Emu Emu Society
Journal of BirdLife Australia
LANDMARK PAPERS

Climate change and its impact on Australia’s avifauna

Lynda E. Chambers A , Lesley Hughes B and Michael A. Weston C

A Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre, GPO Box 1289K, Melbourne, Vic. 3001, Australia. Email: L.Chambers@bom.gov.au

B Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, North Ryde, NSW 2109, Australia. Email: lhughes@rna.bio.mq.edu.au

C Research and Conservation Department, Birds Australia, 415 Riversdale Road, Hawthorn East, Vic. 3123, Australia. Email: m.weston@birdsaustralia.com.au

Emu 105(1) 1-20 http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/MU04033
Submitted: 24 January 2004  Accepted: 11 February 2005   Published: 31 March 2005

Abstract

Relative to the northern hemisphere, little is known about the effect of climate change on southern hemisphere birds, although the impact could be significant. Here we review the effects of climate change on birds that have been documented or predicted, with particular reference to Australian species. Potential impacts include changes in geographic range, movement patterns, morphology, physiology, abundance, phenology and community composition. The evidence suggests that these changes are already happening, both overseas and in Australia, but more research is needed to determine the extent of these impacts and how to conserve birds in the face of climate change. Management options include promoting adaptation and resilience, intensive management of sensitive species, and improved planning for mitigation techniques and monitoring.


References

Australian Associated Press (AAP) (2003). Warming tropics doom fauna. In ‘Sydney Morning Herald’. 23 July 2003, p. 5.

Abbott I. 1999 The avifauna of the forests of south-west Western Australia: changes in species composition, distribution, and abundance following anthropogenic disturbance. CALM Science Suppl. 5 1 176

Aston K. G. 2002 Patterns within species body size variation of birds: strong evidence for Bergmann’s rule. Global Ecology and Biogeography 11 505 523


Australian Greenhouse Office (AGO) (2002). ‘Living with Climate Change: An Overview of Potential Climate Change Impacts on Australia.’ (Australian Greenhouse Office.)

Ahas R. 1999 Long-term phyto-, ornitho- and ichthyophenological time-series analyses in Estonia. International Journal of Biometeorology 42 119 123
DOI

Ainley D. G. (2002). ‘The Adélie Penguin: Bellweather of Climate Change.’ (Columbia University Press: New York.)

Allan R. J. D’Arrigo R. D. 1999 ‘Persistent’ ENSO sequences: how unusual was the 1990–1995 El Niño? The Holocene 9 101 118 DOI

Arnold G. W. (1988). Possible effects of climate change on wildlife in Western Australia. In ‘Greenhouse, Planning for Climate Change’. (Ed. G. I. Pearman.) pp. 375–386. (CSIRO: Melbourne.)

Baker R. H. A. Sansford C. E. Jarvis C. H. Cannon R. J. C. MacLeod A. Walters K. F. A. 2000 The role of climatic mapping in predicting the potential geographical distribution of non-indigenous pests under current and future climates. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment 82 57 71 DOI

Baker-Gabb D. (1991). List of threatened fauna in Victoria in 1991. Unpublished report, Department of Conservation & Environment, Melbourne.

Ballard G. Geupel G. R. Nur N. Gardali T. 2003 Long-term declines and decadal patterns in population trends of songbirds in western North America, 1979–1999. Condor 105 737 755

Barbraud C. Weimerskirch H. 2001 Emperor penguins and climate change. Nature 411 183 186
DOI

Barlein F., and Winkel W. (2001). Birds and climate change. In ‘Climate of the 21st Century: Changes and Risks’. (Eds J. L. Lozan, H. Grassl and P. Hupfer.) pp. 278–282. (Wissenschlaftliche Auswertungen: Hamburg.)

Baxter C. I. Reid J. R. W. Jaensch R. P. 2001 First South Australian records of the Black-necked Stork, Ephippiohynchus asiaticus and occurrence of vagrants in south-western Queensland. South Australian Ornithologist 33 164 169

Beare S., and Heaney A. (2002). Climate change and water resources in the Murray Darling Basin, Australia: Impacts and possible adaptation. ABARE Conference Paper 02.11. 2002 World Congress of Environmental and Resource Economists, Monterey, California, 24–27 June 2002.

Beeby R. (2003a). Wetlands ecology in crisis, say reports. In ‘Canberra Times’. 4 November 2003, p. 5.

Beeby R. (2003b). Emu ‘plagues’ a misleading picture. In ‘Canberra Times’. 13 December 2003, p. 5.

Beeby R. (2003c). Climate change: gang-gang takes off. In ‘Canberra Times’. 11 December 2003, p. 3.

Bennett S., Brereton R., Mansergh I., Berwick S., Sandiford K., and Wellington C. (1991). The potential effect of the enhanced greenhouse climate change on selected Victorian fauna. Arthur Rylah Institute Technical Report Series No. 123, Melbourne.

Bergstrom D. (2003). Impact of climate change on terrestrial Antarctic and subantarctic biodiversity. In ‘Climate Change Impacts on Biodiversity in Australia. Outcomes of a Workshop Sponsored by the Biological Diversity Advisory Committee, 1–2 October 2002’. (Eds M. Howden, L. Hughes, M. Dunlop, I. Zethoven, D. Hilbert, and C. Chilcott.) pp. 55–57. (Commonwealth of Australia: Canberra.)

Bird D. M. (1999). ‘The Bird Almanac.’ (Key Porter Books: Toronto.)

Boersma P. D. 1998 Population trends of the Galapagos Penguin: impacts of El Nino and La Nina. Condor 100 245 253


Both C. Visser M. E. 2001 Adjustment to climate change is constrained by arrival date in a long-distance migrant bird. Nature 411 296 298
DOI

Budd G. M. 2000 Changes in Heard Island glaciers, King Penguins and Fur Seals since 1947. Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania 133 47 60

Bunce A. Norman F. I. Brothers N. Gales R. 2002 Long-term trends in the Australasian gannet (Morus serrator) population in Australia: the effect of climate change and commercial fisheries. Marine Biology 141 263 269
DOI

Burns C. E. Johnston K. M. Schmitz O. J. 2003 Global climate change and mammalian species diversity in U.S. national parks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 100 11 474 11 477 DOI

Burton T. C. Martin A. A. 1976 Analysis of hybridization between Black-backed and White-backed Magpies in south-eastern Australia. Emu 76 30 36

Busby J. R. (1988). Potential impacts of climate change on Australia’s flora and fauna. In ‘Greenhouse, Planning for Climate Change’. (Ed. G. I. Pearman.) pp. 387–398. (CSIRO: Melbourne.)

Busby J. R. (1991). BIOCLIM – A bioclimatic analysis & prediction system. In ‘Nature Conservation: Cost Effective Surveys and Data Analysis’. (Eds C. R. Margules and M.P. Austin.) pp. 64–68. (CSIRO: Melbourne.)

Butler C. J. 2003 The disproportionate effect of global warming on the arrival dates of short-distance migratory birds in North America. Ibis 145 484 495
DOI

Brereton R. Bennett S. Mansergh I. 1995 Enhanced greenhouse climate change and its potential effect on selected fauna of south-eastern Australia: a trend analysis. Biological Conservation 72 339 354 DOI

Brown P. (2004). Disaster of unnatural proportions. In ‘Australian Financial Review’. 9 January 2004, p. 5.

Cannell M. G. R., Palutikoff J. P., and Sparks T. H. (1999). ‘Indicators of climate change in the UK.’ (Department of Environment, Transport and Regions: Wetherby, UK). Available at http://www.nbu.ac.uk/iccuk/

Cary G. J. (2002). Importance of changing climate for fire regimes in Australia. In ‘Flammable Australia: The Fire Regimes and Biodiversity of a Continent’. (Eds R. A. Bradstock, J. E. Williams and A. M. Gill.) pp. 26–46. (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK.)

Chambers L. E. 2004 Delayed breeding in Little Penguin: evidence of climate change. Australian Meteorological Magazine 53 1 13 19

Collins D. 2000 Annual temperature summary – Australia records warmest decade. Climate Change Newsletter 12 1 6


Collins D. A. Della-Marta P. M. Plummer N. Trewin B. C. 2000 Trends in annual frequencies of extreme temperature events in Australia. Australian Meteorological Magazine 49 277 292


Coppack T. Both C. 2002 Predicting life-cycle adaptation of migratory birds to global climate change. Ardea 90 369 378


Cotton P. A. 2003 Avian migration phenology and global climate change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 100 12 219 12 222
DOI

Cresswell W. McCleery R. H. 2003 How great tits maintain synchronization of their hatch date with food supply in response to long-term variability in temperature. Journal of Animal Ecology 72 356 366 DOI

Crick H. Q. P. Dudley C. Glue D. E. Thomson D. L. 1997 UK birds are laying eggs earlier. Nature 388 526 DOI

Crick H. Q. P. Sparks T. H. 1999 Climate change related to egg-laying trends. Nature 399 423 424 DOI

Croxall J. P. 1992 Southern Ocean environmental changes: effects on seabird, seal and whale populations. Philosophical Transactions Royal Society London Series B 338 319 328

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) (2001a). ‘Climate Change: Projections for Australia.’ (CSIRO Climate Impact Group: Aspendale, Vic.) Available at
http://www.dar.csiro.au/publications/projections2001.pdf

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) (2001b). ‘Climate Change: Impacts for Australia.’ (CSIRO Climate Impact Group: Aspendale, Vic.) Available at http://www.marine.csiro.au/iawg/impacts2001.pdf

Cunningham D. M. Moors P. J. 1994 The decline of Rockhopper Penguins Eudyptes chrysocome at Campbell Island, Southern Ocean and the influence of rising sea temperatures. Emu 94 27 36

Drent R. Both C. Green M. Madsen J. Piersma T. 2003 Pay-offs and penalties of competing migratory schedules. Oikos 103 274 292
DOI

Duncan R. P. Bomford M. Forsyth D. M. Conibear L. 2001 High predictability in introduction outcomes and the geographic range size of introduced Australian birds: a role for climate. Journal of Animal Ecology 70 621 632 DOI

Dunlop J. N. Wooller R. D. 1986 Range extensions and the breeding seasons of seabirds in south-western Australia. Records Western Australian Museum 12 4 389 394

Dunlop J. N. Wooller R. D. 1990 The breeding seabirds of southwestern Australia: trends in species, populations and colonies. Corella 14 4 107 112


Dunlop M., and Howden M. (2003). Policy discussion. In ‘Climate Change Impacts on Biodiversity in Australia. Outcomes of a Workshop Sponsored by the Biological Diversity Advisory Committee, 1–2 October 2002’. (Eds M. Howden, L. Hughes, M. Dunlop, I. Zethoven, D. Hilbert and C. Chilcott.) pp. 67–79. (Commonwealth of Australia: Canberra.)

Dunlop N. 2001 Sea-change and fisheries: a bird’s-eye view. Western Fisheries Magazine Spring 11 14


Dunn P. O. Winkler D. W. 1999 Climate change has affected the breeding date of tree swallows throughout North America. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B. Biological Sciences 266 2487 2490
DOI

Easterling D. R. Horton B. Jones P. D. Peterson T. C. Karl T. R. et al. 1997 Maximum and minimum temperature trends for the globe. Nature 277 364 367

Evans K. L. Tyler C. Blackburn T. M. Duncan R. P. 2003 Changes in the breeding biology of the Welcome Swallow (Hirundo tahitica) in New Zealand since colonisation. Emu 103 215 220
DOI

Forchhammer M. C. Post E. Stenseth N. C. 1998 Breeding pheology and climate. Nature 391 29 30 DOI

Fraser W. R. Trivelpiece W. Z. Ainley D. G. Trivelpiece S. G. 1992 Increases in Antarctic penguin populations: reduced competition with whales or a loss of sea ice due to environmental warming? Polar Biology 11 525 531 DOI

Galbraith H. Jones R. Park R. Clough J. Herrod-Julius S. Harrington B. Page G. 2002 Global climate change and sea level rise: potential losses of intertidal habitat for shorebirds. Waterbirds 25 173 183

Garnett S. T., and Crowley G. M. (2000). ‘The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000.’ (Environment Australia: Canberra.)

Gaston A. J. Hipfner J. M. Campbell D. 2002 Heat and mosquitoes cause breeding failures and adult mortality in an Arctic-nesting seabird. Ibis 144 185 191
DOI

Green K. (1998). Introduction. In ‘Snow: A Natural History; an Uncertain Future’. (Ed. K. Green.) pp. xiii–xix. (Surrey Beatty: Sydney.)

Green K. (2003). Impacts of global warming on the Snowy Mountains. In ‘Climate Change Impacts on Biodiversity in Australia. Outcomes of a Workshop Sponsored by the Biological Diversity Advisory Committee, 1–2 October 2002’. (Eds M. Howden, L. Hughes, M. Dunlop, I. Zethoven, D. Hilbert and C. Chilcott.) pp. 36–36. (Commonwealth of Australia: Canberra.)

Green K., and Pickering C. M. (2002). A potential scenario for mammal and bird diversity in the Snowy Mountains of Australia in relation to climate change. In ‘Global Mountain Biodiversity: Changes and Threats’. (Eds C. Korner and E. Spehn.) pp. 241–249. (Springer-Verlag: Berlin.)

Greenwood G., and Boardman R. (1990). Climatic change and some possible effects upon terrestrial ecology in South Australia. In ‘The Mallee Lands: A Conservative Perspective.’ Proceedings of the National Mallee Conference, Adelaide, April 1989. (Eds J. C. Noble, P. J. Joss and G. K. Jones.) pp. 135–139. (CSIRO: Melbourne.)

Haylock M. Nicholls N. 2000 Trends in extreme rainfall indices for an updated high quality data set for Australia, 1910–1998. International Journal of Climatology 20 1533 1541 DOI

Hennessy K. J. Suppiah R. Page C. M. 1999 Australian rainfall changes, 1910–1995. Australian Meteorological Magazine 48 1 13

Hennessy K., Whetton P., Smith I., Bathols J., Hutchinson M., and Sharples J. (2003). ‘The Impact of Climate Change on Snow Conditions in Mainland Australia.’ (CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research: Aspendale, Vic.; and Australian National University Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies: Canberra.)

Herron N. Davis R. Jones R. 2002 The effects of large-scale afforestation and climate change on water allocation in the Macquarie River catchment, NSW, Australia. Journal of Environmental Management 65 369 381
DOI

Hilbert D. W. (2003a). Potential global warming impacts on terrestrial ecosystems and biodiversity of the Wet Tropics. In ‘Climate Change Impacts on Biodiversity in Australia. Outcomes of a Workshop Sponsored by the Biological Diversity Advisory Committee, 1–2 October 2002’. (Eds M. Howden, L. Hughes, M. Dunlop, I. Zethoven, D. Hilbert and C. Chilcott.) pp 48–49. (Commonwealth of Australia: Canberra.)

Hilbert D. W. (2003b). Threats to ecosystems and biodiversity in the highly diverse, mountainous Wet Tropics bioregion. Conference Workbook, Climate Impacts on Australia’s Natural Resources: Current and Future Challenges, Brisbane, 25–27 November 2003, pp. 30–32.

Hilbert D. W. Bradford M. Parker T. Westcott D. A. 2004 Golden bowerbird (Prionodura newtonia) habitat in past, present and future climates: predicted extinction of a vertebrate in tropical highlands due to global warming. Biological Conservation 116 367 377 DOI

Hoegh-Guldberg O. 1999 Climate change, coral bleaching and the future of the world’s coral reefs. Marine and Freshwater Research 50 839 866

Howden M., Hughes L., Dunlop M., Zethoven I., Hilbert D., and Chilcott C. (2003). Summary. In ‘Climate Change Impacts on Biodiversity in Australia. Outcomes of a Workshop Sponsored by the Biological Diversity Advisory Committee, 1–2 October 2002’. (Eds M. Howden, L. Hughes, M. Dunlop, I. Zethoven, D. Hilbert and C. Chilcott.) pp 1–5. (Commonwealth of Australia: Canberra.)

Hubalek Z. 2003 Spring migration of birds in relation to North Atlantic Oscillation. Folia Zoologica 52 287 298


Hughes L. 2000 Biological consequences of global warming: is the signal already apparent? Trends in Ecology & Evolution 15 2 56 61
DOI

Hughes L. 2003 a Climate change and Australia: trends, projections and impacts. Austral Ecology 28 423 443 DOI

Hughes L. (2003b). Indicators of climate change. In ‘Climate Change Impacts on Biodiversity in Australia. Outcomes of a Workshop Sponsored by the Biological Diversity Advisory Committee, 1–2 October 2002’. (Eds M. Howden, L. Hughes, M. Dunlop, I. Zethoven, D. Hilbert and C. Chilcott.) pp. 58–62. (Commonwealth of Australia: Canberra.)

Hulme M., and Sheard N. (1999). ‘Climate Change Scenarios for Australia.’ (Climate Research Unit, University of East Anglia: Norwich, UK.)

Huppop O. Huppop K. 2003 North Atlantic Oscillation and timing of spring migration in birds. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B. Biological Sciences 270 233 240 DOI

Indian Ocean Climate Initiative (IOCI) (2002). Climate variability and change in south west Western Australia. Indian Ocean Climate Initiative Panel, Perth.

Inouye D. W. Barr B. Armitage K. B. Inouye B. D. 2000 Climate change is affecting altitudinal migrants and hibernating species. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 97 1630 1633 DOI

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2001a). ‘Climate Change 2001: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.’ (Eds J. J. McCarthy, O. F. Canziani, N. A. Leary, D. J. Dokken and K. S. White.) (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK, and NY.)

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2001b). Climatic changes 2001. The scientific basis. Technical summary from Working Group I. IPCC, Geneva.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2001c). ‘Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.’ (Eds J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Noguer, P. J. van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell and C. A. Johnson.) (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK and NY.)

Jarvinen A. 1994 Global warming and egg size in birds. Ecography 17 108 110

Jenni L. Kery M. 2003 Timing of autumn bird migration under climate change: advances in long-distance migrants, delays in short-distance migrants. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B. Biological Sciences 270 1467 1471
DOI

Johnson N. K. (1994). Pioneering and natural expansion of breeding distributions in western North America. In ‘A Century of Avifaunal Change in Western North America’. (Eds J. R. Jehl and N. K. Johnson.) pp. 27–44. (Cooper Ornithological Society: Lawrence, KS.)

Johnson B. (1998). Consequences for the Macquarie Marshes. In ‘Climate Change Scenarios and Managing the Scarce Water Resources of the Macquarie River’. (Prepared by Hassall & Associates Pty Ltd for the Australian Greenhouse Office.) pp. 61–68.

Jones J. Doran P. J. Holmes R. T. 2003 Climate and food synchronize regional forest bird abundances. Ecology 84 3024 3032

Julliard R. Jiguet F. Couvet D. 2004 Common birds facing global changes: what makes a species at risk? Global Change Biology 10 148 154
DOI

Kaiser J. 1997 Is warming trend harming penguins? Science 276 1790 DOI

Karoly D., Risbey J., and Reynolds A. (2003). ‘Global Warming Contributes to Australia’s Worst Drought.’ (World Wide Fund for Nature.) Available at http://www.wwf.org.au

Kingsford R. T. Norman F. I. 2002 Australian waterbirds – products of the continent’s ecology. Emu 102 47 69 DOI

Kirkwood R. J. Mitchell P. J. 1992 The status of the Black-browed Albatross Diomedea melanophrys at Heard Island. Emu 92 111 114

Lemoine N. Bohning-Gaese K. 2003 Potential impact of global climate change on species richness of long-distance migrants. Conservation Biology 17 577 586
DOI

Lenten L. J. A. Moosa I. A. 2003 An empirical investigation into long-term climate change in Australia. Environmental Modelling & Software 18 59 70 DOI

Mairs D. 2004 Bladerunners. Birdwatch 142 29 33

Mawson P. R. Long J. L. 1995 Changes in the status and distribution of four species of parrot in the south of Western Australia during 1970–90. Pacific Conservation Biology 2 191 199


McCleery R. H. Perrins C. M. 1998 ... temperature and egg-laying trends. Nature 391 30 31
DOI

Mitchell W. Chittleborough J. Ronai B. Lennon G. W. 2000 Sea level rise in Australia and the Pacific. Climate Change Newsletter 12 7 10

Musgrove A. J. 2002 The non-breeding status of the little egret in Britain. British Birds 95 62 80


Nicholls N. 2003 Continued anomalous warming in Australia. Geophysical Research Letters 30 7
Article No. 1370

Nicholls N. 2004 The changing nature of Australian droughts. Climatic Change 63 3 323 336
DOI

Nicholls N. Lavery B. Frederiksen C. Drosdowsky W. 1996 Recent apparent changes in relationships between the El Nino – southern oscillation and Australian rainfall and temperature. Geophysical Research Letters 23 3357 3360 DOI

Nix H. A. (1986). A biogeographical analysis of Australian elapid snakes. In ‘Atlas of Elapid Snakes of Australia’. Australian Flora and Fauna Series, No. 7. (Ed. R. Longmore.) pp. 4–15. (Bureau of Flora and Fauna: Canberra.)

National Climate Centre (NCC) (2004). Annual Climate Summary 2003. Climate Analysis Section, National Climate Centre, Commonwealth Bureau of Meteorology, Melbourne.

NPWS (2002). ‘Thick-billed Grasswren (eastern subspecies) Amytornis textiles modestus (North, 1902) Recovery Plan.’ (NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service: Sydney.)

Olsen P. Weston M. Cunningham R. Silcocks A. 2003 The State of Australia’s Birds 2003. Wingspan 13 4 Supplement

Parmesan C. Yohe G. 2003 A globally coherent fingerprint of climate change impacts across natural systems. Nature 421 37 42
DOI

Pearson R. G. Dawson T. P. 2003 Predicting the impacts of climate change on the distribution of species: are bioclimatic envelope models useful? Global Ecology and Biogeography 12 361 371 DOI

Peñuelas J. Filella I. Comas P. 2002 Changed plant and animal life cycles from 1952 to 2000 in the Mediterranean region. Global Change Biology 8 531 544 DOI

Peters R. L. Darling J. D. S. 1985 The greenhouse effect and nature reserves. Bioscience 35 707 717

Peterson A. T. 2003 Projected climate change effects on Rocky Mountain and Great Plains birds: generalities of biodiversity consequences. Global Change Biology 9 647 655
DOI

Pittock B. (2003). ‘Climate Change: An Australian Guide to the Science and Potential Impacts.’ (Australian Greenhouse Office: Canberra.)

Plummer N. Salinger M. J. Nicholls N. Suppiah R. Hennessy K. J. Leighton R. M. Trewin B. C. Page C. M. Lough J. M. 1999 Changes in climatic extremes over the Australian region and New Zealand during the twentieth century. Climatic Change 42 183 202 DOI

Pounds J. A. Fogden M. P. L. Campbell J. H. 1999 Biological response to climate change on a tropical mountain. Nature 398 611 615 DOI

Power S. Tseitkin F. Torok S. Lavery B. Dahni R. McAvaney B. 1998 Australian temperature, Australian rainfall and the Southern Oscillation, 1910–1992: coherent variability and recent changes. Australian Meteorological Magazine 47 85 101

Ptaszyk J. Kosicki J. Sparks T. H. Tryjanowski P. 2003 Changes in the timing and pattern of arrival of the White Stork (Ciconia ciconia) in western Poland. Journal fur Ornithologie 144 323 329
DOI

Reid A. J. 2003 a Adaptations of flora and fauna to climate. Timelines Australia Project News 7 6 4 5

Reid J. (2003b). What’s the link, if any, between recent changes in distribution of Australian birds and greenhouse climate change? In ‘Climate Change Impacts on Biodiversity in Australia. Outcomes of a Workshop Sponsored by the Biological Diversity Advisory Committee, 1–2 October 2002’. (Eds M. Howden, L. Hughes, M. Dunlop, I. Zethoven, D. Hilbert and C. Chilcott.) pp. 37–39. (Commonwealth of Australia: Canberra.)

Roberts G. (2003). Climate spins whole new web of life. In ‘Weekend Australian’. 25 October 2003, p. 2.

Root T. L. Price J. T. Hall K. R. Schneider S. H. Rosenzweig C. Pounds J. A. 2003 Fingerprints of global warming on wild animals and plants. Nature 421 57 60
DOI

Rowley I. Russell E. 2002 A population study of the Blue-breasted Fairy-wren, Malurus pulcherrimus, at Dryandra, Western Australia. Emu 102 127 135

Rutherford M. C. Powrie L. W. Schulze R. E. 1999 Climate change in conservation areas of South Africa and its potential impact on floristic composition: a first assessment. Diversity and Distributions 16 253 262


Sæther B.-E. 2000 Weather ruins winter vacations. Science 288 1975 1976
DOI

Sanz J. J. 2002 Climate change and breeding parameters of great and blue tits throughout the western Palearctic. Global Change Biology 8 409 422 DOI

Sanz J. J. 2003 Climate change and fitness components of a migratory bird breeding in the Mediterranean region. Global Change Biology 9 461 472 DOI

Scharlemann J. P. W. 2001 Museum egg collections as stores of long-term phenological data. International Journal of Biometeorology 45 208 211 DOI

Sergio F. 2003 a Relationship between laying dates of black kites Milvus migrans and spring temperatures in Italy: rapid response to climate change? Journal of Avian Biology 34 144 149 DOI

Sergio F. 2003 b From individual behaviour to population pattern: weather-dependent foraging and breeding performance in black kites. Animal Behaviour 66 1109 1117 DOI

Serventy D. L. 1977 The use of data on the distribution of birds to monitor climate changes. Emu 77 162 168

Smart J. Gill J. A. 2003 Climate change and the potential impact on breeding waders in the UK. Wader Study Group Bulletin 100 80 85


Smith P., and Smith J. (1994). Historical change in the bird fauna of western New South Wales: ecological patterns and conservation implications. In ‘Future of the Fauna of Western New South Wales’. (Eds L. Lunney, S. Hand, P. Reed and D. Butcher.) pp. 123–148. (Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales: Sydney.)

Smith R. C. Ainley D. Baker K. Domack E. Emslie S. et al. 1999 Marine ecosystem sensitivity to climate change. Bioscience 49 5 393 404


Smithers B. V. Peck D. R. Krockenberger A. K. Congdon B. C. 2003 Elevated sea-surface temperature, reduced provisioning and reproductive failure of wedge-tailed shearwaters (Puffinus pacificus) in the southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research 54 973 977
DOI

Sparks T. H. Menzel A. 2002 Observed changes in seasons: an overview. International Journal of Climatology 22 1715 1725 DOI

Sparks T. H. Smithers R. J. 2002 Is spring getting earlier? Weather 57 157 166

Starks J. 2000 Windfarms: a conservation issue. Wingspan 7 3 7


Stenseth N. C. Mysterud A. Ottersen G. Hurrell J. W. Chan K.-S. Lima M. 2002 Ecological effects of climate fluctuations. Science 297 1292 1296
DOI

Stone R. Nicholls N. Hammer G. 1996 Frost in northeast Australia – trends and influences of phases of the southern oscillation. Journal of Climate 9 1896 1909 DOI

Suppiah R., Collins D., and Della-Marta P. (2001). ‘Observed Changes in Australian Climate.’ (CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research: Aspendale, Vic.) Available at http://www.dar.csiro.au/publications/Suppiah_2001a.pdf

Taylor R. H. Wilson P. R. 1990 Recent increase and southern expansion of Adelie Penguin populations in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, related to climatic warming. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 14 25 29

Thomas C. D. Cameron A. Green R. E. Bakkenes M. Beaumont L. J. et al. 2004 Extinction risk from climate change. Nature 427 145 148
DOI

Thomas C. D. Lennon J. J. 1999 Birds extend their ranges northwards. Nature 399 213 DOI

Trenberth K. E. Hoar T. J. 1997 El Niño and climate change. Geophysical Research Letters 24 3057 3060 DOI

Valiela I. Bowen J. L. 2003 Shifts in winter distribution in birds: effects of global warming and local habitat change. Ambio 32 476 480

Van Franeker J. A. Creuwels J. C. S. van der Veer W. Cleland S. Robertson G. 2001 Unexpected effects of climate change on the predation of Antarctic petrels. Antarctic Science 13 4 430 439
DOI

Veit R. R., and Hyrenbach K. D. (2001). Changes in seabird communities of the California Current, 1987–1999. In ‘Impacts of Climate Change on Wildlife’. (Eds R. E. Green, M. Harley, M. Spalding and C. Zockler.) pp. 34–37. (The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (on behalf of EN, WWF-UK, UNEP WCMC and RSPB): Cambridge, UK).

Veit R. R. Pyle P. McGowan J. A. 1996 Ocean warming and long-term change in pelagic bird abundance within the California current system. Marine Ecology Progress Series 139 11 18

Veit R. R. McGowan J. A. Ainley D. G. Wahls T. R. Pyle P. 1997 Apex marine predator declines ninety percent in association with changing oceanic climate. Global Change Biology 3 23 28
DOI

Visser M. E. van Noordwijk A. J. Tinbergen J. M. Lessells C. M. 1998 Warmer springs lead to mistimed reproduction in great tits (Parus major). Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B. Biological Sciences 265 1867 1870 DOI

Walsh K. Nguyen K.-C. McGregor J. L. 2004 Fine-resolution regional climate model simulations of the impact of climate change on tropical cyclones near Australia. Climate Dynamics 22 47 56 DOI

Walther G.-R. Post E. Convey P. Menzel A. Parmesan C. Beebee T. J. C. Fromentin J.-R. Hoegh-Guldberg O. Bairlein O. 2002 Ecological responses to recent climate change. Nature 416 389 395 DOI

Weimerskirch H. Inchausti P. Guinet C. Barbraud C. 2003 Trends in bird and seal populations as indicators of a system shift in the Southern Ocean. Antarctic Science 15 2 249 256 DOI

Weston M. 2002 Climate change. Wingspan 12 4 6

Weston M. (2003a). Birds and climate change. In ‘Climate Change Impacts on Biodiversity in Australia. Outcomes of a Workshop Sponsored by the Biological Diversity Advisory Committee, 1–2 October 2002’. (Eds M. Howden, L. Hughes, M. Dunlop, I. Zethoven, D. Hilbert and C. Chilcott.) (Commonwealth of Australia: Canberra.)

Weston M. 2003 b Windfarms. Wingspan 13 1 6 7


Whetton P. H. (1998). Climate change impacts on the spatial extent of snow-cover in the Australian Alps. In ‘Snow: A Natural History; An Uncertain Future’. (Ed. K. Green.) pp. 195–206 (Australian Alps Liaison Committee: Canberra.)

Whetton P. H., Suppiah R., McInnes K. L., Hennessy K. J., and Jones R. N. (2002). ‘Climate Change in Victoria: High Resolution Region Assessment of Climate Change Impacts.’ (CSIRO and Department of Natural Resources and Environment.)

Whittaker J. B. 1999 Impacts and responses at population level of herbivorous insects to elevated CO2. European Journal of Entomology 96 149 156


Williams A. A. J. Karoly D. J. Tapper N. 2001 The sensitivity of Australian fire danger to climate change. Climatic Change 49 171 191
DOI

Williams S. E. Bolitho E. E. Fox S. 2003 Climate change in Australian tropical rainforests: an impending environmental catastrophe. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B. Biological Sciences 270 1887 1892 DOI

Willott J., and Thomas C. (2001). Implications of climate change for species conservation. Briefing Paper, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) Workshop, Gland, Switzerland, 19–21 February 2001.

Wilson P. R. Ainley D. G. Nur N. Jacobs S. S. Barton K. J. Ballard G. Comiso J. C. 2001 Adélie penguin population change in the pacific sector of Antarctica: relation to sea-ice extent and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Marine Ecology Progress Series 213 301 309

Winkler D. W. Dunn P. O. McCulloch C. E. 2002 Predicting the effects of climate change on avian life-history traits. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 99 21 13595 13599
DOI

Woehler E. J., Cooper J., Croxall J. P., Fraser W. R., Kooyman G. L., et al. (2001). A statistical assessment of the status and trends of Antarctic and SubAntarctic seabirds. Report on SCAR BBS Workshop on Southern Ocean Seabird Populations, SCAR.

Woinarski J. C. Z. Catterall C. P. 2004 Historical changes in bird fauna at Coomooboolaroo, northeastern Australia, from the early years of pastoral settlement (1873) to 1999. Biological Conservation 116 379 401 DOI

Woodford J. (2003). Refugees of drought about to be chased out of town. In ‘Sydney Morning Herald’, 1 November 2003, p. 10.

Yom-Tov Y. 2001 Global warming and body mass decline in Israeli passerine birds. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B. Biological Sciences 268 947 952 DOI


Full Text PDF (191 KB) Export Citation