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  A Journal of BirdLife Australia
 
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Emu - Austral Ornithology is the premier journal for ornithological research and reviews related to the Southern Hemisphere and adjacent tropics. More

Editor: Kate Buchanan

 
 
 

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Published online 29 January 2015
Study of seed dispersal by Emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) in the Jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) forests of south-western Australia through satellite telemetry 
Andrew P. Nield, Neal J. Enright and Philip G. Ladd

The use of advanced technology, such as the global positioning system (GPS), allows scientists to better-understand the movement and behaviours of organisms in different environments. We used GPS devices to track the movement of Emus in the Jarrah forests of south-western Australia. As a large bird that consumes the seeds of many forest species, the Emu plays an important role in seed dispersal and plant regeneration. We found that the GPS-tagged Emus were capable of travelling many kilometres during relatively short periods (weeks), avoiding steep slopes and preferring to remain within the forested areas. These extensive distances covered indicate that the Emu moves many seeds over long distances throughout the Jarrah forests. From a methodological perspective, half of our GPS devices detached before 30 days of tracking data could be recorded. Further studies of Emu movement within forested areas needs to consider device refinement to enable the collection of additional data.

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Published online 29 January 2015
Variation in innate immune function during incubation, chick-rearing and moult in Little Penguins (Eudyptula minor) 
Jessica K. Evans, Peter Dann and Theresa Frankel

A functional and robust immune system is essential for maintaining the ability to combat diseases. Changed environmental conditions or food availability, as well as those originating in birds through their natural annual cycles and habits, can seriously reduce immune function. We assessed the functionality of the immune system of Little Penguins during their main annual cycle events of moulting, egg-incubation and chick-rearing using a whole-blood bacterial killing assay. The test showed that during late chick-rearing when food requirements are at their highest, the bacteria, E.coli, were not destroyed by blood immune factors as effectively as during egg-incubation when Little Penguins needed less food yet were exposed to greater levels of environmental contamination. Results such as these can show when susceptibility to diseases is likely to pose the greatest risk to penguins.

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Published online 05 January 2015
Biparental nest-attendance in Chilean Swallows (Tachycineta meyeni) breeding in Ushuaia, Argentina 
Emilie A. Ospina, Caren B. Cooper, Marcela Liljesthröm, Daniel R. Ardia and David W. Winkler

Avian embryos require consistent high temperatures to develop properly. Providing these high temperatures through incubation is an energetically demanding activity. Thus adult birds balance their energy needs with the thermal needs of the eggs. In a population of Chilean swallows nesting in a cold region, the southern tip of Tierra del Fuego, Ushuaia, Argentina, we video documented the incubation behaviour of male and female parents. We installed small cameras and temperature probes into the nests of three pairs of swallows and discovered that in each, the male bird assisted to some degree in the incubation of the eggs within the nest. Our interpretation of the video and temperature data is that one bird (the female) actively provides heat to the eggs, raising their temperature well above ambient, while a second bird (the male) attends the eggs to decrease the rate at which they cool during the minutes that the female is away from the nest to forage. This study is the first to document male incubation behaviour in the Chilean swallow.

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Published online 05 January 2015
Relationship between pest birds and landscape elements in the Pampas of central Argentina 

In agroecosystems, some bird species may become abundant and cause problems as agricultural pests. But why is that so? What are the elements in the landscape that make such species abundant? It has been postulated that a mosaic landscape of crops and wooded patches are associated with an increase in the numbers of pest birds in agricultural landscapes. We chose to investigate this relationship in the Pampas of Argentina, an extensive and formerly treeless grassland region that has become one of the largest agricultural regions of the world. Recently, woodlands of exotic tree species have self-established along riparian zones and roadsides, and patches of trees have also been planted near rural buildings and cattlelots. We estimated the abundance of four species of birds that are considered pest species in this region: Eared Dove, Monk Parakeet, Picazuro Pigeon and Spot-winged Pigeon. We found that these pests species in the study area respond more to the presence of woodlots rather than to the presence of croplands in the landscape. These results have practical implications, suggesting that management of woodlots of exotic trees may providean effective method of control of pest-bird species in the Pampas of Argentina.

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Published online 05 January 2015
Nest-spacing, not human presence, influences the breeding of Chimango Caracaras (Milvago chimango) in a peri-urban reserve 
Claudina Solaro and José Hernán Sarasola

Urban development has heavily transformed many natural environments around the world and some bird species seem to be tolerant to these changes. The chimango caracara (Milvago chimango) is one of the most common and abundant birds of prey in southern South America usually found in towns and cities. We studied the breeding biology of chimango caracaras in a peri-urban zone in central Argentina to evaluate the spatial arrangement of nests and the reproductive response of this species to human disturbances. We found that chimango caracara nested in a dense colony and that a relatively low reproductive output was exhibited by this species. However, such low reproductive success was not explained by human presence in our study area. Rather, the proximity of co-specific nests (i.e. the relatively small distance between neighbouring nests) had greater negative effects on individual breeding performance than human presence. Our results show that chimango caracaras are able to breed in highly human-modified environments. However, several aspects of chimango caracaras’ behaviour and ecology in urban landscapes may be determined by anthropogenic pressures that ultimately drive their fitness in these modified habitats.

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Published online 05 January 2015
Molecular analysis suggests the occurrence of Shy Albatross in the south-western Atlantic Ocean and its by-catch in longline fishing 
Sebastián Jiménez, Alejandro Marquez, Martin Abreu, Rodrigo Forselledo, Alfredo Pereira and Andrés Domingo

Albatrosses are killed or injured through by-catch in longline fisheries and by collisions with warp cables in trawl fisheries. Here we document the species of a sample of 29 shy-type albatrosses killed as fisheries by-catch to confirm the observation that White-capped Albatrosses (Thalassarche steadi) are the dominant shy-type albatross in the south-western Atlantic Ocean and exposed to the pelagic longline fishery there. Using genetic analyses, we found that 28 specimens were White-capped Albatrosses. There is no doubt that the White-capped Albatross, which is a regular visitor to Uruguayan waters, is the predominant shy-type albatross in the south-western Atlantic. However, these analyses also suggested that the remaining bird was a Shy Albatross (T. cauta). This result indicates the possibility that a small proportion of shy-type albatrosses in this region could be Shy Albatross but further analysis is required to confirm this.

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Volume 114 Number 4 2014

 
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Distribution of tree-hollows and hollow preferences by parrots in an urban landscape 
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Adrian Davis , Richard. E. Major and Charlotte. E. Taylor
pp. 295-303
 
  
 

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New Guinean passerines have globally small clutch-sizes 
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Benjamin G. Freeman and Nicholas A. Mason
pp. 304-308
 
    | Supplementary Material (313 KB)
 

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High frequency but low impact of brood parasitism by the specialist Screaming Cowbird on its primary host, the Baywing 
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María C. De Mársico and Juan C. Reboreda
pp. 309-316
 
    | Supplementary Material (7.5 MB)
 

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Selection of trees for sap-foraging by a native New Zealand parrot, the Kaka (Nestor meridionalis), in an urban landscape 
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Kerry E. Charles and Wayne L. Linklater
pp. 317-325
 
    | Supplementary Material (579 KB)
 

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Vocal individuality of Little Spotted Kiwi (Apteryx owenii) 
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Andrew Digby , Ben D. Bell and Paul D. Teal
pp. 326-336
 
  
 

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Drivers of clutch-size in Fork-tailed Flycatchers (Tyrannus savana) at temperate and tropical latitudes in South America 
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Alex E. Jahn , Diego T. Tuero , Ana Maria Mamani , Vanesa Bejarano , Diego Anibal Masson and Eluney Aguilar
pp. 337-342
 
  
 

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Frugivory and seed dispersal role of the Yellow-striped Brush-Finch (Atlapetes citrinellus), an endemic emberizid of Argentina 
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Román A. Ruggera , M. Daniela Gomez and Pedro G. Blendinger
pp. 343-351
 
    | Supplementary Material (813 KB)
 

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Trans-equatorial migration of Short-tailed Shearwaters revealed by geolocators 
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Mark J. Carey , Richard A. Phillips , Janet R. D. Silk and Scott A. Shaffer
pp. 352-359
 
  
 

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Pelagic distribution of Gould’s Petrel (Pterodroma leucoptera): linking shipboard and onshore observations with remote-tracking data 
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David Priddel , Nicholas Carlile , Dean Portelli , Yuna Kim , Lisa O’Neill , Vincent Bretagnolle , Lisa T. Ballance , Richard A. Phillips , Robert L. Pitman and Matt J. Rayner
pp. 360-370
 
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Primary wing-moult in relation to body-mass, wing-length and latitude in four insectivorous passerines from southern Africa 
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Bo T. Bonnevie and Adrian J. F. K. Craig
pp. 371-378
 
  
 

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The sources of diurnal variation in caching behaviour of South Island Robins (Petroica australis australis) 
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Craig A. Barnett and Naoko Emura
pp. 379-384
 
  
 

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Book reviews 
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pp. 385-388
   | Book Review (100 KB)
 

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Corrigendum to: The global trade in native Australian parrots through Singapore between 2005 and 2011: a summary of trends and dynamics 
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Bing Wen Low
pp. 389-390
 
 |    Corrigendum PDF (128 KB) - $25.00  
 

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Annual Author Index 
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pp. 391-401
 
 

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These articles have been peer reviewed and accepted for publication. They are still in production and have not been edited, so may differ from the final published form.

    MU14089  Accepted 24 January 2015
    Subspecies assessment of Antarctic Terns, Sterna vittata, overwintering on the South African coast: evidence from morphology, genetics and stable isotopes
    Maëlle Connan, Peter Teske, Anthony Tree, Philip Whittington, Christopher McQuaid
    Abstract


    MU14059  Accepted 24 January 2015
    The size and composition of social groups in the wild zebra finch
    Luke McCowan, Mylene Mariette, Simon Griffith
    Abstract


    MU14084  Accepted 11 January 2015
    A coraciiform-like bird quadrate from the Early Eocene Tingamarra local fauna of Queensland, Australia
    Andrzej Elzanowski, Walter Boles
    Abstract


    MU14068  Accepted 18 December 2014
    First report of a feather loss condition of Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) on Ross Island, Antarctica, and a preliminary investigation into its cause
    Wray Grimaldi, Richard Hall, Daniel White, Jing Wang, Melanie Massaro, Daniel Tompkins
    Abstract


    MU14051  Accepted 12 December 2014
    One method does not suit all: variable settlement responses of three procellariid species to vocalization playbacks
    Rachel Buxton, Christopher Jones, Henrik Moller, Phil Lyver
    Abstract


    MU14076  Accepted 15 December 2014
    Distinctiveness of Pacific Robin subspecies in Vanuatu revealed from disparate patterns of sexual dichromatism, plumage colour, morphometrics and ancient DNA
    Anna Kearns, Lauren White, Jeremy Austin, Kevin Omland
    Abstract


    MU14022  Accepted 15 December 2014
    The species and functional diversity of birds in almond orchards, apple orchards, vineyards and eucalypt woodlots.
    Gary Luck, Kelly Hunt, Andrew Carter
    Abstract


    MU14016  Accepted 15 December 2014
    Breeding success, mate and nest fidelity in the Red-tailed Tropicbird (Phaethon rubricauda) on Christmas Island (Indian Ocean)
    Julia Sommerfeld, Tony Stokes, Barry Baker
    Abstract


    MU14056  Accepted 14 November 2014
    Optimising translocation efforts of Mottled petrels (Pterodroma inexpectata): growth, provisioning, meal size and the efficacy of an artificial diet for chicks.
    Rachael Sagar, Brendon Dunphy, Ken Hunt, Antje Leseberg, Kahori Nakagawa, Matt Rayner
    Abstract


    MU14064  Accepted 23 October 2014
    What the direction of matings can tell us of hybridisation mechanisms in ducks
    Patrick Guay, Lucinda Monie, Randall Robinson, Wouter van Dongen
    Abstract


    MU14030  Accepted 23 October 2014
    Response of the endemic Long-tailed Meadowlark (Sturnella loyca obscura) to grazing exclusion in herbivore-dependent upland grasslands
    Laura Bellis, Nadia Muriel
    Abstract


    MU14057  Accepted 09 October 2014
    Effects of predation by introduced mammals and mortality due to severe floods on population viability of the endangered blue duck (Hymenolaimus malacorhynchos)
    Craig Simpkins, George Perry, Andrew Glaser, Tim Allerby, Todd Dennis
    Abstract


    MU14066  Accepted 08 October 2014
    Configuration and geometry of sap holes drilled by the White-fronted Woodpecker (Melanerpes cactorum): effects of tree structure, sap traits and plant health
    Maria Núñez Montellano, Pedro Blendinger
    Abstract


    MU14054  Accepted 18 September 2014
    The importance of winter flowering Aloe ferox for specialist and generalist nectar feeding birds.
    Timothy Kuiper, Diane Smith, Milena Wolmarans, Sara Jones, Ross Forbes, Patrick Hulley, Adrian Craig
    Abstract


    MU14037  Accepted 18 September 2014
    Foraging behaviour of a declining population of Brown Boobies (Sula leucogaster) breeding in the Swain Reefs, Great Barrier Reef
    Ashley Bunce
    Abstract


    MU14047  Accepted 10 September 2014
    Evolutionary history of birds across southern Australia: structure, history and taxonomic implications of mitochondrial DNA diversity in an ecologically diverse suite of species
    Gaynor Dolman, Leo Joseph
    Abstract


    MU13112  Accepted 10 September 2014
    Migration routes and non-breeding areas of Common Terns Sterna hirundo from the Azores
    Verónica Neves, Cristina Nava, Matt Cormons, Esteban Bremer, Gabriel Castresana, Pedro Lima, Severino Junior, Richard Phillips, Maria Magalhães, Ricardo Santos
    Abstract


    MU13028  Accepted 05 September 2014
    Bird responses to different intensity of cattle production at Spartina densiflora marshes from southeastern South America
    Daniel Cardoni, Juan Isacch, Oscar Iribarne
    Abstract


    MU13086  Accepted 09 August 2014
    The frequency of ingested plastic debris and impacts on body condition in Short-tailed Shearwater (Puffinus tenuirostris) pre-fledging chicks in Tasmania, Australia
    Hannah Cousin, Heidi Auman, Rachael Alderman, Patti Virtue
    Abstract


    MU14032  Accepted 31 July 2014
    Combining a geographic information system, dietary and habitat preferences, and stable isotope analysis to infer Magellanic Penguin diet in their austral distribution
    Javier Ciancio, Florencia Botto, Esteban Frere
    Abstract


    MU14018  Accepted 07 July 2014
    Variation in Grey-faced Petrel (Pterodroma macroptera gouldi) productivity with local burrow density and breeding island
    Christopher Jones, Phil Lyver, Catriona MacLeod, Amy Whitehead, Guy Forrester
    Abstract


21


The Most Read ranking is based on the number of downloads from the CSIRO PUBLISHING website of articles published in the previous 12 months. Usage statistics are updated daily.

Rank Paper Details
1. Published 9 May 2014
Relative brain size in Australian birds

Donald C. Franklin, Stephen T. Garnett, Gary W. Luck, Cristian Gutierrez-Ibanez and Andrew N. Iwaniuk

2. Published 10 February 2014
Do bird species richness and community structure vary with mistletoe flowering and fruiting in Western Australia?

Kathryn R. Napier, Suzanne H. Mather, Todd J. McWhorter and Patricia A. Fleming

3. Published 8 August 2014
Estimating wildlife population trends: the case of the Helmeted Honeyeater

Jim Hone

4. Published 13 November 2014
Distribution of tree-hollows and hollow preferences by parrots in an urban landscape

Adrian Davis, Richard. E. Major and Charlotte. E. Taylor

5. Published 10 February 2014
Relationships between time since fire and honeyeater abundance in montane heathland

Michael J. M. Franklin, E. Charles Morris and Richard E. Major

6. Published 8 August 2014
The Common Myna (Sturnus tristis) in urban, rural and semi-rural areas in Greater Sydney and its surrounds

Julie M. Old, Ricky-John Spencer and Jack Wolfenden

7. Published 8 August 2014
The significance of northern-central Bass Strait in south-eastern Australia as habitat for burrowing seabirds

Nicole Schumann, Peter Dann and John P. Y. Arnould

8. Published 9 May 2014
Nest-site use by an introduced parrot in New Zealand

Josie A. Galbraith, Mick N. Clout and Mark E. Hauber

9. Published 13 November 2014
Trans-equatorial migration of Short-tailed Shearwaters revealed by geolocators

Mark J. Carey, Richard A. Phillips, Janet R. D. Silk and Scott A. Shaffer

10. Published 9 May 2014
The breeding and foraging ecology and abundance of the Princess Parrot (Polytelis alexandrae) during a population irruption

Chris R. Pavey, Catherine E. M. Nano, Jeff R. Cole, Peter J. McDonald, Peter Nunn, Andrew Silcocks and Rohan H. Clarke

11. Published 10 February 2014
Shorebirds can adopt foraging strategies that take advantage of human fishing practices

Vitor O. Lunardi and Regina H. Macedo

12. Published 8 August 2014
The vocal repertoire of the cooperatively breeding Apostlebird (Struthidea cinerea)

Miyako H. Warrington, Paul G. McDonald, Aliza K. Sager and Simon C. Griffith

13. Published 8 August 2014
Genetic panmixia in New Zealand's Grey-faced Petrel: implications for conservation and restoration

Hayley A. Lawrence, Phil O'B. Lyver and Dianne M. Gleeson

14. Published 9 May 2014
The vocalisations and species status of the White-lined and Kimberley Honeyeaters

Eliot T. Miller and Sarah K. Wagner

15. Published 13 November 2014
New Guinean passerines have globally small clutch-sizes

Benjamin G. Freeman and Nicholas A. Mason

16. Published 10 February 2014
Waterbird use of different treatment stages in waste-stabilisation pond systems

Christopher G. Murray, Sabine Kasel, Erin Szantyr, Regan Barratt and Andrew J. Hamilton

17. Published 13 November 2014
Pelagic distribution of Gould’s Petrel (Pterodroma leucoptera): linking shipboard and onshore observations with remote-tracking data

David Priddel, Nicholas Carlile, Dean Portelli, Yuna Kim, Lisa O'Neill, Vincent Bretagnolle, Lisa T. Ballance, Richard A. Phillips, Robert L. Pitman and Matt J. Rayner

18. Published 8 August 2014
The global trade in native Australian parrots through Singapore between 2005 and 2011: a summary of trends and dynamics

Bing Wen Low

19. Published 8 August 2014
No evidence of a founder effect in Rainbow Lorikeet vocalisations following a population bottleneck

Myron C. Baker

20. Published 10 February 2014
Temporal change of the song of a local population of the Grey Warbler (Gerygone igata): has its song changed over time?

Joseph F. Azar, Ben D. Bell and Marta Borowiec


      
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Volume 114 (4)

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