Australian Journal of Botany Australian Journal of Botany Society
Southern hemisphere botanical ecosystems
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Limited impact of fragmentation and disturbance on the mating system of tuart (Eucalyptus gomphocephala, Myrtaceae): implications for seed-source quality in ecological restoration

Donna Bradbury A B C and Siegfried L. Krauss A B
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A School of Plant Biology, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6005, Australia.

B Botanic Gardens and Parks Authority, Kings Park and Botanic Garden, Fraser Avenue, West Perth, WA 6009, Australia.

C Corresponding author. Email: donna.bradbury@bgpa.wa.gov.au

Australian Journal of Botany 61(2) 148-160 https://doi.org/10.1071/BT13032
Submitted: 25 October 2012  Accepted: 13 February 2013   Published: 28 March 2013

Abstract

Variation in patterns of mating within and among plant populations can be impacted by habitat disturbance and have significant implications for offspring fitness. An understanding of this variation will inform predictions of seed genetic quality, benefiting ecological restoration through better seed-sourcing guidelines. We assessed mating system variation in six populations of tuart (Eucalyptus gomphocephala DC.), an iconic tree of significance to ecological restoration in Western Australia. A mixed mating system was observed with predominant outcrossing (tm = 0.76 ± 0.05) and low biparental inbreeding (tmts = 0.03 ± 0.02). We detected some evidence of increased inbreeding in a naturally fragmented population (tmts = 0.10 ± 0.04) and in a disturbed urban remnant (tm = 0.52 ± 0.12), including a family with complete selfing. However, most variation in outcrossing rate occurred among individuals within populations (82%), rather than among populations (2.6%) or among groups of populations defined by fragmentation or disturbance (15.4%). Genetic diversity was not consistently lower in offspring from fragmented, smaller and/or disturbed populations. These data reinforce the importance of sourcing seeds from multiple trees for ecological restoration, and emphasise that tuart’s mating system and the genetic diversity of offspring is robust to some habitat disturbance and/or fragmentation.

Additional keywords: forest tree restoration, inbreeding, mating system variation, outcrossing, seed sourcing.


References

Aguilar R, Ashworth L, Galetto L, Aizen MA (2006) Plant reproductive susceptibility to habitat fragmentation: review and synthesis through a meta-analysis. Ecology Letters 9, 968–980.
Plant reproductive susceptibility to habitat fragmentation: review and synthesis through a meta-analysis.CrossRef | open url image1

Bloomfield JA, Nevill P, Potts BM, Vaillancourt RE, Steane DA (2011) Molecular genetic variation in a widespread forest tree species Eucalyptus oblique (Myrtaceae) on the island of Tasmania. Australian Journal of Botany 59, 226–237.
Molecular genetic variation in a widespread forest tree species Eucalyptus oblique (Myrtaceae) on the island of Tasmania.CrossRef | open url image1

Bradbury D (2012) Conservation and restoration of genetic diversity in Tuart (Eucalyptus gomphocephala DC.): using novel genomic tools to understand local adaptation. PhD thesis, The University of Western Australia, Crawley.

Bradbury D, Smithson A, Krauss SL Development and testing of new gene-homologous EST-SSRs for Eucalyptus gomphocephala (Myrtaceae). Applications in Plant Sciences in press

Breed MF, Ottewell KM, Gardner MG, Marklund MHK, Stead MG, Harris JBC, Lowe AJ (2012) Mating system and early viability resistance to habitat fragmentation in a bird-pollinated eucalypt. Heredity
Mating system and early viability resistance to habitat fragmentation in a bird-pollinated eucalypt.CrossRef | open url image1 [Epub ahead of print].

Broadhurst LM, Lowe A, Coates DJ, Cunningham SA, McDonald M, Vesk PA, Yates C (2008) Seed supply for broadscale restoration: maximising evolutionary potential. Evolutionary Applications 1, 587–597.

Brondani RPV, Brondani C, Tarchini R, Grattapaglia D (1998) Development, characterization and mapping of microsatellite markers in Eucalyptus grandis and E. urophylla. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 97, 816–827.
Development, characterization and mapping of microsatellite markers in Eucalyptus grandis and E. urophylla.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK1cXotVaht7o%3D&md5=f25e1591f05fe69fb03e17a20da74af2CAS | open url image1

Brown EM, Burbidge AH, Dell J, Edinger D, Hopper SD, Wills RT (1997) ‘Pollination in Western Australia. A database of animals visiting flowers.’ (Western Australian Naturalists’ Club, Inc.: Perth)

Butcher PA, Skinner AK, Gardiner CA (2005) Increased inbreeding and inter-species gene flow in remnant populations of the rare Eucalyptus benthamii. Conservation Genetics 6, 213–226.
Increased inbreeding and inter-species gene flow in remnant populations of the rare Eucalyptus benthamii.CrossRef | open url image1

Byrne M, Hopper SD (2008) Granite outcrops as ancient islands in old landscapes: evidence from the phylogeography and population genetics of Eucalyptus caesia (Myrtaceae) in Western Australia. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. Linnean Society of London 93, 177–188.
Granite outcrops as ancient islands in old landscapes: evidence from the phylogeography and population genetics of Eucalyptus caesia (Myrtaceae) in Western Australia.CrossRef | open url image1

Byrne M, Elliott CP, Yates CJ, Coates DJ (2008) Maintenance of high pollen dispersal in Eucalyptus wandoo, a dominant tree of the fragmented agricultural region in Western Australia. Conservation Genetics 9, 97–105.
Maintenance of high pollen dispersal in Eucalyptus wandoo, a dominant tree of the fragmented agricultural region in Western Australia.CrossRef | open url image1

Cai YF, Barber P, Dell B, O’Brien P, Williams N, Bowen B, Hardy G (2010) Soil bacterial functional diversity is associated with the decline of Eucalyptus gomphocephala. Forest Ecology and Management 260, 1047–1057.
Soil bacterial functional diversity is associated with the decline of Eucalyptus gomphocephala.CrossRef | open url image1

Centre of Excellence for Climate Change Woodland and Forest Health (2012) Blog on forest health. The real significance of mass tuart flowering? Available at http://blogonforesthealth.com/2010/04/16/the-real-significance-of-mass-tuart-flowering/#more-177 [Verified 15 February 2013]

Charlesworth D, Willis JH (2009) The genetics of inbreeding depression. Nature Reviews. Genetics 10, 783–796.
The genetics of inbreeding depression.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXht1KrtbrI&md5=97a0459abb99508155e395403a8627e9CAS | open url image1

Churchill DM (1968) The distribution and prehistory of Eucalyptus diverscolor F. Muell., E. marginata Donn Ex Sm., and E. calophylla R.Br. in relation to rainfall. Australian Journal of Botany 16, 125–151.
The distribution and prehistory of Eucalyptus diverscolor F. Muell., E. marginata Donn Ex Sm., and E. calophylla R.Br. in relation to rainfall.CrossRef | open url image1

Close DC, Davidson NJ, Johnson DW, Abrams MD, Hart SC, Lunt ID, Archibald RD, Horton B, Adams MA (2009) Premature decline of Eucalyptus and altered ecosystem processes in the absence of fire in some Australian forests. Botanical Review 75, 191–202.
Premature decline of Eucalyptus and altered ecosystem processes in the absence of fire in some Australian forests.CrossRef | open url image1

Coates DJ, Keighery GJ, Broadhurst L (2002) Genetic and morphological variation, and the mating system in Tuart. In ‘Tuart (Eucalyptus gomphocephala) and Tuart communities’. (Eds BJ Keighery, VM Longman) pp. 89–107. (Wildflower Society of Western Australia, Inc.: Perth)

Coates DJ, Sampson JF, Yates CJ (2007) Plant mating systems and assessing population persistence in fragmented landscapes. Australian Journal of Botany 55, 239–249.
Plant mating systems and assessing population persistence in fragmented landscapes.CrossRef | open url image1

Cornuet JM, Luikart G (1996) Description and power analysis of two tests for detecting recent population bottlenecks from allele frequency data. Genetics 144, 2001–2014.

Costa e Silva J, Hardner C, Tilyard P, Potts BM (2011) The effects of age and environment on the expression of inbreeding depression in Eucalyptus globulus. Heredity 107, 50–60.
The effects of age and environment on the expression of inbreeding depression in Eucalyptus globulus.CrossRef | open url image1

Cremer KW (1977) Distance of seed dispersal in eucalyptus estimated from seed weights. Australian Forest Research 7, 225–228.

de-Lucas AI, Robledo-Arnuncio JJ, Hidalgo E, González-Martínez SC (2008) Mating system and pollen gene flow in Mediterranean maritime pine. Heredity 100, 390–399.
Mating system and pollen gene flow in Mediterranean maritime pine.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXjslSqsLs%3D&md5=0939b0987149c5a050f29659b7ca5316CAS | open url image1

Dell J, How RA, Burbidge AH (2002) Vertebrate fauna of tuart woodlands. In ‘Tuart (Eucalyptus gomphocephala) and Tuart communities’. (Eds BJ Keighery, VM Longman) pp. 254–276. (Wildflower Society of Western Australia, Inc.: Perth)

Department of Environment and Conservation (2006) ‘Issues paper: Tuart Forest National Park Management Plan.’ (Department for Environment and Conservation: Perth)

Devictor V, Julliard R, Couvet D, Lee A, Jiguet F (2007) Functional homogenization effect of urbanization on bird communities. Conservation Biology 21, 741–751.
Functional homogenization effect of urbanization on bird communities.CrossRef | open url image1

Eckert CG, Ozimec B, Herlihy CR, Griffin CA, Routley MB (2009) Floral morphology mediates temporal variation in the mating system of a self-compatible plant. Ecology 90, 1540–1548.
Floral morphology mediates temporal variation in the mating system of a self-compatible plant.CrossRef | open url image1

Eckert CG, Kalisz S, Geber MA, Sargent R, Elle E, Cheptou PO, Goodwillie C, Johnston MO, Kelly JK, Moeller DA, Porcher E, Ree RH, Vallejo-Marin M, Winn AA (2010) Plant mating systems in a changing world. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 25, 35–43.
Plant mating systems in a changing world.CrossRef | open url image1

El Mousadik A, Petit RJ (1996) High level of genetic differentiation for allelic richness among populations of the Argan tree [Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels] endemic to Morocco. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 92, 832–839.
High level of genetic differentiation for allelic richness among populations of the Argan tree [Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels] endemic to Morocco.CrossRef | open url image1

Ellis JR, Burke JM (2007) EST-SSRs as a resource for population genetic analyses. Heredity 99, 125–132.
EST-SSRs as a resource for population genetic analyses.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXotVOmtLk%3D&md5=50833f62b3f459f0f4c6dd5d4a7a23dcCAS | open url image1

Goodwillie C, Sargent RD, Eckert CG, Elle E, Geber MA, Johnston MO, Kalisz S, Moeller DA, Ree RH, Vallejo-Marin M, Winn AA (2010) Correlated evolution of mating system and floral display traits in flowering plants and its implications for the distribution of mating system variation. New Phytologist 185, 311–321.
Correlated evolution of mating system and floral display traits in flowering plants and its implications for the distribution of mating system variation.CrossRef | open url image1

Goudet J (1995) Fstat version 1.2: a computer program to calculate F statistics. The Journal of Heredity 86, 485–486.

Goudet J (2001) FSTAT, a program to estimate and test gene diversities and fixation indices (version 2.9.3). Available at: http://www2.unil.ch/popgen/softwares/fstat.htm [Verified May 2011].

Griffin AR, Cotterill PP (1988) Genetic variation in growth of outcrossed, selfed and open-pollinated progenies of Eucalyptus regnans and some implications for breeding strategy. Silvae Genetica 37, 124–131.

Griffin AR, Moran GF, Fripp YJ (1987) Preferential outcrossing in Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell. Australian Journal of Botany 35, 465–475.
Preferential outcrossing in Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell.CrossRef | open url image1

Hanson TR, Brunsfeld SJ, Finegan B, Waits LP (2008) Pollen dispersal and genetic structure of the tropical tree Dipteryx panamensis in a fragmented Costa Rican landscape. Molecular Ecology 17, 2060–2073.
Pollen dispersal and genetic structure of the tropical tree Dipteryx panamensis in a fragmented Costa Rican landscape.CrossRef | open url image1

Hardner CM, Potts BM (1997) Postdispersal selection following mixed mating in Eucalyptus regnans. Evolution 51, 103–111.
Postdispersal selection following mixed mating in Eucalyptus regnans.CrossRef | open url image1

Hopper SD (2009) OCBIL theory: towards an integrated understanding of the evolution, ecology and conservation of biodiversity in old, climatically buffered, infertile landscapes. Plant and Soil 322, 49–86.
OCBIL theory: towards an integrated understanding of the evolution, ecology and conservation of biodiversity in old, climatically buffered, infertile landscapes.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXhtVWisrnN&md5=203ff240a17aa413b569b1f2374eeb96CAS | open url image1

Hopper SD, Gioia P (2004) The Southwest Australian Florisitic Region: evolution and conservation of a global hot spot of diversity. Annual Review of Ecology Evolution and Systematics 35, 623–650.
The Southwest Australian Florisitic Region: evolution and conservation of a global hot spot of diversity.CrossRef | open url image1

Hopper SD, Moran GF (1981) Bird pollination and the mating system of Eucalyptus stoatei. Australian Journal of Botany 29, 625–628.
Bird pollination and the mating system of Eucalyptus stoatei.CrossRef | open url image1

House SM (1997) Reproductive biology of eucalypts. In ‘Eucalypt ecology: individuals to ecosystems’. (Eds J Williams, J Woinarski) pp. 30–55. (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge)

James SH, Kennington WJ (1993) Selection against homozygotes and resource allocation in the mating system of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Denh. Australian Journal of Botany 41, 381–391.
Selection against homozygotes and resource allocation in the mating system of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Denh.CrossRef | open url image1

Jones RC, McKinnon GE, Potts BM, Vaillancourt RE (2005) Genetic diversity and mating system of an endangered tree Eucalyptus morrisbyi. Australian Journal of Botany 53, 367–377.
Genetic diversity and mating system of an endangered tree Eucalyptus morrisbyi.CrossRef | open url image1

Karron JD, Thumser NN, Tucker R, Hessenauer AJ (1995) The influence of population density on outcrossing rates in Mimulus ringens. Heredity 75, 175–180.
The influence of population density on outcrossing rates in Mimulus ringens.CrossRef | open url image1

Keighery BJ, Longman VM (Eds) (2002) ‘Tuart (Eucalyptus gomphocephala) and tuart communities.’ (Wildflower Society of Western Australia: Perth)

Keighery BJ, Keighery GJ, Shepherd D (2002) The distribution and conservation of Tuart and the community with which it lives. In ‘Tuart (Eucalyptus gomphocephala) and tuart communities’. (Eds BJ Keighery, VM Longman) pp. 6–86. (Wildflower Society of Western Australia: Perth)

Kennington WJ, James SH (1997) The effect of small population size on the mating system of a rare clonal mallee, Eucalyptus argutifolia (Myrtaceae). Heredity 78, 252–260.
The effect of small population size on the mating system of a rare clonal mallee, Eucalyptus argutifolia (Myrtaceae).CrossRef | open url image1

Kramer AT, Ison JL, Ashley MV, Howe HF (2008) The paradox of forest fragmentation genetics. Conservation Biology 22, 878–885.
The paradox of forest fragmentation genetics.CrossRef | open url image1

Krauss SL, Hermanutz L, Hopper SD, Coates DJ (2007) Population-size effects on seeds and seedlings from fragmented eucalypt populations: implications for seed sourcing for ecological restoration. Australian Journal of Botany 55, 390–399.
Population-size effects on seeds and seedlings from fragmented eucalypt populations: implications for seed sourcing for ecological restoration.CrossRef | open url image1

Krauss SL, He T, Barrett LG, Lamont BB, Enright NJ, Miller BP, Hanley ME (2009) Contrasting impacts of pollen and seed dispersal on spatial genetic structure in the bird-pollinated Banksia hookeriana. Heredity 102, 274–285.
Contrasting impacts of pollen and seed dispersal on spatial genetic structure in the bird-pollinated Banksia hookeriana.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXit1Okurg%3D&md5=d0be3c521e4c31a34278c6858de6cb80CAS | open url image1

Lowe AJ, Boshier D, Ward M, Bacles CFE, Navarro C (2005) Genetic resource impacts of habitat loss and degradation; reconciling empirical evidence and predicted theory for neotropical trees. Heredity 95, 255–273.
Genetic resource impacts of habitat loss and degradation; reconciling empirical evidence and predicted theory for neotropical trees.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXhtVehsLnK&md5=1cdf098fd8ddf137ce8e77f95568208cCAS | open url image1

McChesney C, Mansell-Fletcher J, Wills R, Webb M, Hopper S, Ruthrof K, Batty A (2000) ‘Bold Park Environmental Management Plan 2000–2005.’ (Botanic Gardens and Parks Authority: Perth)

McGowen MH, Vaillancourt RE, Pilbeam DJ, Potts BM (2010) Sources of variation in self-incompatibility in the Australian forest tree, Eucalyptus globulus. Annals of Botany 105, 737–745.
Sources of variation in self-incompatibility in the Australian forest tree, Eucalyptus globulus.CrossRef | open url image1

McKay JK, Christian CE, Harrison S, Rice KJ (2005) ‘How local is local?’ – a review of practical and conceptual issues in the genetics of restoration. Restoration Ecology 13, 432–440.
‘How local is local?’ – a review of practical and conceptual issues in the genetics of restoration.CrossRef | open url image1

Menz MHM, Phillips RD, Winfree R, Kremen C, Aizen MA, Johnson SD, Dixon KD (2011) Reconnecting plants and pollinators: challenges in the restoration of pollination mutualisms. Trends in Plant Science 16, 4–12.
Reconnecting plants and pollinators: challenges in the restoration of pollination mutualisms.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXjvFOgsw%3D%3D&md5=d05507740870b12c3f60107831a7bb32CAS | open url image1

Millar MA, Byrne M, Coates DJ, Stukely MJC, McComb JA (2000) Mating system studies in jarrah, Eucalyptus marginata (Myrtaceae). Australian Journal of Botany 48, 475–479.
Mating system studies in jarrah, Eucalyptus marginata (Myrtaceae).CrossRef | open url image1

Mimura M, Barbour RC, Potts BM, Vaillancourt RE, Watanabe KN (2009) Comparison of contemporary mating patterns in continuous and fragmented Eucalyptus globulus native forests. Molecular Ecology 18, 4180–4192.
Comparison of contemporary mating patterns in continuous and fragmented Eucalyptus globulus native forests.CrossRef | open url image1

Moran GF, Brown AHD (1980) Temporal heterogeneity of outcrossing rates in alpine ash (Eucalyptus delegatensis R.T. Bak.). Theoretical and Applied Genetics 57, 101–105.
Temporal heterogeneity of outcrossing rates in alpine ash (Eucalyptus delegatensis R.T. Bak.).CrossRef | open url image1

Myers N, Mittermeier RA, Mittermeier CG, da Fonseca GAB, Kent J (2000) Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403, 853–858.
Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXhs1Olsr4%3D&md5=5883163864dd3243c8670ed771bc13e5CAS | open url image1

Nei M, Maruyama T, Chakraborty R (1975) The bottleneck effect and genetic variability in populations. Evolution 29, 1–10.
The bottleneck effect and genetic variability in populations.CrossRef | open url image1

Ottewell KM, Donnellan SC, Lowe AJ, Paton DC (2009) Predicting reproductive success of insect-versus bird-pollinated scattered trees in agricultural landscapes. Biological Conservation 142, 888–898.
Predicting reproductive success of insect-versus bird-pollinated scattered trees in agricultural landscapes.CrossRef | open url image1

Patterson B, Vaillancourt RE, Pilbeam DJ, Potts BM (2004) Factors affecting variation in outcrossing rate in Eucalyptus globulus. Australian Journal of Botany 52, 773–780.
Factors affecting variation in outcrossing rate in Eucalyptus globulus.CrossRef | open url image1

Peakall R, Smouse P (2006) GENALEX 6: genetic analysis in Excel. Population genetic software for teaching and research. Molecular Ecology Notes 6, 288–295.
GENALEX 6: genetic analysis in Excel. Population genetic software for teaching and research.CrossRef | open url image1

Petit R, Hampe A (2006) Some evolutionary consequences of being a tree. Annual Review of Ecology Evolution and Systematics 37, 187–214.
Some evolutionary consequences of being a tree.CrossRef | open url image1

Phillips RD, Hopper SD, Dixon KW (2010) Pollination ecology and the possible impacts of environmental change in the Southwest Australian Biodiversity Hotspot. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences 365, 517–528.
Pollination ecology and the possible impacts of environmental change in the Southwest Australian Biodiversity Hotspot.CrossRef | open url image1

Portlock C, Koch A, Wood S, Hanly P, Dutton S (1995) Yalgorup National Park Management Plan 1995–2005. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Perth.

Potts B, Gore P (1995) Reproductive biology and controlled pollination of Eucalyptus – a review. School of Plant Science, University of Tasmania. Available at http://eprints.utas.edu.au/7447/ [Verified 15 February 2013]

Potts BM, Wiltshire RJE (1997) Eucalypt genetics and genecology. In ‘Eucalypt ecology: individuals to ecosystems’. (Eds J Williams, J Woinarski) pp. 56–91. (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge)

Pryor LD (1976) ‘The biology of eucalypts.’ (Edward Arnold: London)

Recher HF, Serventy DL (1991) Long term changes in the relative abundances of birds in Kings Park, Perth, Western Australia. Conservation Biology 5, 90–102.
Long term changes in the relative abundances of birds in Kings Park, Perth, Western Australia.CrossRef | open url image1

Ritland K (2002) Extensions of models for the estimation of mating systems using n independent loci. Heredity 88, 221–228.
Extensions of models for the estimation of mating systems using n independent loci.CrossRef | open url image1

Ritland K (2008) Multilocus mating system program MLTR version 3.2. (Documentation file). Available at http://www.genetics.forestry.ubc.ca/ritland/programs.html [Verified 15 February 2013]

Ruthrof KX, Yates CJ, Loneragan WA (2002) The biology of Tuart. In ‘Tuart (Eucalyptus gomphocephala) and Tuart communities’. (Eds BJ Keighery, VM Longman) pp. 108–121. (Wildflower Society of Western Australia Inc.: Perth)

Sampson JF, Byrne M (2008) Outcrossing between an agroforestry plantation and remnant native populations of Eucalyptus loxophleba. Molecular Ecology 17, 2769–2781.
Outcrossing between an agroforestry plantation and remnant native populations of Eucalyptus loxophleba.CrossRef | open url image1

Sampson JF, Hopper SD, James SH (1995) The mating system and genetic diversity of the Australian arid zone mallee, Eucalyptus rameliana. Australian Journal of Botany 43, 461–474.
The mating system and genetic diversity of the Australian arid zone mallee, Eucalyptus rameliana.CrossRef | open url image1

Scott PM, Burgess TI, Barber PA, Shearer BL, Stukely MJC, Hardt GEStJ, Jung T (2009) Phytophthora multivora sp. nov., a new species recovered from declining Eucalyptus, Banksia, Agonis and other plant species in Western Australia. Persoonia 22, 1–13.
Phytophthora multivora sp. nov., a new species recovered from declining Eucalyptus, Banksia, Agonis and other plant species in Western Australia.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BC3c7ltlCgsQ%3D%3D&md5=a044551e8230d97396462ced7abde30dCAS | open url image1

Sgrò CM, Lowe AJ, Hoffmann AA (2011) Building evolutionary resilience for conserving biodiversity under climate change. Evolutionary Applications 4, 326–337.
Building evolutionary resilience for conserving biodiversity under climate change.CrossRef | open url image1

Shah B (2006) Conservation of Carnaby’s Black-Cockatoo on the Swan Coastal Plain, Western Australia. (Birds Australia: Floreat, WA)

Tamaki I, Setsuko S, Tomaru N (2009) Estimation of outcrossing rates at hierarchical levels of fruits, individuals, populations and species in Magnolia stellata. Heredity 102, 381–388.
Estimation of outcrossing rates at hierarchical levels of fruits, individuals, populations and species in Magnolia stellata.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD1M3jt1eltA%3D%3D&md5=594199ea3ba732b6081604285afe867eCAS | open url image1

van Oosterhout C, Hutchinson WF, Wills DPM, Shipley P (2004) MICRO-CHECKER: software for identifying and correcting genotyping errors in microsatellite data. Molecular Ecology Notes 4, 535–538.
MICRO-CHECKER: software for identifying and correcting genotyping errors in microsatellite data.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXnvFOktb8%3D&md5=8e1f15d600f95e9bf36814040215cfdfCAS | open url image1

Weeks AR, Sgro CM, Young AG, Frankham R, Mitchell NJ, Miller KA, Byrne M, Coates DJ, Eldridge MDB, Sunnucks P, Breed MF, James EA, Hoffman AA (2011) Assessing the benefits and risks of translocations in changing environments: a genetic perspective. Evolutionary Applications 4, 709–725.
Assessing the benefits and risks of translocations in changing environments: a genetic perspective.CrossRef | open url image1

Wentzel JJ (2010) Is tuart (Eucalyptus gomphocephala) decline detrimental for fauna? PhD thesis, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Western Australia.

Yates CJ, Hopper SD, Taplin RH (2005) Native insect flower visitor diversity and feral honeybees on Jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) in Kings Park, an urban bushland remnant. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88, 147–153.

Yates CJ, Coates DJ, Elliott C, Byrne M (2007) Composition of the pollinator community, pollination and the mating system for a shrub in fragments of species rich kwongan in south-west Western Australia. Biodiversity and Conservation 16, 1379–1395.
Composition of the pollinator community, pollination and the mating system for a shrub in fragments of species rich kwongan in south-west Western Australia.CrossRef | open url image1

Young A, Boyle T, Brown T (1996) The population genetic consequences of habitat fragmentation for plants. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 11, 413–418.
The population genetic consequences of habitat fragmentation for plants.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BC3M7itFGhtg%3D%3D&md5=2cbc069a68d184601deab54cc934961eCAS | open url image1



Rent Article (via Deepdyve) Export Citation Cited By (8)