rates above and below a boreal jack pine forest. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 83 147 170 doi:10.1016/S0168-1923(96)02335-0

Baldocchi DD Finnigan JJ Wilson K Paw U KT Falge E 2000 On measuring net ecosystem carbon exchange in complex terrain over tall vegetation. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 96 257 291 doi:10.1023/A:1002497616547

Baldocchi DD Falge E Gu LH Olson R Hollinger D Running S Anthoni P Bernhofer C Davis K Evans R Fuentes J Goldstein A Katul G Law B Lee XH Malhi Y Meyers T Munger W Oechel W Paw U KT Pilegaard K Schmid HP Valentini R Verma S Vesala T Wilson K Wofsy S 2001 a FLUXNET: A new tool to study the temporal and spatial variability of ecosystem-scale carbon dioxide, water vapor, and energy flux densities. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 82 2415 2434 doi:10.1175/1520-0477(2001)082<2415:FANTTS>2.3.CO;2

Baldocchi DD Falge E Wilson K 2001 b A spectral analysis of biosphere–atmosphere trace gas flux densities and meteorological variables across hour to year time scales. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 107 1 27 doi:10.1016/S0168-1923(00)00228-8

Baldocchi DD Black TA Curtis PS Falge E Fuentes JD Granier A Gu L Knohl A Pilegaard K Schmid HP Valentini R Wilson K Wofsy S Xu L Yamamoto S 2005 Predicting the onset of net carbon uptake by deciduous forests with soil temperature and climate data: a synthesis of FLUXNET data. International Journal of Biometeorology 49 377 387 doi:10.1007/s00484-005-0256-4

Barford CC Wofsy SC Goulden ML Munger JW Pyle EH Urbanski SP Hutyra L Saleska SR Fitzjarrald D Moore K 2001 Factors controlling long- and short-term sequestration of atmospheric CO2 in a mid-latitude forest. Science 294 1688 1691 doi:10.1126/science.1062962

Barr AG Griffis TJ Black TA Lee X Staebler RM Fuentes JD Chen Z Morgenstern K 2002 Comparing the carbon budgets of boreal and temperate deciduous forest stands. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 32 813 822 doi:10.1139/x01-131

Barr AG Black TA Hogg EH Kljun N Morgenstern K Nesic Z 2004 Inter-annual variability in the leaf area index of a boreal aspen-hazelnut forest in relation to net ecosystem production. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 126 237 255 doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2004.06.011

Barr AG Morgenstern K Black TA McCaughey JH Nesic Z 2006 Surface energy balance closure by the eddy-covariance method above three boreal forest stands and implications for the measurement of the CO2 flux. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 140 322 337 doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2006.08.007

Barr AG Black TA Hogg EH Griffis TJ Morgenstern K Kljun N Theede A Nesic Z 2007 Climatic controls on the carbon and water balances of a boreal aspen forest, 1994–2003. Global Change Biology 13 561 576 doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2006.01220.x

Beer C Reichstein M Ciais P Farquhar GD Papale D 2007 Mean annual GPP of Europe derived from its water balance. Geophysical Research Letters 34 doi:10.1029/2006GL029006

Berbigier P Bonnefond J-M Mellmann P 2001 CO2 and water vapour fluxes for 2 years above euroflux forest site. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 108 183 197 doi:10.1016/S0168-1923(01)00240-4

Beringer J Hutley L Tapper N Coutts A Kerley A O’Grady A 2003 Fire impacts on surface heat, moisture and carbon fluxes from a tropical savanna in northern Australia. International Journal of Wildland Fire 12 333 340 doi:10.1071/WF03023

Beringer J Hutley LB Tapper NJ Cernusak LA 2007 Savanna fires and their impact on net ecosystem productivity in north Australia. Global Change Biology 13 990 1004 doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2007.01334.x

Bernacchi CJ Hollinger SE Meyers T 2005 The conversion of the corn/soybean ecosystem to no-till agriculture may result in a carbon sink. Global Change Biology 11 1867 1872

Birch HF 1958 Further aspects of humus decomposition. Nature 182 1172

Black T DenHartog G Neumann H Blanken P Yang P Russell C Nesic Z Lee X Chen S Staebler R Novak M 1996 Annual cycles of water vapour and carbon dioxide fluxes in and above a boreal aspen forest. Global Change Biology 2 219 229
doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.1996.tb00074.x

Bousquet P Peylin P Ciais P Le Quere C Friedlingstein P Tans PP 2000 Regional changes in carbon dioxide fluxes of land and oceans since 1980. Science 290 1342 1346 doi:10.1126/science.290.5495.1342

Braswell BH Sacks WJ Linder E Schimel DS 2005 Estimating diurnal to annual ecosystem parameters by synthesis of a carbon flux model with eddy covariance net ecosystem exchange observations. Global Change Biology 11 335 355 doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2005.00897.x

Buchmann N Schulze ED 1999 Net CO2 and H2O fluxes of terrestrial ecosystems. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 13 751 760 doi:10.1029/1999GB900016

Canadell J Mooney H Baldocchi D Berry J Ehleringer J Field CB Gower T Hollinger D Hunt J Jackson R Running S Shaver G Trumbore S Valentini R Yoder B 2000 Carbon metabolism of the terrestrial biosphere. Ecosystems 3 115 130 doi:10.1007/s100210000014

Carrara A Kowalski AS Neirynck J Janssens IA Yuste JC Ceulemans R 2003 Net ecosystem CO2 exchange of mixed forest in belgium over 5 years. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 119 209 227 doi:10.1016/S0168-1923(03)00120-5

Carswell FE Costa AL Palheta M Malhi Y Meir P Costa JDR Ruivo MD Leal LDM Costa JMN Clement RJ Grace J 2002 Seasonality in CO2 and H2O flux at an eastern Amazonian rain forest. Journal of Geophysical Research—Atmospheres 107 doi:10.1029/2000JD000284

Chapin FS Woodwell GM Randerson JT Rastetter EB Lovett GM Baldocchi DD Clark DA Harmon ME Schimel DS Valentini R Wirth C Aber JD Cole JJ Goulden ML Harden JW Heimann M Howarth RW Matson PA McGuire AD Melillo JM Mooney HA Neff JC Houghton RA Pace ML Ryan MG Running SW Sala OE Schlesinger WH Schulze E-D 2006 Reconciling carbon-cycle concepts, terminology, and methods. Ecosystems 9 1041 1050 doi:10.1007/s10021-005-0105-7

Churkina G Schimel D Braswell BH Xiao XM 2005 Spatial analysis of growing season length control over net ecosystem exchange. Global Change Biology 11 1777 1787 doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2005.001012.x

Ciais P Reichstein M Viovy N Granier A Ogee J Allard V Aubinet M Buchmann N Bernhofer C Carrara A Chevallier F De Noblet N Friend AD Friedlingstein P Grunwald T Heinesch B Keronen P Knohl A Krinner G Loustau D Manca G Matteucci G Miglietta F Ourcival JM Papale D Pilegaard K Rambal S Seufert G Soussana JF Sanz MJ Schulze ED Vesala T Valentini R 2005 Europe-wide reduction in primary productivity caused by the heat and drought in 2003. Nature 437 529 533 doi:10.1038/nature03972

Clark KL Gholz HL Castro MS 2004 Carbon dynamics along a chronosequence of slash pine plantations in north florida. Ecological Applications 14 1154 1171 doi:10.1890/02-5391

Constantin J Grelle A Ibrom A Morgenstern K 1999 Flux partitioning between understorey and overstorey in a boreal spruce/pine forest determined by the eddy covariance method. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 98–99 629 643 doi:10.1016/S0168-1923(99)00129-X

Coursolle C Margolis HA Barr AG Black TA Amiro BD McCaughey JH Flanagan LB Lafleur PM Roulet NT Bourque CPA Arain MA Wofsy SC Dunn A Morgenstern K Orchansky AL Bernier PY Chen JM Kidston J Saigusa N Hedstrom N 2006 Late-summer carbon fluxes from Canadian forests and peatlands along an east-west continental transect. Canadian Journal of Forest Research-Revue Canadienne De Recherche Forestiere 36 783 800 doi:10.1139/x05-270

Curtis PS Vogel CS Gough CM Schmid HP Su HB Bovard BD 2005 Respiratory carbon losses and the carbon-use efficiency of a northern hardwood forest, 1999–2003. New Phytologist 167 437 455 doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.2005.01438.x

da Rocha HR Goulden ML Miller SD Menton MC Pinto L de Freitas HC Figueira A 2004 Seasonality of water and heat fluxes over a tropical forest in eastern Amazonia. Ecological Applications 14 S22 S32

Deng F Chen JM Ishizawa M Yuen CW Mo G Higuchi K Chan D Maksyutov S 2007 Global monthly CO2 flux inversion with a focus over North America. Tellus 59B 179 190


Desai AR Bolstad PV Cook BD Davis KJ Carey EV 2005 Comparing net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide between an old-growth and mature forest in the upper midwest, USA. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 128 33 55
doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2004.09.005

Desjardins R 1985 Carbon-dioxide budget of maize. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 36 29 41 doi:10.1016/0168-1923(85)90063-2

Desjardins RL Buckley DJ Amour GS 1984 Eddy flux measurements of CO2 above corn using a microcomputer system. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 32 257 265 doi:10.1016/0168-1923(84)90053-4

Desjardins RL MacPherson JI Mahrt L Schuepp P Pattey E Neumann H Baldocchi D Wofsy S Fitzjarrald D McCaughey H 1997 Scaling up flux measurements for the boreal forest using aircraft-tower combinations. Journal of Geophysical Research 102 29125 29134 doi:10.1029/97JD00278

Dolman AJ Moors EJ Elbers JA 2002 The carbon uptake of a mid latitude pine forest growing on sandy soil. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 111 157 170 doi:10.1016/S0168-1923(02)00024-2

Dolman AJ Noilhan J Durand P Sarrat C Brut A Piguet B Butet A Jarosz N Brunet Y Loustau D Lamaud E Tolk L Ronda R Miglietta F Gioli B Magliulo V Esposito M Gerbig C Korner S Glademard R Ramonet M Ciais P Neininger B Hutjes RWA Elbers JA Macatangay R Schrems O Perez-Landa G Sanz MJ Scholz Y Facon G Ceschia E Beziat P 2006 The CarboEurope regional experiment strategy. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 87 1367 1379 doi:10.1175/BAMS-87-10-1367

Driscoll CT Lawrence GB Bulger AJ Butler TJ Cronan CS Eagar C Lambert KF Likens GE Stoddard JL Weathers KC 2001 Acidic deposition in the northeastern United States: sources and inputs, ecosystem effects, and management strategies. Bioscience 51 180 198 doi:10.1641/0006-3568(2001)051[0180:ADITNU]2.0.CO;2

Dunn AL Barford CC Wofsy SC Goulden ML Daube BC 2007 A long-term record of carbon exchange in a boreal black spruce forest: means, responses to interannual variability, and decadal trends. Global Change Biology 13 577 590 doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2006.01221.x

Easterling DR Meehl GA Parmesan C Changnon SA Karl TR Mearns LO 2000 Climate extremes: observations, modeling, and impacts. Science 289 2068 2074 doi:10.1126/science.289.5487.2068

Emanuel RE Albertson JD Epstein HE Williams CA 2006 Carbon dioxide exchange and early old-field succession. Journal of Geophysical Research. Biogeociences 111 doi:10.1029/2005JG000069

Enquist BJ Economo EP Huxman TE Allen AP Ignace DD Gillooly JF 2003 Scaling metabolism from organisms to ecosystems. Nature 423 639 642 doi:10.1038/nature01671

Falge E Baldocchi D Olson R Anthoni P Aubinet M Ch B Burba G Ceulemans R Clement R Dolman H Granier A Gross P Grunwald T Hollinger D Jenson NO Katul G Keronen P Kowalski A Lai CT Law B Meyers T Moncrief J Moors EJ Munger W Pilegaard K Rannik U Rebmann C Sukyer A Tenhunen J Tu K Verma S Vesala T Wilson K Wofsy S 2001 Gap filling strategies for defensible annual sums of net ecosystem exchange. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 107 43 69 doi:10.1016/S0168-1923(00)00225-2

Falge E Baldocchi D Tenhunen J Aubinet M Bakwin P Berbigier P Bernhofer C Burba G Clement R Davis KJ 2002 a Seasonality of ecosystem respiration and gross primary production as derived from FLUXNET measurements. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 113 53 74 doi:10.1016/S0168-1923(02)00102-8

Falge E Tenhunen J Baldocchi D Aubinet M Bakwin P Berbigier P Bernhofer C Bonnefond J-M Burba G Clement R 2002 b Phase and amplitude of ecosystem carbon release and uptake potentials as derived from FLUXNET measurements. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 113 75 95 doi:10.1016/S0168-1923(02)00103-X

Falk M Paw U KT Wharton S Schroeder M 2005 Is soil respiration a major contributor to the carbon budget within a pacific northwest old-growth forest? Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 135 269 283 doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2005.12.005

Feigenwinter C Bernhofer C Vogt R 2004 The influence of advection on the short term CO2-budget in and above a forest canopy. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 113 201 224 doi:10.1023/B:BOUN.0000039372.86053.ff

Finnigan JJ 2004 A re-evaluation of long-term flux measurement techniques—part ii: coordinate systems. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 113 1 41 doi:10.1023/B:BOUN.0000037348.64252.45

Finnigan JJ Clement R Malhi Y Leuning R Cleugh HA 2003 A re-evaluation of long-term flux measurement techniques part i: averaging and coordinate rotation. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 107 1 48 doi:10.1023/A:1021554900225

Flanagan LB Johnson BG 2005 Interacting effects of temperature, soil moisture and plant biomass production on ecosystem respiration in a northern temperate grassland. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 130 237 253 doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2005.04.002

Flanagan LB Wever LA Carlson PJ 2002 Seasonal and interannual variation in carbon dioxide exchange and carbon balance in a northern temperate grassland. Global Change Biology 8 599 615 doi:10.1046/j.1365-2486.2002.00491.x

Flexas J Medrano H 2002 Drought-inhibition of photosynthesis in c-3 plants: stomatal and non-stomatal limitations revisited. Annals of Botany 89 183 189 doi:10.1093/aob/mcf027

Foken T Wichura B 1996 Tools for quality assessment of surface-based flux measurements. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 78 83 105 doi:10.1016/0168-1923(95)02248-1

Friend AD Kiang NY 2005 Land surface model development for the giss gcm: effects of improved canopy physiology on simulated climate. Journal of Climate 18 2883 2902 doi:10.1175/JCLI3425.1

Friend AD Arneth A Kiang NY Lomas M Ogee J Rodenbeckk C Running SW Santaren JD Sitch S Viovy N Woodward FI Zaehle S 2007 FLUXNET and modelling the global carbon cycle. Global Change Biology 13 610 633 doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2006.01223.x

Gamon JA Huemmrich KF Peddle DR Chen J Fuentes D Hall FG Kimball JS Goetz S Gu J McDonald KC 2004 Remote sensing in boreas: lessons learned. Remote Sensing of Environment 89 139 162 doi:10.1016/j.rse.2003.08.017

Gholz HL Clark KL 2002 Energy exchange across a chronosequence of slash pine forests in florida. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 112 87 102 doi:10.1016/S0168-1923(02)00059-X

Gilmanov TG Verma SB Sims PL Meyers TP Bradford JA Burba GG Suyker AE 2003 Gross primary production and light response parameters of four southern plains ecosystems estimated using long-term CO2 -flux tower measurements. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 17 doi:10.1029/2002GB002023

Gilmanov TG Svejcar TJ Johnson DA Angell RE Saliendra NZ Wylie BK 2006 Long-term dynamics of production, respiration, and net CO2 exchange in two sagebrush-steppe ecosystems. Rangeland Ecology & Management 59 585 599 doi:10.2111/05-198R1.1

Gilmanov TG Soussana JE Aires L Allard V Ammann C Balzarolo M Barcza Z Bernhofer C Campbell CL Cernusca A Cescatti A Clifton-Brown J Dirks BOM Dore S Eugster W Fuhrer J Gimeno C Gruenwald T Haszpra L Hensen A Ibrom A Jacobs AFG Jones MB Lanigan G Laurila T Lohila A Manca G Marcolla B Nagy Z Pilegaard K Pinter K Pio C Raschi A Rogiers N Sanz MJ Stefani P Sutton M Tuba Z Valentini R Williams ML Wohlfahrt G 2007 Partitioning European grassland net ecosystem CO2 exchange into gross primary productivity and ecosystem respiration using light response function analysis. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment 121 93 120 doi:10.1016/j.agee.2006.12.008

Gockede M Rebmann C Foken T 2004 A combination of quality assessment tools for eddy covariance measurements with footprint modelling for the characterisation of complex sites. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 127 175 188 doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2004.07.012

Goulden ML Munger JW Fan SM Daube BC Wofsy SC 1996 a Measurements of carbon sequestration by long-term eddy covariance: methods and a critical evaluation of accuracy. Global Change Biology 2 169 182 doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.1996.tb00070.x

Goulden ML Munger JW Fan S-M Daube BC Wofsy SC 1996 b Exchange of carbon dioxide by a deciduous forest: response to interannual climate variability. Science 271 1576 1578 doi:10.1126/science.271.5255.1576

Goulden ML Miller SD da Rocha HR Menton MC de Freitas HC Figueira A de Sousa CAD 2004 Diel and seasonal patterns of tropical forest CO2 exchange. Ecological Applications 14 42 54 doi:10.1890/02-6008

Goulden ML Winston GC McMillan AMS Litvak ME Read EL Rocha AV Elliot JR 2006 An eddy covariance mesonet to measure the effect of forest age on land–atmosphere exchange. Global Change Biology 12 2146 2162 doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2006.01251.x

Gove JH Hollinger DY 2006 Application of a dual unscented Kalman filter for simultaneous state and parameter estimation in problems of surface–atmosphere exchange. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 111 doi:1029/2005JD006021.

Granier A Ceschia E Damesin C Dufrene E Epron D Gross P Lebaube S Le Dantec V Le Goff N Lemoine D Lucot E Ottorini JM Pontailler JY Saugier B 2000 The carbon balance of a young beech forest. Functional Ecology 14 312 325 doi:10.1046/j.1365-2435.2000.00434.x

Granier A Pilegaard K Jensen NO 2002 Similar net ecosystem exchange of beech stands located in france and denmark. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 114 75 82 doi:10.1016/S0168-1923(02)00137-5

Granier A Reichstein M Breda N Janssens IA Falge E Ciais P Grunwald T Aubinet M Berbigier P Bernhofer C Buchmann N Facini O Grassi G Heinesch B Ilvesniemi H Keronen P Knohl A Kostner B Lagergren F Lindroth A Longdoz B Loustau D Mateus J Montagnani L Nys C Moors E Papale D Peiffer M Pilegaard K Pita G Pumpanen J Rambal S Rebmann C Rodrigues A Seufert G Tenhunen J Vesala I Wang Q 2007 Evidence for soil water control on carbon and water dynamics in European forests during the extremely dry year: 2003. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 143 123 145 doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2006.12.004

Grant RF Zhang Y Yuan F Wang S Hanson PJ Gaumont-Guay D Chen J Black TA Barr A Baldocchi DD Arain A 2006 Intercomparison of techniques to model water stress effects on CO2 and energy exchange in temperate and boreal deciduous forests. Ecological Modelling 196 289 312 doi:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2006.02.035

Greco S Baldocchi DD 1996 Seasonal variations of CO2 and water vapor exchange rates over a temperate deciduous forest. Global Change Biology 2 183 198 doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.1996.tb00071.x

Griffis TJ Black TA Morgenstern K Barr AG Nesic Z Drewitt GB Gaumont-Guay D McCaughey JH 2003 Ecophysiological controls on the carbon balances of three southern boreal forests. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 117 53 71 doi:10.1016/S0168-1923(03)00023-6

Griffis TJ Black TA Gaumont-Guay D Drewitt GB Nesic Z Barr AG Morgenstern K Kljun N 2004 Seasonal variation and partitioning of ecosystem respiration in a southern boreal aspen forest. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 125 207 223 doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2004.04.006

Grunwald T Bernhoffer C 2007 A decade of carbon, water and energy flux measurements of an old spruce forest at the anchor station tharandt. Tellus. Series B, Chemical and Physical Meteorology 59 387 396 doi:10.1111/j.1600-0889.2007.00259.x

Gu L Baldocchi DD Verma SB Black TA Vesala T Falge EM Dowty PR 2002 Superiority of diffuse radiation for terrestrial ecosystem productivity. Journal of Geophysical Research 107 doi:10.1029/2001JD001242

Gu L Baldocchi DD Wofsy SC Munger JW Michalsky JJ Urbanski SP Boden TA 2003 a Response of a deciduous forest to the Mount Pinatubo eruption: enhanced photosynthesis. Science 299 2035 2038 doi:10.1126/science.1078366

Gu L , Post WM , Baldocchi DD , Black A , Verma S , Vesala T , Wofsy S (2003 b) Phenology of vegetation photosynthesis. In ‘Phenology: an integrative science’. (Ed. MD Schwartz) pp. 467–488. (Kluwer: Dordrecht, The Netherlands)

Gu L Falge EM Boden T Baldocchi DD Black TA Saleska SR Suni T Verma SB Vesala T Wofsy SC Xu L 2005 Objective threshold determination for nighttime eddy flux filtering. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 128 179 197 doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2004.11.006

Gu LH Meyers T Pallardy SG Hanson PJ Yang B Heuer M Hosman KP Liu Q Riggs JS Sluss D Wullschleger SD 2007 Influences of biomass heat and biochemical energy storages on the land surface fluxes and radiative temperature. Journal of Geophysical Research—Atmospheres 112 doi:10.1029/2006JD007425

Guan D-X Wu J-B Zhao X-S Han S-J Yu G-R Sun X-M Jin C-J 2006 CO2 fluxes over an old, temperate mixed forest in northeastern China. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 137 138 149 doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2006.02.003

Gurney KR Law RM Denning AS Rayner PJ Baker D Bousquet P Bruhwiler L Chen YH Ciais P Fan SM Fung IY Gloor M Heimann M Higuchi K John J Maki T Maksyutov S Peylin P Prather M Pak BC Randerson J Sarmiento J Taguchi S Takahashi T Yuen CW 2002 Towards robust regional estimates of CO2 sources and sinks using atmospheric transport models. Nature 415 626 630 doi:10.1038/415626a

Gurney KR Law RM Denning AS Rayner PJ Baker D Bousquet P Bruhwiler L Chen YH Ciais P Fan SM Fung IY Gloor M Heimann M Higuchi K John J Kowalczyk E Maki T Maksyutov S Peylin P Prather M Pak BC Sarmiento J Taguchi S Takahashi T Yuen CW 2003 Transcom 3 CO2 inversion intercomparison: 1. Annual mean control results and sensitivity to transport and prior flux information. Tellus. Series B, Chemical and Physical Meteorology 55 555 579 doi:10.1034/j.1600-0889.2003.00049.x

Hagen SC Braswell BH Linder E Frolking S Richardson AD Hollinger DY 2006 Statistical uncertainty of eddy flux-based estimates of gross ecosystem carbon exchange at Howland forest, Maine. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 111 doi:10.1029/2005JD006154

Hargrove WW Hoffman FM 2004 Potential of multivariate quantitative methods for delineation and visualization of ecoregions. Environmental Management 34 S39 S60 doi:10.1007/s00267-003-1084-0

Hastings SJ Oechel WC Muhlia-Melo A 2005 Diurnal, seasonal and annual variation in the net ecosystem CO2 exchange of a desert shrub community (sarcocaulescent) in Baja California, Mexico. Global Change Biology 11 927 939 doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2005.00951.x

Haszpra L Barcza Z Davis KJ Tarczay K 2005 Long-term tall tower carbon dioxide flux monitoring over an area of mixed vegetation. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 132 58 77 doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2005.07.002

Heinsch FA Heilman JL McInnes KJ Cobos DR Zuberer DA Roelke DL 2004 Carbon dioxide exchange in a high marsh on the Texas gulf coast: effects of freshwater availability. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 125 159 172 doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2004.02.007

Heinsch FA Zhao M Running SW Kimball JS Nemani RR Davis KJ Bolstad PV Cook BD Desai AR Ricciuto DM Law BE Oechel WC Kwon H Luo H Wofsy SC Dunn AL Munger JW Baldocchi DD Xu L Hollinger DY Richardson AD Stoy PC Siqueira MBS Monson RK Burns SP Flanagan LB 2006 Evaluation of remote sensing based terrestrial productivity from MODros. Inf. Serv. using regional tower eddy flux network observations. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 44 1908 1925 doi:10.1109/TGRS.2005.853936

Hendriks DMD van Huissteden J Dolman AJ van der Molen MK 2007 The full greenhouse gas balance of an abandoned peat meadow. Biogeosciences 4 411 424

Heusinkveld BG Jacobs AFG Holtslag AAM Berkowicz SM 2004 Surface energy balance closure in an arid region: role of soil heat flux. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 122 21 37
doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2003.09.005

Hirano T Segah H Harada T Limin S June T Hirata R Osaki M 2007 Carbon dioxide balance of a tropical peat swamp forest in Kalimantan, Indonesia. Global Change Biology 13 412 425 doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2006.01301.x

Hollinger DY Richardson AD 2005 Uncertainty in eddy covariance measurements and its application to physiological models. Tree Physiology 25 873 885

Hollinger DY Kelliher FM Byers JN Hunt JE Mcseveny TM Weir PL 1994 Carbon-dioxide exchange between an undisturbed old-growth temperate forest and the atmosphere. Ecology 75 134 150
doi:10.2307/1939390

Hollinger DY Kelliher FM Schulze E-D Bauer G Arneth A Byers JN Hunt JE McSeveny TM Kobak KI Milukova I 1998 Forest-atmosphere carbon dioxide exchange in eastern Siberia. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 90 291 306 doi:10.1016/S0168-1923(98)00057-4

Hollinger DY Aber J Dail B Davidson EA Goltz SM Hughes H Leclerc MY Lee JT Richardson AD Rodrigues C Scott NA Achuatavarier D Walsh J 2004 Spatial and temporal variability in forest-atmosphere CO2 exchange. Global Change Biology 10 1689 1706 doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2004.00847.x

Hollinger SE Bernacchi CJ Meyers TP 2005 Carbon budget of mature no-till ecosystem in north central region of the United States. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 130 59 69 doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2005.01.005

Hui D Wan S Su B Katul G Monson R Luo Y 2004 Gap-filling missing data in eddy covariance measurements using multiple imputation (mi) for annual estimations. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 121 93 111 doi:10.1016/S0168-1923(03)00158-8

Humphreys ER Black TA Morgenstern K Cai T Drewitt GB Nesic Z Trofymow JA 2006 Carbon dioxide fluxes in coastal Douglas-fir stands at different stages of development after clearcut harvesting. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 140 6 22 doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2006.03.018

Hutley LB Leuning R Beringer J Cleugh HA 2005 The utility of the eddy covariance techniques as a tool in carbon accounting: tropical savanna as a case study. Australian Journal of Botany 53 663 675 doi:10.1071/BT04147

Hutyra LR Munger JW Saleska SR Gottlieb E Daube BC Dunn AL Amaral DF de Camargo PB Wofsy SC 2007 Seasonal controls on the exchange of carbon and water in an Amazonian rain forest. Journal of Geophysical Research 112 doi:10.1029/2006JG000365

Huxman TE Snyder KA Tissue D Leffler AJ Ogle K Pockman WT Sandquist DR Potts DL Schwinning S 2004 Precipitation pulses and carbon fluxes in semiarid and arid ecosystems. Oecologia 141 254 268

Ito A Muraoka H Koizumi H Saigusa N Murayama S Yamamoto S 2006 Seasonal variation in leaf properties and ecosystem carbon budget in a cool-temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest: Simulation analysis at Takayama site, Japan. Ecological Research 21 137 149
doi:10.1007/s11284-005-0100-7

Ivans S Hipps L Leffler AJ Ivans CY 2006 Response of water vapor and CO2 fluxes in semiarid lands to seasonal and intermittent precipitation pulses. Journal of Hydrometeorology 7 995 1010 doi:10.1175/JHM545.1

Iwata H Malhi Y von Randow C 2005 Gap-filling measurements of carbon dioxide storage in tropical rainforest canopy airspace. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 132 305 314 doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2005.08.005

Janssens IA Pilegaard K 2003 Large seasonal changes in Q10 of soil respiration in a beech forest. Global Change Biology 9 911 918 doi:10.1046/j.1365-2486.2003.00636.x

Janssens IA Lankreijer H Matteucci G Kowalski AS Buchmann N Epron D Pilegaard K Kutsch W Longdoz B Grunwald T Montagnani L Dore S Rebmann C Moors EJ Grelle A Rannik U Morgenstern K Oltchev S Clement R Gudmundsson J Minerbi S Berbigier P Ibrom A Moncrieff J Aubinet M Bernhofer C Jensen NO Vesala T Granier A Schulze ED Lindroth A Dolman AJ Jarvis PG Ceulemans R Valentini R 2001 Productivity overshadows temperature in determining soil and ecosystem respiration across European forests. Global Change Biology 7 269 278 doi:10.1046/j.1365-2486.2001.00412.x

Janssens IA Freibauer A Ciais P Smith P Nabuurs G-J Folberth G Schlamadinger B Hutjes RWA Ceulemans R Schulze E-D Valentini R Dolman AJ 2003 Europe’s terrestrial biosphere absorbs 7 to 12% of European anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Science 300 1538 1542

Jarvis AJ Stauch VJ Schulz K Young PC 2004 The seasonal temperature dependency of photosynthesis and respiration in two deciduous forests. Global Change Biology 10 939 950
doi:10.1111/j.1529-8817.2003.00743.x

Jarvis PG Dolman AJ Schulze ED Matteucci G Kowalski AS Ceulemans R Rebmann C Moors EJ Granier A Gross P Jensen NO Pilegaard K Lindroth A Grelle A Bernhofer C Grunwald T Aubinet M Vesala T Rannik U Berbigier P Loustau D Guomundson J Ibrom A Morgenstern K Clement R Moncrieff J Montagnani L Minerbi S Valentini R 2001 Carbon balance gradient in European forests: Should we doubt ‘surprising’ results? A reply to Piovesan & Adams. Journal of Vegetation Science 12 145 150 doi:10.2307/3236683

Jarvis PG Rey A Petsikos C Wingate L Rayment M Pereira J Banza J David J Miglietta F Borghetti M Manca G Valentini R 2007 Drying and wetting of Mediterranean soils stimulates decomposition and carbon dioxide emission: the ‘birch effect’. Tree Physiology 27 929 940

Jassal R Black A Novak M Morgenstern K Nesic Z Gaumont-Guay D 2005 Relationship between soil CO2 concentrations and forest-floor CO2 effluxes. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 130 176 192
doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2005.03.005

Katul G Lai C-T Schafer K Vidakovic B Albertson J Ellsworth D Oren R 2001 Multiscale analysis of vegetation surface fluxes: from seconds to years. Advances in Water Resources 24 1119 1132 doi:10.1016/S0309-1708(01)00029-X

Katul GG Finnigan JJ Poggi D Leuning R Belcher SE 2006 The influence of hilly terrain on canopy–atmosphere carbon dioxide exchange. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 118 189 216 doi:10.1007/s10546-005-6436-2

Keller M Alencar A Asner GP Braswell B Bustamante M Davidson E Feldpausch T Fernandes E Goulden M Kabat P Kruijt B Luizao F Miller S Markewitz D Nobre AD Nobre CA Priante N da Rocha H Dias PS von Randow C Vourlitis GL 2004 Ecological research in the large-scale biosphere-atmosphere experiment in Amazonia: early results. Ecological Applications 14 3 16 doi:10.1890/03-6003

Kim J Verma SB 1990 Carbon-dioxide exchange in a temperate grassland ecosystem. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 52 135 149 doi:10.1007/BF00123181

Kim J Verma SB Clement RJ 1992 Carbon-dioxide budget in a temperate grassland ecosystem. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 97 6057 6063

Kljun N Black TA Griffis TJ Barr AG Gaumont-Guay D Morgenstern K McCaughey JH Nesic Z 2006 Response of net ecosystem productivity of three boreal forest stands to drought. Ecosystems 9 1128 1144
doi:10.1007/s10021-005-0082-x

Knohl A Kolle O Minayeva TY Milyukova IM Vygodskaya NN Foken T Schulze ED 2002 Carbon dioxide exchange of a Russian boreal forest after disturbance by wind throw. Global Change Biology 8 231 246 doi:10.1046/j.1365-2486.2002.00475.x

Knohl A Schulze E-D Kolle O Buchmann N 2003 Large carbon uptake by an unmanaged 250-year-old deciduous forest in central Germany. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 118 151 167 doi:10.1016/S0168-1923(03)00115-1

Knorr W Kattge J 2005 Inversion of terrestrial ecosystem model parameter values against eddy covariance measurements by Monte Carlo sampling. Global Change Biology 11 1333 1351 doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2005.00977.x

Kolari P Pumpanen J Rannik U Ilvesniemi H Hari P Berninger F 2004 Carbon balance of different aged Scots pine forests in southern Finland. Global Change Biology 10 1106 1119 doi:10.1111/j.1529-8817.2003.00797.x

Korner C 2003 Atmospheric science: slow in, rapid out—carbon flux studies and Kyoto targets. Science 300 1242 1243 doi:10.1126/science.1084460

Kowalski AS Loustau D Berbigier P Manca G Tedeschi V Borghetti M Valentini R Kolari P Berninger F Rannik U Hari P Rayment M Mencuccini M Moncrieff J Grace J 2004 Paired comparisons of carbon exchange between undisturbed and regenerating stands in four managed forests in Europe. Global Change Biology 10 1707 1723 doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2004.00846.x

Kucharik CJ Barford CC Maayar ME Wofsy SC Monson RK Baldocchi DD 2006 A multiyear evaluation of a dynamic global vegetation model at three ameriflux forest sites: vegetation structure, phenology, soil temperature, and CO2 and H2O vapor exchange. Ecological Modelling 196 1 31 doi:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2005.11.031

Kulmala M Suni T Lehtinen KEJ Dal Maso M Boy M Reissell A Rannik Ü Aalto P Keronen P Hakola H Bäck J Hoffmann T Vesala T Hari P 2004 A new feedback mechanism linking forests, aerosols, and climate. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 4 557 562

Lafleur PM Roulet NT Bubier JL Frolking S Moore TR 2003 Interannual variability in the peatland-atmosphere carbon dioxide exchange at an ombrotrophic bog. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 17
doi:10.1029/2002GB001983

Launiainen S Rinne J Pumpanen J Kulmala L Kolari P Keronen P Siivola E Pohja T Hari P Vesala T 2005 Eddy covariance measurements of CO2 and sensible and latent heat fluxes during a full year in a boreal pine forest trunk-space. Boreal Environment Research 10 569 588

Laurila T Soegaard H Lloyd CR Aurela M Tuovinen JP Nordstroem C 2001 Seasonal variations of net CO2 exchange in European Arctic ecosystems. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 70 183 201
doi:10.1007/s007040170014

Law BE Baldocchi DD Anthoni PM 1999 Below canopy and soil CO2 fluxes in a ponderosa pine forest. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 94 171 188 doi:10.1016/S0168-1923(99)00019-2

Law BE Goldstein AH Anthoni PM Unsworth MH Panek JA Bauer MR Fracheboud JM Hultman N 2001 Carbon dioxide and water vapor exchange by young and old ponderosa pine ecosystems during a dry summer. Tree Physiology 21 299 308

Law BE Falge E Gu L Baldocchi DD Bakwin P Berbigier P Davis K Dolman AJ Falk M Fuentes JD 2002 Environmental controls over carbon dioxide and water vapor exchange of terrestrial vegetation. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 113 97 120
doi:10.1016/S0168-1923(02)00104-1

Law BE Sun OJ Campbell J Tuyl SV Thornton PE 2003 Changes in carbon storage and fluxes in a chronosequence of ponderosa pine. Global Change Biology 9 510 524 doi:10.1046/j.1365-2486.2003.00624.x

Law BE Turner D Campbell J Sun OJ Van Tuyl S Ritts WD Cohen WB 2004 Disturbance and climate effects on carbon stocks and fluxes across western Oregon USA. Global Change Biology 10 1429 1444 doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2004.00822.x

Lawlor DW Cornic G 2002 Photosynthetic carbon assimilation and associated metabolism in relation to water deficits in higher plants. Plant, Cell & Environment 25 275 294 doi:10.1046/j.0016-8025.2001.00814.x

Lee X 1998 On micrometeorological observations of surface–air exchange over tall vegetation. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 91 39 49 doi:10.1016/S0168-1923(98)00071-9

Lee X Wu H-J Sigler J Oishi C Siccama T 2004 Rapid and transient response of soil respiration to rain. Global Change Biology 10 1017 1026

Lee XH Fuentes JD Staebler RM Neumann HH 1999 Long-term observation of the atmospheric exchange of CO2 with a temperate deciduous forest in southern Ontario, Canada. Journal of Geophysical Research 104 15975 15984
doi:10.1029/1999JD900227

Letts MG Lafleur PM Roulet NT 2005 On the relationship between cloudiness and net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange in a peatland ecosystem. Ecoscience 12 53 59 doi:10.2980/i1195-6860-12-1-53.1

Leuning R Denmead OT Lang ARG Ohtaki E 1982 Effects of heat and water-vapor transport on eddy covariance measurement of CO2 fluxes. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 23 209 222 doi:10.1007/BF00123298

Leuning R Cleugh HA Zegelin SJ Hughes D 2005 Carbon and water fluxes over a temperate eucalyptus forest and a tropical wet/dry savanna in Australia: measurements and comparison with MODros. Inf. Serv. remote sensing estimates. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 129 151 173 doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2004.12.004

Li ZQ Yu GR Wen XF Zhang LM Ren CY Fu YL 2005 Energy balance closure at chinaflux sites. Science in China Series D-Earth Sciences 48 51 62

Litvak M Miller S Wofsy S Goulden M 2003 Effect of stand age on whole ecosystem CO2 exchange in the Canadian boreal forest. Journal of Geophysical Research 108
doi:10.1029/2001JD000854

Lloyd CR 2006 Annual carbon balance of a managed wetland meadow in the Somerset levels, UK. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 138 168 179 doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2006.04.005

Loescher HW Law BE Mahrt L Hollinger DY Campbell J Wofsy SC 2006 Uncertainties in, and interpretation of, carbon flux estimates using the eddy covariance technique. Journal of Geophysical Research—Atmospheres 111 doi:10.1029/2005JD006932

Luo H Oechel WC Hastings SJ Zuleta R Qian Y Kwon H 2007 Mature semiarid chaparral ecosystems can be a significant sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide. Global Change Biology 13 386 396 doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2006.01299.x

Ma S Baldocchi DD Xu L Hehn T 2007 Inter-annual variability in carbon dioxide exchange of an oak/grass savanna and open grassland in California. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 147 157 171 doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2007.07.008

Magnani F Mencuccini M Borghetti M Berbigier P Berninger F Delzon S Grelle A Hari P Jarvis PG Kolari P Kowalski AS Lankreijer H Law BE Lindroth A Loustau D Manca G Moncrieff JB Rayment M Tedeschi V Valentini R Grace J 2007 The human footprint in the carbon cycle of temperate and boreal forests. Nature 447 849 851 doi:10.1038/nature05847

Malhi Y Nobre AD Grace J Kruijt B Pereira MGP Culf A Scott S 1998 Carbon dioxide transfer over a central Amazonian rain forest. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 103 31593 31612 doi:10.1029/98JD02647

Marcolla B Cescatti A Montagnani L Manca G Kerschbaumer G Minerbi S 2005 Importance of advection in the atmospheric CO2 exchanges of an alpine forest. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 130 193 206 doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2005.03.006

Margolis HA Flanagan LB Amiro BD 2006 The fluxnet-Canada research network: influence of climate and disturbance on carbon cycling in forests and peatlands. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 140 1 5 doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2006.08.013

Massman WJ 2000 A simple method for estimating frequency response corrections for eddy covariance systems. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 104 185 198 doi:10.1016/S0168-1923(00)00164-7

Massman WJ Lee X 2002 Eddy covariance flux corrections and uncertainties in long-term studies of carbon and energy exchanges. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 113 121 144 doi:10.1016/S0168-1923(02)00105-3

McFadden JP Eugster W Chapin FS 2003 A regional study of the controls on water vapor and CO2 exchange in arctic tundra. Ecology 84 2762 2776 doi:10.1890/01-0444

McMillen RT 1988 An eddy-correlation technique with extended applicability to non-simple terrain. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 43 231 245 doi:10.1007/BF00128405

Medlyn BE Robinson AP Clement R McMurtrie RE 2005 On the validation of models of forest CO2 exchange using eddy covariance data: some perils and pitfalls. Tree Physiology 25 839 857

Meroni M Mollicone D Belelli L Manca G Rosellini S Stivanello S Tirone G Zompanti R Tchebakova N Schulze ED Valentini R 2002 Carbon and water exchanges of regenerating forests in central Siberia. Forest Ecology and Management 169 115 122
doi:10.1016/S0378-1127(02)00302-X

Meyers TP Hollinger SE 2004 An assessment of storage terms in the surface energy balance of maize and soybean. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 125 105 115 doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2004.03.001

Miglietta F Gioli B Hutjes RWA Reichstein M 2007 Net regional ecosystem CO2 exchange from airborne and ground-based eddy covariance, land-use maps and weather observations. Global Change Biology 13 548 560 doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2006.01219.x

Misson L Lunden M McKay M Goldstein AH 2005 Atmospheric aerosol light scattering and surface wetness influence the diurnal pattern of net ecosystem exchange in a semi-arid ponderosa pine plantation. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 129 69 83 doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2004.11.008

Misson L Baldocchi DD Black TA Blanken PD Brunet Y Yuste JC Dorsey JR Falk M Granier A Irvine MR Jarosz N Lamaud E Launiainen S Law BE Longdoz B Loustau D McKay M Paw U KT Vesala T Vickers D Wilson KB Goldstein AH 2007 Partitioning forest carbon fluxes with overstory and understory eddy-covariance measurements: a synthesis based on FLUXNET data. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 144 14 31 doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2007.01.006

Moffat AM Papale D Reichstein M Hollinger DY Richardson AD Barr AG Beckstein C Braswell BH Churkina G Desai AR Falge E Gove JH Heimann M Hui D Jarvis AJ Kattge J Noormets A Stauch VJ 2007 Comprehensive comparison of gap-filling techniques for eddy covariance net carbon fluxes. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 147 209 232 doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2007.08.011

Moncrieff J Malhi Y Leuning R 1996 The propogation of errors in long-term measurements of carbon and water. Global Change Biology 2 231 240 doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.1996.tb00075.x

Monson RK Turnipseed AA Sparks JP Harley PC Scott-Denton LE Sparks K Huxman TE 2002 Carbon sequestration in a high-elevation, subalpine forest. Global Change Biology 8 459 478 doi:10.1046/j.1365-2486.2002.00480.x

Moore CJ 1986 Frequency response corrections for eddy covariance systems. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 37 17 35 doi:10.1007/BF00122754

Morgenstern K Andrew Black T Humphreys ER Griffis TJ Drewitt GB Cai T Nesic Z Spittlehouse DL Livingston NJ 2004 Sensitivity and uncertainty of the carbon balance of a pacific northwest Douglas-fir forest during an el nino/la nina cycle. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 123 201 219 doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2003.12.003

Moureaux C Debacq A Bodson B Heinesch B Aubinet M 2006 Annual net ecosystem carbon exchange by a sugar beet crop. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 139 25 39 doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2006.05.009

Myneni RB Hoffman S Knyazikhin Y Privette JL Glassy J Tian Y Wang Y Song X Zhang Y Smith GR 2002 Global products of vegetation leaf area and fraction absorbed par from year one of MODros. Inf. Serv. data. Remote Sensing of Environment 83 214 231 doi:10.1016/S0034-4257(02)00074-3

Nichol CJ Huemmrich KF Black TA Jarvis PG Walthall CL Grace J Hall FG 2000 Remote sensing of photosynthetic-light-use efficiency of boreal forest. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 101 131 142 doi:10.1016/S0168-1923(99)00167-7

Niyogi D Chang H Saxena V Holt T Alapaty K Booker F Chen F Davis K Holben B Matsui T Meyers T Oechel W Pielke R Wells R Wilson K Xue Y 2004 Direct observations of the effects of aerosol loading on net ecosystem CO2 exchanges over different landscapes. Geophysical Research Letters 31 doi:10.1029/2004GL020915

Odum EP 1969 Strategy of ecosystem development. Science 164 262 270 doi:10.1126/science.164.3877.262

Ohtaki E 1980 Turbulent transport of carbon-dioxide over a paddy field. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 19 315 336 doi:10.1007/BF00120595

Oncley SP Foken T Vogt R Kohsiek W DeBruin HAR Bernhofer C Christen A van Gorsel E Grantz D Feigenwinter C Lehner I Liebethal C Liu H Mauder M Pitacco A Ribeiro L Weidinger T 2007 The energy balance experiment ebex-2000. Part i: overview and energy balance. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 123 1 28 doi:10.1007/s10546-007-9161-1

Ooba M Hirano T Mogami J-I Hirata R Fujinuma Y 2006 Comparisons of gap-filling methods for carbon flux dataset: a combination of a genetic algorithm and an artificial neural network. Ecological Modelling 198 473 486 doi:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2006.06.006

Orchard VA Cook FJ 1983 Relationship between soil respiration and soil moisture. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 15 447 453 doi:10.1016/0038-0717(83)90010-X

Oren R Hseih CI Stoy P Albertson J McCarthy HR Harrell P Katul GG 2006 Estimating the uncertainty in annual net ecosystem carbon exchange: spatial variation in turbulent fluxes and sampling errors in eddy-covariance measurements. Global Change Biology 12 883 896 doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2006.01131.x

Owen KE Tenhunen J Reichstein M Wang Q Falge E Geyer R Xiao X Stoy P Ammann C Arain A Aubinet M Aurela M Bernhofer C Chojnicki B Granier A Gruenwald T Hadley J Heinesch B Hollinger D Knohl A Kutsch W Lohila A Meyers T Moors E Moureaux C Pilegaard K Saigusa N Verma S Vesala T Vogel C 2007 Linking flux network measurements to continental scale simulations: ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange capacity under non-water-stressed conditions. Global Change Biology 13 734 760

Owensby CE Ham JM Auen LM 2006 Fluxes of CO2 from grazed and ungrazed tallgrass prairie. Rangeland Ecology & Management 59 111 127
doi:10.2111/05-116R2.1

Papale D Valentini R 2003 A new assessment of European forests carbon exchanges by eddy fluxes and artificial neural network spatialization. Global Change Biology 9 525 535 doi:10.1046/j.1365-2486.2003.00609.x

Papale D Reichstein M Aubinet M Canfora E Bernhofer C Kutsch W Longdoz B Rambal S Valentini R Vesala T Yakir D 2006 Towards a standardized processing of net ecosystem exchange measured with eddy covariance technique: Algorithms and uncertainty estimation. Biogeosciences 3 571 583

Pattey E Edwards G Strachan IB Desjardins RL Kaharabata S Riddle CW 2006 Towards standards for measuring greenhouse gas fluxes from agricultural fields using instrumented towers. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 86 373 400


Paw U KT Baldocchi DD Meyers TP Wilson KB 2000 Correction of eddy covariance measurements incorporating both advective effects and density fluxes. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 97 487 511
doi:10.1023/A:1002786702909

Paw U KT Falk M Suchanek TH Ustin SL Chen J Park Y-S Winner WE Thomas SC Hsiao TC Shaw RH King TS Pyles RD Schroeder M Matista AA 2004 Carbon dioxide exchange between an old-growth forest and the atmosphere. Ecosystems 7 513 524

Pereira JS Mateus J Aires L Pita G Pio C David J Andrade V Banza J David TS Paco TA Rodrigues A 2007 Net ecosystem carbon exchange in three contrasting Mediterranean ecosystems—the effect of drought. Biogeosciences 4 791 802


Pilegaard K Hummelshoj P Jensen NO Chen Z 2001 Two years of continuous CO2 eddy-flux measurements over a Danish beech forest. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 107 29 41
doi:10.1016/S0168-1923(00)00227-6

Piovesan G Adams JM 2000 Carbon balance gradient in European forests: interpreting EUROFLUX. Journal of Vegetation Science 11 923 926 doi:10.2307/3236563

Potts DL Huxman TE Scott RL Williams DG Goodrich DC 2006 The sensitivity of ecosystem carbon exchange to seasonal precipitation and woody plant encroachment. Oecologia 150 453 463 doi:10.1007/s00442-006-0532-y

Price DT Black TA 1990 Effects of short-term variation in weather on diurnal canopy CO2 flux and evapotranspiration of a juvenile douglas-fir stand. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 50 139 158 doi:10.1016/0168-1923(90)90050-G

Qi Y Xu M 2001 Separating the effects of moisture and temperature on soil CO2 efflux in a coniferous forest in the Sierra Nevada mountains. Plant and Soil 237 15 23 doi:10.1023/A:1013368800287

Rahman AF Gamon JA Fuentes DA Roberts DA Prentiss D 2001 Modeling spatially distributed ecosystem flux of boreal forest using hyperspectral indices from AVIRIS imagery. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 106 33579 33591 doi:10.1029/2001JD900157

Rahman A Cordova V Gamon J Schmid H Sims D 2004 Potential of MODros. Inf. Serv. ocean bands for estimating CO2 flux from terrestrial vegetation: a novel approach. Geophysical Research Letters 31 doi:10.1029/2004GL019778

Ramanathan V Crutzen PJ Kiehl JT Rosenfeld D 2001 Aerosols, climate, and the hydrological cycle. Science 294 2119 2124 doi:10.1126/science.1064034

Rambal S Ourcival J-M Joffre R Mouillot F Nouvellon Y Reichstein M Rocheteau A 2003 Drought controls over conductance and assimilation of a Mediterranean evergreen ecosystem: scaling from leaf to canopy. Global Change Biology 9 1813 1824 doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2003.00687.x

Rambal S Joffre R Ourcival JM Cavender-Bares J Rocheteau A 2004 The growth respiration component in eddy CO2 flux from a Quercus ilex Mediterranean forest. Global Change Biology 10 1460 1469 doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2004.00819.x

Rannik U Kolari P Vesala T Hari P 2006 Uncertainties in measurement and modelling of net ecosystem exchange of a forest. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 138 244 257 doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2006.05.007

Raupach MR Rayner PJ Barrett DJ DeFries RS Heimann M Ojima DS Quegan S Schmullius CC 2005 Model-data synthesis in terrestrial carbon observation: methods, data requirements and data uncertainty specifications. Global Change Biology 11 378 397 doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2005.00917.x

Rebmann C Goekede M Foken T Aubinet M Aurela M Berbigier P Bernhofer C Buchmann N Carrara A Cescatti A Ceulemans R Clement R Elbers JA Granier A Grünwald T Guyon D Havránková K Heinesch B Knohl A Laurila T Longdoz B Marcolla B Markkanen T Miglietta F Moncrieff J Montagnani L Moors E Nardino M Ourcival J-M Rambal S Rannik à Rotenberg E Sedlak P Unterhuber G Vesala T Yakir D 2005 Quality analysis applied on eddy covariance measurements at complex forest sites using footprint modelling. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 80 121 141 doi:10.1007/s00704-004-0095-y

Reichstein M Tenhunen JD Roupsard O Ourcival JM Rambal S Dore S Valentini R 2002 a Ecosystem respiration in two Mediterranean evergreen holm oak forests: drought effects and decomposition dynamics. Functional Ecology 16 27 39 doi:10.1046/j.0269-8463.2001.00597.x

Reichstein M Tenhunen JD Roupsard O Ourcival J-M Rambal S Miglietta F Peressotti A Pecchiari M Tirone G Valentini R 2002 b Severe drought effects on ecosystem CO2 and H2O fluxes at three Mediterranean evergreen sites: revision of current hypotheses? Global Change Biology 8 999 1017 doi:10.1046/j.1365-2486.2002.00530.x

Reichstein M Tenhunen J Roupsard O Ourcival J-M Rambal S Miglietta F Peressotti A Pecchiari M Tirone G Valentini R 2003 Inverse modeling of seasonal drought effects on canopy CO2/H2O exchange in three Mediterranean ecosystems. Journal of Geophysical Research 2003 doi:10.1029/2003JD003430

Reichstein M Falge E Baldocchi D Papale D Aubinet M Berbigier P Bernhofer C Buchmann N Gilmanov T Granier A Grunwald T Havrankova K Ilvesniemi H Janous D Knohl A Laurila T Lohila A Loustau D Matteucci G Meyers T Miglietta F Ourcival J-M Pumpanen J Rambal S Rotenberg E Sanz M Tenhunen J Seufert G Vaccari F Vesala T Yakir D Valentini R 2005 On the separation of net ecosystem exchange into assimilation and ecosystem respiration: review and improved algorithm. Global Change Biology 11 1424 1429 doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2005.001002.x

Reichstein M Ciais P Papale D Valentini R Running S Viovy N Cramer W Granier A Ogee J Allard V Aubinet M Bernhofer C Buchmann N Carrara A Grunwald T Heimann M Heinesch B Knohl A Kutsch W Loustau D Manca G Matteucci G Miglietta F Ourcival JM Pilegaard K Pumpanen J Rambal S Schaphoff S Seufert G Soussana JF Sanz MJ Vesala T Zhao M 2007 a Reduction of ecosystem productivity and respiration during the European summer 2003 climate anomaly: a joint flux tower, remote sensing and modelling analysis. Global Change Biology 13 634 651 doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2006.01224.x

Reichstein M Papale D Valentini R Aubinet M Bernhofer C Knohl A Laurila T Lindroth A Moors E Pilegaard K Seufert G 2007 b Determinants of terrestrial ecosystem carbon balance inferred from European eddy covariance flux sites. Geophysical Research Letters 34 doi:10.1029/2006GL027880

Richardson AD Hollinger DY 2005 Statistical modeling of ecosystem respiration using eddy covariance data: maximum likelihood parameter estimation, and Monte Carlo simulation of model and parameter uncertainty, applied to three simple models. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 131 191 208 doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2005.05.008

Richardson AD Hollinger DY Burba GG Davis KJ Flanagan LB Katul GG Munger JW Ricciuto DM Stoy PC Suyker AE Verma SB Wofsy SC 2006 A multi-site analysis of random error in tower-based measurements of carbon and energy fluxes. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 136 1 18 doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2006.01.007

Richardson AD Hollinger DY Aber J Ollinger SV Braswell B 2007 Environmental variation is directly responsible for short- but not long-term variation in forest-atmosphere carbon exchange. Global Change Biology 13 788 803

Ruimy A Jarvis PG Baldocchi DD Saugier B 1995 CO2 fluxes over plant canopies: a literature review. Advances in Ecological Research 26 1 68


Ruimy A Dedieu G Saugier B 1996 Turc: a diagnostic model of continental gross primary productivity and net primary productivity. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 10 269 285
doi:10.1029/96GB00349

Running SW Baldocchi DD Turner D Gower ST Bakwin P Hibbard K 1999 A global terrestrial monitoring network, scaling tower fluxes with ecosystem modeling and EOS satellite data. Remote Sensing of Environment 70 108 127 doi:10.1016/S0034-4257(99)00061-9

Running S Nemani R Heinsch F Zhao M Reeves M Hashimoto H 2004 A continuous satellite-derived measure of global terrestrial primary production. Bioscience 54 547 560 doi:10.1641/0006-3568(2004)054[0547:ACSMOG]2.0.CO;2

Ruppert J Mauder M Thomas C Luers J 2006 Innovative gap-filling strategy for annual sums of CO2 net ecosystem exchange. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 138 5 18 doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2006.03.003

Saigusa N Yamamoto S Murayama S Kondo H 2005 Inter-annual variability of carbon budget components in an asiaflux forest site estimated by long-term flux measurements. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 134 4 16 doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2005.08.016

Sakai RK Fitzjarrald DR Moraes OLL Staebler RM Acevedo OC Czikowsky MJ Da Silva R Brait E Miranda V 2004 Land-use change effects on local energy, water, and carbon balances in an Amazonian agricultural field. Global Change Biology 10 895 907 doi:10.1111/j.1529-8817.2003.00773.x

Saleska SR Miller SD Matross DM Goulden ML Wofsy SC da Rocha HR de Camargo PB Crill P Daube BC de Freitas HC Hutyra L Keller M Kirchhoff V Menton M Munger JW Pyle EH Rice AH Silva H 2003 Carbon in Amazon forests: unexpected seasonal fluxes and disturbance-induced losses. Science 302 1554 1557 doi:10.1126/science.1091165

Schmid HP 2002 Footprint modeling for vegetation atmosphere exchange studies: a review and perspective. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 113 159 183 doi:10.1016/S0168-1923(02)00107-7

Schmid HP Su H-B Vogel CS Curtis PS 2003 Ecosystem–atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide over a mixed hardwood forest in northern lower Michigan. Journal of Geophysical Research 108 doi:10.1029/2002JD003011

Schulz K Jarvis AJ 2004 Environmental and biological controls on the seasonal variations in latent heat fluxes derived from flux data for three forest sites. Water Resources Research 40 doi:10.1029/2004WR003155

Schulze E-D Lloyd J Kelliher FM Wirth C Rebmann C Luhker B Mund M Knohl A Milyukova IM Schulze W Ziegler W Varlagin A Sogachev AF Valentini R Dore S Grigoriev S Kolle O Panfyorov MI Tchebakova N Vygodskaya N 1999 Productivity of forests in the eurosiberian boreal region and their potential to act as a carbon sink—a synthesis. Global Change Biology 5 703 722 doi:10.1046/j.1365-2486.1999.00266.x

Schulze E-D Wirth C Heimann M 2000 Climate change: managing forests after Kyoto. Science 289 2058 2059 doi:10.1126/science.289.5487.2058

Schwalm CR Black TA Morgenstern K Humphreys ER 2007 A method for deriving net primary productivity and component respiratory fluxes from tower-based eddy covariance data: a case study using a 17-year data record from a Douglas-fir chronosequence. Global Change Biology 13 370 385 doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2006.01298.x

Scott RL Edwards EA Shuttleworth WJ Huxman TE Watts C Goodrich DC 2004 Interannual and seasonal variation in fluxes of water and carbon dioxide from a riparian woodland ecosystem. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 122 65 84 doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2003.09.001

Scott RL Huxman TE Williams DG Goodrich DC 2006 Ecohydrological impacts of woody-plant encroachment: seasonal patterns of water and carbon dioxide exchange within a semiarid riparian environment. Global Change Biology 12 311 324 doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2005.01093.x

Sellers PJ 1987 Canopy reflectance, photosynthesis, and transpiration. 2. The role of biophysics in the linearity of their interdependence. Remote Sensing of Environment 21 143 183 doi:10.1016/0034-4257(87)90051-4

Sellers PJ Hall FG Kelly RD Black A Baldocchi D Berry J Margolis H Ryan M Ranson J Crill P Lettenmaier D Cihlar J Newcomer J Halliwell D Fitzjarrald D Jarvis P Gower S Williams D Goodison B Wickland D Guertin F 1997 Boreas in 1997: scientific results; experimental overview and future directions. Journal of Geophysical Research 102 28731 28770 doi:10.1029/97JD03300

Sims DA Rahman AF Cordova VD Baldocchi DD Flanagan LB Goldstein AH Hollinger DY Misson L Monson RK Schmid HP 2005 Midday values of gross CO2 flux and light use efficiency during satellite overpasses can be used to directly estimate eight-day mean flux. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 131 1 12 doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2005.04.006

Soegaard H Jensen NO Boegh E Hasager CB Schelde K Thomsen A 2003 Carbon dioxide exchange over agricultural landscape using eddy correlation and footprint modelling. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 114 153 173 doi:10.1016/S0168-1923(02)00177-6

Soussana JF Allard V Pilegaard K Ambus P Amman C Campbell C Ceschia E Clifton-Brown J Czobel S Domingues R Flechard C Fuhrer J Hensen A Horvath L Jones M Kasper G Martin C Nagy Z Neftel A Raschi A Baronti S Rees RM Skiba U Stefani P Manca G Sutton M Tubaf Z Valentini R 2007 Full accounting of the greenhouse gas (CO2, N2O, CH4) budget of nine European grassland sites. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment 121 121 134 doi:10.1016/j.agee.2006.12.022

Stanhill G Cohen S 2001 Global dimming: a review of the evidence for a widespread and significant reduction in global radiation with discussion of its probable causes and possible agricultural consequences. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 107 255 278 doi:10.1016/S0168-1923(00)00241-0

Stauch VJ Jarvis AJ 2006 A semi-parametric gap-filling model for eddy covariance CO2 flux time series data. Global Change Biology 12 1707 1716 doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2006.01227.x

Stoy PC Katul GG Siqueira MBS Juang JY McCarthy HR Kim HS Oishi AC Oren R 2005 Variability in net ecosystem exchange from hourly to inter-annual time scales at adjacent pine and hardwood forests: a wavelet analysis. Tree Physiology 25 887 902

Stoy PC Katul GG Siqueira MBS Juang J-Y Novick KA Uebelherr JM Oren R 2006 An evaluation of models for partitioning eddy covariance-measured net ecosystem exchange into photosynthesis and respiration. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 141 2 18
doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2006.09.001

Sun J Burns SP Delany AC Oncley SP Turnipseed AA Stephens BB Lenschow DH LeMone MA Monson RK Anderson DE 2007 CO2 transport over complex terrain. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 145 1 21 doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2007.02.007

Sundareshwar PV Murtugudde R Srinivasan G Singh S Ramesh KJ Ramesh R Verma SB Agarwal D Baldocchi D Baru CK Baruah KK Chowdhury GR Dadhwal VK Dutt CBS Fuentes J Gupta PK Hargrove WW Howard M Jha CS Lal S Michener WK Mitra AP Morris JT Myneni RR Naja M Nemani R Purvaja R Raha S Vanan SKS Sharma M Subramaniam A Sukumar R Twilley RR Zimmerman PR 2007 Environment: environmental monitoring network for India. Science 316 204 205 doi:10.1126/science.1137417

Suni T Berninger F Markkanen T Keronen P Rannik U Vesala T 2003 Interannual variability and timing of growing-season CO2 exchange in a boreal forest. Journal of Geophysical Research 108 doi:10.1029/2002JD002381

Suyker AE Verma S 1993 Eddy correlation measurements of CO2 flux using a closed path sensor-theory and field-tests against an open-path sensor. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 64 391 407 doi:10.1007/BF00711707

Suyker AE Verma SB 2001 Year-round observations of the net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide in a native tallgrass prairie. Global Change Biology 7 279 289 doi:10.1046/j.1365-2486.2001.00407.x

Suyker AE Verma SB Burba GG Arkebauer TJ Walters DT Hubbard KG 2004 Growing season carbon dioxide exchange in irrigated and rainfed maize. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 124 1 13 doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2004.01.011

Suyker AE Verma SB Burba GG Arkebauer TJ 2005 Gross primary production and ecosystem respiration of irrigated maize and irrigated soybean during a growing season. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 131 180 190 doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2005.05.007

Tans P Bakwin P Guenther D 1996 A feasible global carbon cycle observing system: a plan to decipher today’s carbon cycle based on observations. Global Change Biology 2 309 318 doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.1996.tb00082.x

Thornton PE Law BE Gholz HL Clark KL Falge E Ellsworth DS Goldstein AH Monson RK Hollinger D Falk M 2002 Modeling and measuring the effects of disturbance history and climate on carbon and water budgets in evergreen needleleaf forests. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 113 185 222 doi:10.1016/S0168-1923(02)00108-9

Tirone G , Dore S , Matteucci G , Greco S , Valentini R (2003) Evergreen Mediterranean forests. Carbon and water fluxes, balances, ecological and ecophysiological determinants. In ‘Fluxes of carbon, water and energy of European forests’. (Ed. R Valentini) pp. 125–149. (Springer-Verlag: Berlin)

Tsonis AA Swanson KL Roebber PJ 2006 What do networks have to do with climate? Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 87 585 595 doi:10.1175/BAMS-87-5-585

Turcotte DL 1991 Earthquake prediction. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 19 263 281 doi:10.1146/annurev.ea.19.050191.001403

Turner DP Ritts WD Cohen WB Maeirsperger TK Gower ST Kirschbaum AA Running SW Zhao M Wofsy SC Dunn AL Law BE Campbell JL Oechel WC Kwon HJ Meyers TP Small EE Kurc SA Gamon JA 2005 Site-level evaluation of satellite-based global terrestrial gross primary production and net primary production monitoring. Global Change Biology 11 666 684 doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2005.00936.x

Twine TE Kustas WP Norman JM Cook DR Houser PR Meyers TP Prueger JH Starks PJ Wesely ML 2000 Correcting eddy-covariance flux underestimates over a grassland. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 103 279 300 doi:10.1016/S0168-1923(00)00123-4

Urbanski S Barford C Wofsy S Kucharik C Pyle E Budney J McKain K Fitzjarrald D Czikowsky M Munger JW 2007 Factors controlling CO2 exchange on timescales from hourly to decadal at Harvard forest. Journal of Geophysical Research 112 doi:10.1029/2006JG000293

Ustin SL Roberts DA Gamon JA Asner GP Green RO 2004 Using imaging spectroscopy to study ecosystem processes and properties. Bioscience 54 523 534 doi:10.1641/0006-3568(2004)054[0523:UISTSE]2.0.CO;2

Valentini R DeAngelis P Matteucci G Monaco R Dore S Scarascia-Mugnozza GE 1996 Seasonal net carbon dioxide exchange of a beech forest with the atmosphere. Global Change Biology 2 199 207 doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.1996.tb00072.x

Valentini R Matteucci G Dolman AJ Schulze E-D Rebmann C Moors EJ Granier A Gross P Jensen NO Pilegaard K Lindroth A Grelle A Bernhofer C Grünwald T Aubinet M Ceulemans R Kowalski AS Vesala T Rannik Ü Berbigier P Loustau D Gu J Thorgeirsson H Ibrom A Morgenstern K Clement R Moncrieff J Montagnani L Minerbi S Jarvis PG 2000 Respiration as the main determinant of carbon balance in European forests. Nature 404 861 865 doi:10.1038/35009084

Van Dijk A Dolman AJ 2004 Estimates of CO2 uptake and release among European forests based on eddy covariance data. Global Change Biology 10 1445 1459 doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2004.00831.x

Van Dijk A Dolman AJ Schulze ED 2005 Radiation, temperature, and leaf area explain ecosystem carbon fluxes in boreal and temperate European forests. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 19 doi:10.1029/2004GB002417

Van Gorsel E Leuning R Cleugh HA Keith H Suni T 2007 Nocturnal carbon efflux: Reconciliation of eddy covariance and chamber measurements using an alternative to the u*-threshold filtering technique. Tellus. Series B, Chemical and Physical Meteorology 59 397 403 doi:10.1111/j.1600-0889.2007.00252.x

Verbeeck H Samson R Verdonck F Lemeur R 2006 Parameter sensitivity and uncertainty of the forest carbon flux model forug: a Monte Carlo analysis. Tree Physiology 26 807 817

Verma SB Baldocchi DD Anderson DE Matt DR Clement RE 1986 Eddy fluxes of CO2, water vapor and sensible heat over a deciduous forest. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 36 71 91
doi:10.1007/BF00117459

Verma SB Dobermann A Cassman KG Walters DT Knops JM Arkebauer TJ Suyker AE Burba GG Amos B Yang H 2005 Annual carbon dioxide exchange in irrigated and rainfed maize-based agroecosystems. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 131 77 96 doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2005.05.003

Vourlitis GL Priante N Hayashi MMS Nogueira JD Caseiro FT Campelo JH 2001 Seasonal variations in the net ecosystem CO2 exchange of a mature Amazonian transitional tropical forest (cerradao). Functional Ecology 15 388 395 doi:10.1046/j.1365-2435.2001.00535.x

Wang Q Tenhunen J Dinh NQ Reichstein M Vesala T Keronen P 2004 Similarities in ground- and satellite-based ndvi time series and their relationship to physiological activity of a Scots pine forest in Finland. Remote Sensing of Environment 93 225 237 doi:10.1016/j.rse.2004.07.006

Wang YP Leuning R Cleugh HA Coppin PA 2001 Parameter estimation in surface exchange models using nonlinear inversion: how many parameters can we estimate and which measurements are most useful? Global Change Biology 7 495 510 doi:10.1046/j.1365-2486.2001.00434.x

Wang YP Baldocchi D Leuning R Falge E Vesala T 2007 Estimating parameters in a land-surface model by applying nonlinear inversion to eddy covariance flux measurements from eight FLUXNET sites. Global Change Biology 13 652 670 doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2006.01225.x

Webb EK Pearman GI Leuning R 1980 Correction of flux measurements for density effects due to heat and water-vapor transfer. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 106 85 100 doi:10.1002/qj.49710644707

White MA Nemani RR 2003 Canopy duration has little influence on annual carbon storage in the deciduous broad leaf forest. Global Change Biology 9 967 972 doi:10.1046/j.1365-2486.2003.00585.x

Williams CA Albertson JD 2005 Contrasting short- and long-timescale effects of vegetation dynamics on water and carbon fluxes in water-limited ecosystems. Water Resources Research 41 doi:10.1029/2004WR003750

Williams M Schwarz PA Law BE Irvine J Kurpius MR 2005 An improved analysis of forest carbon dynamics using data assimilation. Global Change Biology 11 89 105 doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2004.00891.x

Wilson K Goldstein A Falge E Aubinet M Baldocchi D Berbigier P Bernhofer C Ceulemans R Dolman H Field C 2002 Energy balance closure at FLUXNET sites. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 113 223 243 doi:10.1016/S0168-1923(02)00109-0

Wilson KB Baldocchi DD 2001 Comparing independent estimates of carbon dioxide exchange over five years at a deciduous forest in the southern United States. Journal of Geophysical Research 106 34167 34178 doi:10.1029/2001JD000624

Wirth C Czimczik CI Schulze E-D 2002 Beyond annual budgets: carbon flux at different temporal scales in fire-prone siberian Scots pine forests. Tellus. Series B, Chemical and Physical Meteorology 54 611 630 doi:10.1034/j.1600-0889.2002.01343.x

Wofsy SC Goulden ML Munger JW Fan SM Bakwin PS Daube BC Bassow SL Bazzaz FA 1993 Net exchange of CO2 in a midlatitude forest. Science 260 1314 1317 doi:10.1126/science.260.5112.1314

Wohlfahrt G Anfang C Bahn M Haslwanter A Newesely C Schmitt M Drosler M Pfadenhauer J Cernusca A 2005 Quantifying nighttime ecosystem respiration of a meadow using eddy covariance, chambers and modelling. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 128 141 162 doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2004.11.003

Woodward F Lomas M 2004 Vegetation dynamics—simulating responses to climatic change. Biological Reviews 79 643 670 doi:10.1017/S1464793103006419

Xiao X Hollinger D Aber J Goltz M Davidson EA Zhang Q Moore Berrien III 2004 Satellite-based modeling of gross primary production in an evergreen needleleaf forest. Remote Sensing of Environment 89 519 534 doi:10.1016/j.rse.2003.11.008

Xu L Baldocchi DD 2004 Seasonal variation in carbon dioxide exchange over a Mediterranean annual grassland in California. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 123 79 96 doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2003.10.004

Xu L Baldocchi DD Tang J 2004 How soil moisture, rain pulses and growth alter the response of ecosystem respiration to temperature. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 18 doi:10.1029/2004GB002281

Yamamoto S Murayama S Saigusa N Kondo H 1999 Seasonal and inter-annual variation of CO2 flux between a temperate forest and the atmosphere in Japan. Tellus 51B 402 413

Yang PC Black TA Neumann HH Novak MD Blanken PD 1999 Spatial and temporal variability of CO2 concentration and flux in a boreal aspen forest. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 104 27653 27661
doi:10.1029/1999JD900295

Yi CX Li RZ Bakwin PS Desai A Ricciuto DM Burns SP Turnipseed AA Wofsy SC Munger JW Wilson K Monson RK 2004 A nonparametric method for separating photosynthesis and respiration components in CO2 flux measurements. Geophysical Research Letters 31 doi:10.1029/2004GL020490

Yu G-R Wen X-F Sun X-M Tanner BD Lee X Chen J-Y 2006 Overview of chinaflux and evaluation of its eddy covariance measurement. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 137 125 137 doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2006.02.011

Yuan W Liu S Zhou G Zhou G Tieszen LL Baldocchi D Bernhofer C Gholz H Goldstein AH Goulden ML Hollinger DY Hu Y Law BE Stoy PC Vesala T Wofsy SC 2007 Deriving a light use efficiency model from eddy covariance flux data for predicting daily gross primary production across biomes. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 143 189 207 doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2006.12.001

Zhao M Heinsch FA Nemani RR Running SW 2005 Improvements of the MODros. Inf. Serv. terrestrial gross and net primary production global data set. Remote Sensing of Environment 95 164 176 doi:10.1016/j.rse.2004.12.011



Export Citation