All manuscripts should be submitted via ScholarOne Manuscripts.
- Licence to publish
- Paper categories
- Tables and figures
- Guidelines for data analysis and presentation
- Units, nomenclature and formulae
- Animal experimentation
- Voucher specimens
- How to submit manuscripts
- Proofs and reprints
Papers will be considered for publication if they make an original and significant contribution to research on Australasian mammals and fit the Journal´s scope. Descriptive papers are published if they are placed in an appropriate conceptual setting. The Editor reserves the right to reject poorly prepared or inappropriate manuscripts without sending them for review. A poorly written manuscript may be returned for revision before sending it out for review if the English expression is ambiguous or overlong, analysis of the data is clearly inappropriate, or the style severely deviates from that advocated in this set of instructions.
Australian Mammalogy assumes that all authors of a multi-authored paper agree to its submission, and that the results have not been published nor are being considered for publication elsewhere. The Journal endeavours to ensure that the work published is that of the named authors except where acknowledged and, through its reviewing procedures, that all published results and conclusions are consistent with the primary data. However, it can take no responsibility for fraud or inaccuracy on the part of the contributors.
Full Papers are complete reports of original research not previously published. Review articles should critically summarise relevant work in a specific field and indicate fruitful lines of further research. Comments on published papers should be submitted within one year of publication of the paper on which comment is being made and will be refereed. Authors of the original paper will be given the right of reply. Short Communications should have a short abstract and may present results from a brief but well-designed study, important observations not needing lengthy treatment or report on new techniques. The Results and Discussion sections may be merged in a Short Communication.
The work should be presented in clear and concise English. All text should be in Times New Roman, 12 point font, with 1.5-line spacing throughout, and with a margin of at least 3 cm on the left-hand side. At least every fifth line of each page must be numbered in the left-hand margin. All pages of the manuscript must be numbered consecutively, including those carrying references, tables and figure captions, all of which are to be placed after the text. Section headings should be clearly visible with each level treated consistently throughout the paper.
Supplementary material, which is not essential in the printed paper (e.g. large raw data files) but which may be useful to other workers, can be lodged with the Editor if submitted with the manuscript for inspection by the referees. Such material will be published online as Supplementary Material in association with the published paper and made available free to all users.
Papers should usually be in the form Title, Abstract, Additional keywords, Introduction, Materials and methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgements and References. Consider using subheadings to organize material.
The title should be concise and appropriately informative and should contain all keywords necessary to facilitate retrieval by online search engines. The abstract (< 200 words for a research article, <50 words for a Short Communication) should open with a clear statement of the broad context of the work, briefly summarise the aims and research approach, give the principal findings, and conclude by specifying the main implications of the results. Additional keywords not already in the title or abstract should be listed beneath the abstract. A running head (<50 letter spaces) should be supplied for use at the top of the printed page.
The Introduction should set the scene for the work in the opening sentences. The following text should only cover essential background literature and clearly indicate the reason for the work. This section should close with a paragraph specifying aims and, where appropriate, testable hypotheses. In the Materials and methods, sufficient detail should be given to enable the work to be repeated. If a commercial product such as an analytical instrument is mentioned, supply its full model name and location of the manufacturer. Give complete citations and version numbers for computer software. Data analysis must be explained clearly, especially when complex models or novel statistical procedures are used (see ´Guidelines for data analysis and presentation´). Results should be stated concisely and without interpretation (although in complex studies, modest interpretation of some data may provide context helpful for understanding subsequent sections). Data presented should address the aims and testable hypotheses raised in the Introduction. Use tables and figures to illustrate the key points but do not repeat their contents in detail. The Discussion should explain the scientific significance of the results in context with the literature, clearly distinguishing factual results from speculation and interpretation. Avoid excessive use of references - more than three to support a claim is usually unnecessary. Limitations of methods should also be addressed where appropriate. Conclude the Discussion with a section on the implications of the findings. Footnotes are discouraged and should be used only when essential. Acknowledgments, including funding information, should appear in a brief statement at the end of the body of the text.
Please strive to make the References section accurate and consistent with the journal´s style. We use the Harvard system. Cite references chronologically in the text by the author and date. Multiple references from the same year should be cited alphabetically. In the text, the names of two coauthors are linked by ´and´; for three or more, the first author´s name is followed by ´et al.´. Avoid excessive citation of references. All references cited in the text must be listed at the end of the paper, with the names of authors arranged alphabetically. No editorial responsibility can be taken for the accuracy of the references, so authors are requested to check these with special care.
Full titles must be included for all references and journal titles must not be abbreviated. Papers that have not been accepted for publication must not be included in the list of references. If necessary, they may be cited either as ´unpublished data´ or as ´personal communication´ but the use of such citations is discouraged. Authors must ensure that they have permission to cite material as a personal communication and can provide unpublished data if required by a reviewer.
See the examples below for the style used in citing references and examples below. Pay special attention to punctuation, spelling of author and species names, and titles of articles, books and journals.
- Journal article
Morton, S. R., and Baynes, A. (1985). Small mammal assemblages in arid Australia: a reappraisal. Australian Mammalogy 8, 159-169.
- Book chapter
Kirsch, J. A. W., and Calaby, J. H. (1977). The species of living marsupials: an annotated list. In ´The Biology of Marsupials´. (Eds B. Stonehouse and D. Gilmore.) Pp. 9-26. (Macmillan: London.)
Breed, W., and Ford, F. (2007). ´Native Rats and Mice.´ (CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.)
Harding, H. R. (1977). Reproduction in male marsupials. A critique on sperm development and structure. PhD Thesis, University of New South Wales, Sydney.
Harrison, A. J. (1961). Annual reproductive cycles in the Tasmanian scallop Notovola meridionalis. BSc (Hons) Thesis, University of Tasmania, Hobart.
- Report or Bulletin
Chippendale, G. M., and Wolf, L. (1981). The natural distribution of Eucalyptus in Australia. Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service, Special Publication No. 6, Canberra, Australia.
- Conference Proceedings
Driessen, M. M. (1999). Effects of fire on the broad-toothed mouse, Mastacomys fuscus, and other small mammals in buttongrass moorlands of western Tasmania - preliminary findings. In ´Bushfire99. Proceedings of the Australian Bushfire Conference, Albury, Australia, 7-9 July 1999´. Available at http://www.csu.edu.au/special/bushfire99/papers/ [accessed 1 May 2007].
- Web-based material
Goudet, J. (2001). ´FSTAT, a Program to Estimate and Test Gene Diversities and Fixation Indices (Version 2.9.3).´ Available at http://www2.unil.ch/popgen/softwares/fstat.htm [accessed 15 November 2007].
Tables and figures
Tables must be numbered with Arabic numerals and have a self-explanatory title. A headnote containing material relevant to the whole table should start on a new line, as it will be set in a different font. Tables should be arranged with regard to the dimensions of the printed page (17.5 by 23 cm) and the number of columns kept to a minimum. Excessive subdivision of column headings is undesirable; use abbreviations that can then be expanded upon in the headnote. The first letter only of headings to rows and columns should be capitalised. The symbol for the unit of measurement should be placed in brackets beneath the column heading. Footnotes should be kept to a minimum and be reserved for specific items in columns. Horizontal rules should be inserted only above and below column headings and at the foot of the table. Vertical rules must not be used.
All figures must be referred to in the text (e.g. Fig. 1, Fig. 2a-d, Figs 1 and 2) and should be numbered consecutively in the order that they are cited within the paper. Electronic submission of figures is required. Photographs and line drawings should be of the highest quality for reproduction (but low res for refereeing purposes is permitted) and, if not created digitally, should be scanned at high-resolution: photographs at 300 dpi at final size, saved as .jpg files; hand-drawn line drawings at least 600 dpi at final size, saved as .tif files. Black-and-white photographs should be saved in greyscale format as .tif or Photoshop files. Labels must be applied electronically to the scanned images in Photoshop, rather than scanning manually labeled figures. Colour figures and photographs must be submitted in CMYK format for printing purposes, not in RGB. Photographs and images must be of the highest quality, and trimmed squarely to exclude irrelevant features. When in a group, adjacent photographs must be separated by uniform spaces that will be 2 mm wide after reduction. A scale bar is desirable on micrographs and photographs lacking reference points. Important features to which attention has been drawn in the text should be indicated.
Line illustrations prepared using either a draw or chart/graph program should be saved in the following formats: Adobe Illustrator (.ai) (preferred format); encapsulated postscript (.eps); or Excel (.xls). Illustrations created using Powerpoint should be saved in PowerPoint or as Windows metafiles (.wmf); CorelDraw files should be saved as .eps or .ai files; charts created on a Macintosh computer should be saved as .eps, .ps or PICT files; SigmaPlot files should be saved in eps format (postscript printer driver required). In all cases, they should be editable vector graphic files. Minimise use of 3D graphs. Remove colours from all charts and graphs that are to be reproduced in black, grey and white.
The lettering of figures must be in sans-serif type (Helvetica is ideal) with only the first letter of the first word of any proper names capitalised, and should not be in bold type. For letter size, the height of a lower-case ´x´ after reduction should be approximately 1.2 mm. Do not use the symbols ´+´ or ´×´ for data points. Grid marks should point inwards and legends to axes should state the quantity being measured and be followed by the appropriate units in parentheses. Thickness of lines on line diagrams at final size must be no less than 0.5 pt. Grouped figures should not exceed 17.5 cm by 23 cm. Colour graphics will be accepted, but the cost of production is borne by the author.
Please contact the Editor for further information.
Guidelines for data analysis and presentation
Effective data analysis seeks to summarise and clarify results, enhancing the objectivity with which they are presented and interpreted. If an analysis fails to achieve this, it is probably unsuitable. No matter what analysis is used, the reader must be provided with enough information to independently assess whether the method is appropriate. Therefore, assumptions and models underlying unusual statistical analyses must be clearly stated, usually with supporting references. Even when conventional parametric statistics are used, the reader must be assured that the data satisfied assumptions of normality as well as other specific requirements (e.g. homogeneity of variances). Bayesian and other non-frequentist approaches are welcomed but their application and assumptions must be explained and justified in sufficient detail.
Describing data. Full details of sampling, survey and experimental designs, protocols for collecting data (with references where appropriate), precision of measurements, sampling or experimental units, and sample sizes must be given. Typically, reported values should include the sample size and some measure of precision (e.g. standard errors or specified confidence intervals) of estimates. Presenting data as graphs is invaluable, helping demonstrate trends and illustrate where data might violate statistical assumptions. Tables are useful when specific values are to be presented or the data do not lend themselves readily to graphical presentation. See recent issues of the Journal for examples of effective figures and tables.
Describing statistical analyses. The specific statistical procedure must be stated. If it is an unusual one, it should be explained in sufficient detail, including references where appropriate. All statistics packages used should be cited fully with their version number. Sometimes, it will be necessary to indicate which procedure, method or module within a package was used. If conclusions are based on an analysis of variance or regression, there must be sufficient information to enable the construction of the full analysis of variance table (at least, degrees of freedom, the structure of F-ratios, and P values). Indicate which effects were considered fixed or random and explain why. If data are to be pooled or omitted, this should be fully justified.
Actual P values are far more informative than ´P < 0.05´ or symbols such as ´*´. However, statistical significance should not be confused with effect size and biological importance. Power analyses (i.e. determination of Type II error rates) may be useful, especially if used in conjunction with descriptive procedures like confidence intervals.
Units, nomenclature and formulae
Use S.I. units for all measurements unless there are valid reasons for not doing so - these will need full explanation. Avoid ambiguous forms of expression such as mL/m2/day.
Mathematical formulae. Mathematical formulae should be presented with symbols in correct alignment and adequately spaced. Equations should not be embedded images; use equation editors that result in an editable format. Each formula should be displayed on a single line if possible. During the final proof stage, the author(s) must check formulae very carefully.
Enzyme nomenclature. The names of enzymes should conform to the Recommendations of the Nomenclature Committee of the IUB on the Nomenclature and Classification of Enzymes as published in ´Enzyme Nomenclature 1984´ (Academic Press, Inc., New York, 1984). If there is good reason to use a name other than the recommended one, at the first mention of the alternative name in the text it should be identified by the recommended name and EC number. The Editor should be advised of the reasons for using the alternative name.
Chemical nomenclature. The names of compounds such as amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids, steroids, and vitamins should follow the recommendations of the IUPAC-IUB Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature. Other biologically active compounds, such as metabolic inhibitors, plant growth regulators, and buffers should be referred to once by their correct chemical name (in accordance with IUPAC rules of Chemical Nomenclature) and then by their most widely accepted common name. Where there is no common name, trade names or letter abbreviations of the chemical may be used.
DNA data. DNA sequences published in the Journal should be deposited in one of the following nucleotide sequence databases: EMBL, GenBank or DDBJ. An accession number for each sequence or sequence set must be included in the manuscript before publication. In addition, electronic copies of the data sets in nexus format should be supplied with the manuscript to aid the review process.
Researchers must have proper regard for conservation and animal welfare issues. Possible adverse consequences of the work for populations or individual organisms must be weighed up against the possible gains in knowledge and practical applications. Papers reporting work with animals should include a reference to the code of practice adopted for the reported experimentation. The Editor will take account of animal welfare issues and reserves the right not to publish.
Authors are encouraged to deposit labelled voucher specimens documenting their research in an established permanent collection and to cite this collection in publication.
How to submit manuscripts
To submit your paper, please use our online journal management system ScholarOne Manuscripts, which can be reached directly through this link or from the link on the journal´s homepage. If a first-time user, register via the ´Register here´ link, or use your existing username and password to log in. Then click on the ´Author Centre´ link and proceed.
A covering letter must accompany the submission and should include the name, address, fax and telephone numbers, and email address of the corresponding author. The letter should also contain a statement justifying why the work should be considered for publication in the Journal, and stating that the manuscript has not been published or simultaneously submitted for publication elsewhere. Suggestions of possible referees are welcomed.
If you encounter any difficulties, or you have any queries, please contact:
PO Box 1139 (150 Oxford Street)
Collingwood, Vic. 3066
Telephone +61 3 9662 7592
Fax +61 3 9662 7611
Authors are strongly advised to follow the above instructions. Following them closely will shorten the time between submission and publication and reduces the workload for reviewers. Poorly prepared and unnecessarily lengthy manuscripts have less chance of being accepted or will require laborious revision.
Resubmission of manuscripts revised in response to reviewers´ comments should occur within 3 months of the primary editorial decision, and be accompanied by a detailed point-by-point explanation of how each comment has been addressed. Unless prior arrangements are made with the Editor, revised manuscripts received after 3 months will usually be treated as new submissions.
Proofs and reprints
Page proofs are sent to the corresponding author for checking before publication. Proofs should be checked and returned by email to the Production Editor within 48 h of receipt. At this stage, only essential alterations and correction of typesetting errors may be undertaken. Excessive author alterations will be charged to the author.
Reprint order forms and prices are enclosed with the proofs and should be completed and returned to the Production Editor with the proofs. Corresponding authors will be sent a free PDF of their paper on publication. There are no page charges.